Alexandria University Faculty of medicine Pediatrics Department

common, chronic, metabolic syndrome characterized by hyperglycemia as a cardinal biochemical feature. caused by deficiency of insulin secretion due to pancreatic -cell damage
Polydipsia hyperglycemia Polyuria

In 2006, the number of children globally aged 0 14 yr with type 1 diabetes was estimated by the International Diabetes Federation to be 440 000, with an annual increase of 3% per annum and 70 000 newly diagnosed cases a year.

Aut i


Genetic Fact rs

Envir nmental Triggers


Islet cell antibodies (60-90%) Glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (65-80%) Insulin auto antibodies (30-40%)

Type 1 diabetes is also associated with other autoimmune disorders such as:Hashimoto s and Graves disease (3 5%) Celiac disease (2 5%) Addison s disease (>1%).

Numerous susceptibility loci(genes that predispose to type 1 diabetes)have been found. Several of these loci are located in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region on the short arm of chromosome 6 which contains genes that regulate the immune response. For example, the presence of DR3 and DR4 are associated with a high risk of developing diabetes.

If a individual inherits the HLA-DR3 type from one parent and the HLA-DR4 type from the other parent, they have a high chance of developing type 1 diabetes many people with this HLA make-up (HLADR3/DR4) never develop type 1 diabetes, even within the same family To add to the complexity, it appears that a person with the genetic make-up HLA-DR2, DR5 has almost no chance of developing type 1 diabetes. DR2 and DR5 are referred to as 'diabetes resistance' genes.

Environmental Triggers





Bacterial infections act non-specifically to reduce glucose tolerance, and thus to exacerbate a developing diabetes. Some viruses alternatively, they may act specifically on the cells of islets at various stages of a destructive process


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