POSTHARVEST FOR STRAWBERRY GROWERS

Post Harvest Course of Strawberry
Content 2. Introduction Strawberry 3. Background of Marketing Standards 4. Grading and Sorting of Horticultural Crops 5. Losses of Horticultural Crops 6. Biological Factors Involved in Deterioration 7. Environmental Factors Influencing Deterioration 8. Problems Involved in Preparing Horticultural Crops 9. Factors Influencing Quality 10. Temperature Management

1. Problems in Postharvest of Strawberries 2. Postharvest treatments 3. Quality Assurance Program for Strawberries 4. Food safety 5. Developments in the Food chain 6. Developments in Horticulture 7. Chance for Growers

1. INTRODUCTION STRAWBERRY

Production of fresh strawberry in 2003

Total world production USA Spain Republic of Korea Japan The Netherlands

3 billion kilogram in total 945 million kg 263 million kg 210 million kg 208 million kg 34 million kg

Dutch strawberries 2003 Production 34 million kg 16.5 million kg greenhouse strawberries 17.5 million kg open field Return Dutch grower in Euro/kilogram 1999 2.87 2000 2.54 2001 2.70 2002 2.75 2003 3.05 Year 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Cultivation area greenhouses in hectares 170 180 180 189 200 Cultivation area open field in hectares 1285 1204 1188 1200 1250

Dutch consumer market: - 2 kg/year - consumption decrease - price increase Dutch consumer price Total Supermarket Greengrocery Market Home supply Grower 1999 3.27 3.52 3.96 3.57 2.79 2.69 2002 4.04 4.48 4.37 4.18 3.21 2.79

Most important criteria strawberry varieties: • productivity • harvest security • fruit size • taste • shelf life • sensitivity for pest and diseases

BACKGROUND OF MARKETING STANDARDS FOR HORTICULTURE EC marketing standards; - substandard produce - Protection - Confidence - Barriers to trade. - Exception - Legally responsible - Export outside the EU - Import from third

GRADING AND SORTING OF HORTICULTURAL PRODUCTS Definition of grading and sorting: “separating the commodity into uniform parts as far as possible” The main principle: - grade or size - quality final classification

HARVESTING BOXES

HARVESTING BOXES

SORTING INTO GRADES 1. Length 2. Weight 3. Largest square diameter 4. Circumference 5. Number per kilogram or per litre

SORTING ON QUALITY
- intact - fresh - sound - clean - well-developed - free of damage - free of unhealed injuries - free of residue - free of any foreign smell and/or taste - practically free from pests - practically free from damage caused by pests

QUALITY CHECK

- During harvest - Before input into the grader - Automatically done by the grading machine - During packaging Size + Quality → Quality Class Class I-S Class I-2 Class II

Class I Class II

MARKETING STANDARDS EU Marketing Standards Additional Marketing Standards; e.g. auctions Inspection on Marketing Standards: • Inspectors Government: KCB • Inspectors Auction

STRAWBERRY FRUITS IN PUNNETS

STRAWBERRY BOX STACKING

CONSTRUCTION OF THE EU MARKETING STANDARDS
Definition of produce Provisions concerning quality Provisions concerning sizing Provisions concerning tolerances Provisions concerning presentation Provisions concerning marking

4. LOSS OF HORTICULTURAL CROPS
Problem

Loss in quantity and quality between harvest and consumption: 5 - 25% in developed countries 20 - 50% in developing countries Reduce losses: 1. Understand biological en environmental factors involved in deterioration 2. Use postharvest techniques that delay senescence and maintain the best possible quality

5. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS INVOLVED IN DETERIORATION

1. Respiration 2. Ethylene production 3. Compositional changes 4. Growth and development 5. Transpiration 6. Physiological breakdown 7. Pathological breakdown 8. Physical damage
Nest of gray mould

6. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS INFLUENCING DETERIORATION
1. Temperature 2. Relative humidity 3. Atmosphere composition 4. Ethylene 5. Light 6. Chemicals

Rhizopus rot

Leather rot

7. PROBLEMS INVOLVED IN PREPARING HORTICULTURAL CROPS
1. Training 2. Poor understanding by handlers 3. Inadequate communication 4. Rough handling 5. Unsatisfactory improper, or inadequate equipment or materials 6. Inadequate product cooling

8. FACTORS INFLUENCING QUALITY

1. Genetic factors 2. Pre-harvest environment factors 3. Harvest 4. Post harvest 5. Interaction between the various factors listed above

9. TEMPERATURE MANAGEMENT

• Precooling • Room cooling • Top icing • Forced-air cooling • Hydrocooling • Vacuum cooling

10. PROBLEMS IN POSTHARVEST HANDLING OF STRAWBERRY easily injured fruit-rotting high respiratory activity fruit shrivel Over ripeness bruising

POSTHARVEST HANDLING

11. POSTHARVEST TREATMENTS - G.R.A.S. compounds Ethyl formate - Biological control Yeast Fungi Bacteria - CO2 - Hot water dips - Ozon
   

Concentr ation of  oil (ppm) 0 5 50 100 500

Percentage  reduction in  colony size (%) 0 5 40 80 100

12. QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAM FOR STRAWBERRIES Will quality assurance cost me money? What are the quality factors for strawberries Determining quality specifications Varieties and ripeness at harvest Cultural practices affect quality Avoiding berry injury and diseased fruit Rapid cooling and prompt marketing are critical Cooling berries Management of shipping temperatures Truck loading

Wholesale and Retail Quality Assurance Incoming product Discarding inferior product

ASSIGNMENT Developed a checklist to be used by the supervisors who take care for monitoring of the quality of the strawberries during harvest and transport to the cooling room.

13. FOOD SAFETY
1995: 202 Britain died because of food poisoning and 100,000 visit a Doctor. 1991: 300,000 Chinese were contaminated with Hepatitis A after eaten oysters 1994: 224,000 humans in the USA got salmonella poisoning after eaten bad ice

Save food is a top priority in the EU: safe food from soil to mouth

Fear for bio-terrorism

- Controlled food-chain - Zero-risk - Pre-caution principle - European Food Authority - Risk analyses - Codex Alimentarius Commission - 4 December 2000 European Law for Product Responsibility - 1 January 2005 General Food Law

RESIDUE EXCEED

Report of Pesticide Residue Monitoring Results of The Netherlands 6% (36%) 20% (63%)

14% (47%)

PRESENTS OF RESDIDUE OF PESTICIDES 2003

Strawberry: Number of samples; 153 Without residue; 23 No exceeding of tolerance; 80 Exceeding of tolerance; 50

Residues Exceeding EC-MRLs in Strawberries Triadimenol Tebufenpyrad Pyrifenox Fludioxonil

14. DEVELOPMENTS IN THE FOOD CHAIN

- Production on demands - Global trade - Demands concerning: food safety, environment, quality and reliability - Consumers oriented chains - Product responsibility - Tracking and tracing systems - IPM - Quality labels - Certificate systems - Admittance policy of the EU - The number of pesticides will decrease drastically - The load of the horticultural production on the environment must go down

15. DEVELOPMENTS IN HORTICULTURE

- Chain grower-consumer will become shorter - Regular buyer - Influence Supermarket increase - Own market labels - Increase of biological and ecological production - Provable quality and food safety - Growers association

16. CHANCE FOR GROWERS growers has to choose for a sale strategy Cost price strategy Quality strategy Chain strategy Niche strategy

STRAWBERRY FRUIT

MARKETS
LOCAL(MAIN AREA) MUMBAI DELHI PUNE CALCUTTA HYDRABAD BOPHAL AHEMDABAD BARODA SURAT INDORE BANGLORE CHENNAI

MAIN EXPORT ( AREA ) GULF COUNTRIES SINGAPORE

TRANSPERENT TOP PUNNET

TRANSPERENT PUNNET SQUARE

TRANSPERENT PUNNET OVAL

RETAIL SELLING OF PRODUCE

RETAIL DISPLAY OF PRODUCE

 

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