Water Pollution

Types and Sources of Water Pollution Point sources Nonpoint sources Biological oxygen demand  Water quality
Water Quality
Good 6.76.7-8 4.54.5-6.7 Below 4.5 Below 4

Do (ppm) at 20ÛC


Slightly polluted

Moderately polluted Heavily polluted Gravely polluted

Fig. 21.3

Point and Nonpoint Sources NONPOINT SOURCES Rural homes Urban streets Cropland Animal feedlot Suburban development POINT SOURCES Factory Wastewater treatment plant .

Parasitic worms Oxygen demanding substances Inorganic plant nutrients Organic chemicals Sediment or suspended matter Thermal pollution Genetic pollution .Viruses.Water pollution Bacteria.Protozoa.

83 ppm Rainbow smelt 1.123 ppm Lake trout 4.0025 ppm Herring gull eggs 124 ppm Zooplankton 0.Biological Magnification Water 0.000002 ppm Herring gull 124 ppm Phytoplankton 0.04 ppm .

Pollution of Streams  Oxygen sag curve Fig. 21-4 .

Pollution of Lakes  Eutrophication Discharge of untreated municipal sewage (nitrates and phosphates) Nitrogen compounds produced by cars and factories Discharge of detergents ( phosphates) Natural runoff (nitrates and phosphates Manure runoff From feedlots (nitrates and Phosphates. nitrogen oxides mining. and construction Lake ecosystem lots (nitrates and nutrient overload phosphates) and breakdown of chemical cycling Runoff and erosion Dissolving of (from from cultivation. construction. p. ammonia) Runoff from streets.7. 499 .22. lawns. (from internal combustion and poor land use) engines and furnaces) Discharge of treated municipal sewage (primary and secondary treatment: nitrates and phosphates) Fig .

21-8. p. 502 Contaminant plume moves with the groundwater .Leaking tank Water table Groundwater flow Free gasoline dissolves in Gasoline groundwater leakage plume (dissolved (liquid phase) phase) Migrating vapor phase Water well Fig.

21-7 .Groundwater Pollution: Causes Hazardous waste injection well Coal strip mine runoff Pesticides De-icing road salt Pumping well Waste lagoon Gasoline station Water pumping well Landfill Buried gasoline and solvent tank Cesspool septic tank Sewer Leakage from faulty casing Discharge Confined aquifer Groundwater flow Accidental spills Fig.

Groundwater Pollution Prevention Monitoring aquifers Strictly regulating hazardous waste disposal Storing hazardous materials above ground .

choking fish and plants. Cities Toxic metals and oil from streets and parking lots pollute waters. and degrade habitat. kill spawning fish. . and blocking sunlight. manure. kill beneficial sea grasses. Oxygen-depleted zone Sedimentation and algae overgrowth reduce sunlight. Closed shellfish beds Closed beach Oxygen-depleted zone Toxic sediments Chemicals and toxic metals contaminate shellfish beds. Farms Runoff of pesticides. use up oxygen. clouding waters. 21-10. p. and fertilizers adds toxins and excess nitrogen and phosphorus. oxygen-rich waters promote growth of plankton and sea grasses. and accumulate in the tissues of bottom feeders. Urban sprawl Bacteria and viruses from sewers and septic tanks contaminate shellfish beds Construction sites Sediments are washed into waterways.Industry Nitrogen oxides from autos and smokestacks. and support fish. poisoning fish and marine mammals. toxic chemicals. 505 Fig. and heavy metals in effluents flow into bays and estuaries. Red tides Excess nitrogen causes explosive growth of toxicmicroscopic algae. Healthy zone Clear.

Reducing Water Pollution through Sewage Treatment Primary and Secondary sewage treatment. Figure 21-16 21- .

Technological Approach: Using Wetlands to Treat Sewage ( Sewage Wetland type plants Wetland type plants Treated water First concrete pool 45 centimeter layer of limestone gravel coated with decomposing bacteria Second concrete pool ( .

Figure 21-5 21- .Global Outlook: Stream Pollution in Developing Countries Water in many of central China's rivers are greenish black from uncontrolled pollution by thousands of factories.

Case Study: India¶s Ganges River: Religion. poverty. cultural traditions.  .  Decomposing bodies promote disease and depletes DO. and Health Religious beliefs. and a large population interact to cause severe pollution of the Ganges River in India. Some are too poor to afford the wood to fully cremate. † Very little of the sewage is treated. Poverty. † Hindu believe in cremating the dead to free the soul and throwing the ashes in the holy Ganges.

Poverty. drink from. Figure 21-6 21- . or carry out religious ceremonies in the highly polluted Ganges River.Case Study: India¶s Ganges River: Religion. and Health Daily. more than 1 million Hindus in India bathe.

Drinking Water Quality  Bottled water  Safe Drinking Water Act  Maximum contaminant levels .

† Fossil fuels are used to make plastic bottles. each year would fuel 100.000 cars.S. .4 million metric tons of plastic bottles are thrown away.  The oil used to produce plastic bottles in the U.Is Bottled Water the Answer? Some bottled water is not as pure as tap water and costs much more. † 1.

N. estimates that 5.Using Laws to Protect Drinking Water The U. . 1 in 5 Americans drinks water from a treatment plant that violated one or more safety standard.6 million Americans drink water that does not meet EPA standards. † Allow rights to pollute if provider cannot afford to comply. Industry pressures to weaken the Safe Drinking Act: † Eliminate national tests and public notification of violations.

antifreeze. ‡ Do not pour pesticides. ‡ Do not use water fresheners in toilets. or other products containing harmful chemicals down the drain or onto the ground. paints. ‡ Do not apply fertilizer or pesticides near a body of water. ‡ Do not flush unwanted medicines down the toilet.What Can You Do? Water Pollution ‡ Fertilize garden and yard plants with manure or compost instead of commercial inorganic fertilizer. ‡ Grow or buy organic foods. ‡ Do not drink bottled water unless tests show that your tap water is contaminated. oil. p. 517 . ‡ Minimize your use of pesticides. solvents. Fig. Merely refill and reuse plastic bottles with tap water. 21-19. ‡ Compost your food wastes.