SRI SANKARA DENTAL COLLEGE ORTHODONTICS SEMINAR

Presented By AHANA A.

ORTHODONTIC WIRES
INTRODUCTION TO WIRES. DESIRABLE PROPERTIES. MANUFACTURING OF WIRES. CLASSIFICATION OF ARCH WIRES. WIRE MATERIALS

INTRODUCTION
Orthodontics is field of dentistry that has been undergoing visible advancements. This rapid advancement in this field is primarily due to the improvement in the field of Material Sciences. The better understanding of Biological problems and improved properties of materials played a vital role in this.

DESIRABLE PROPERTIES Arch wires are the base wires. which are engaged in brackets of various Appliance systems. So. random selection of wires for a particular treatment should be done only after considering certain properties of that material. Orthodontic wires which generate the biomechanical forces communicated through brackets are central to the practice of the profession. . These provide proper arch form.

which are considered desirable for optimal performance during treatment include : LARGE SPRINGBACK LOW STIFFNESS HIGH FORMABILITY HIGH STORED ENERGY LOW SURFACE FRICTION BIOCOMPATIBILITY & ENVIRONMENTAL STABILITY CAPABILITY TO BE WELDED OR SOLDERED TO AUXILIARIES AND ATTACHMENTS .Characteristics of orthodontic wires.

ELASTIC LIMIT : Elastic Limit is the MAXIMUM STRESS THAT A MATERIAL CAN WITHSTAND WITHOUT PERMANENT DEFORMATION. STRAIN : Strain is defined as CHANGE IN LENGTH PER UNIT LENGTH of a body when a stress is applied. SPRINGBACK : Also referred to as MAXIMUM ELASTIC DEFLECTION or WORKING RANGE. Higher springback values provide the ability to apply large activations with a resultant increase in the working time of the appliance thus decreasing number of wire changes. Stress in a structure is the FORCE PER UNIT AREA. . MODULUS OF ELASTICITY : The RATIO OF STRESS TO STRAIN. PROPORTIONAL LIMIT : The limit within elastic limits in which the STRESS IS PROPORTIONAL TO STRAIN. Springback is the ratio of YIELD STRENGTH TO MODULUS OF ELASTICITY of the material.STRESS : Stress is an internal reaction to the external force. YIELD STRENGTH : The stress at which a material begins to function in a PLASTIC MANNER.

MODULUS OF RESILIENCE : This property signifies the energy storing capacity of the wire. FRICTION : The preferred wire material for moving teeth relatively to the wire should produce the same amount of friction at the bracket/wire interface. Low Stiffness leads to an ability to apply lower forces. Excessive friction can result loss of anchorage or binding accompanied by little or no tooth movement.. a more constant force to be delivered over time and greater ease and accuracy in applying a given force. FORMABILITY : High formability provides the ability to bend a wire into desired configurations such as loops. BIOCOMPATIBILITY & ENVIRONMENTAL STABILITY : Biocompatibility includes RESISTANCE TO CORROSION and TISSUE TOLERANCE to elements of the wire. . etc. coils. Environmental stability ensures the maintenance of desirable properties of the wire for an extended period of time after manufacture.STIFFNESS or LOAD DEFLECTION RATE : The force magnitude delivered by an appliance and is proportional to the modulus of elasticity. Without fracturing the wire.

CAPABILITY TO BE WELDED OR SOLDERED TO AUXILIARIES & ATTACHMENTS : Its necessary to increase the utility of the wire . so that more auxiliaries can be fixed onto it. .

Wires with rectangular c.s. is sufficiently small for wire drawing. .MANUFACTURE OF WIRES The starting point for the manufacturing orthodontic wires is the casting of an ingot having the appropriate alloy composition. The drawing of round wire must be done in series of steps until desired diameter is obtained.s. The ingot is then subjected to a series of mechanical reductions until the c. Heat treatment is necessary to avoid work hardening. are manufactured from round wires by TURK·S HEAD APPARATUS having 2 pairs of rollers positioned at right angles.

CLASSIFICATION OF ARCH WIRE MATERIALS MATERIAL CONSTITUENTS STAINLESS STEEL GOLD CHROME ² COBALT NITINOL BETA TITANIUM ALPHA TITANIUM TITANIUM ² NIOBIUM ALLOY MULTI STRANDED ARCHWIRES COMPOSITE COATED WIRES OPTIFLEX WIRES .

10 ³ 0.14 ³ .12 ³ 0.CROSS SECTION ROUND SQUARE RECTANGULAR DIAMETER ROUND 0.08 ³ 0.

SQUARE 0.17´ RECTANGULAR 0.25´ 0.16´ X 0.17´ X 0.28´ MICROSTRUCTURAL ARRANGEMENT SIMPLE CUBIC FACE CENTERED CUBIC BODY CENTERED CUBIC .16´ 0.17´ X 0.17´ X 0.

. STAINLESS STEEL is defined as an Iron-Carbon alloy with a Ironminimum of 10.5% Chromium content. This material is also known as µ CorrosionCorrosion-Resistant Steel¶. The name originates from the fact that Stainless Steel doesn't STAIN or CORRODE easily as ordinary steels.STAINLESS STEEL INTRODUCTION In metallurgy.

It was discovered accidentally. . when a batch of steel µcontaminated¶ with Cr was thrown on the scrap heap where it did not rust.HISTORY The corrosion resistance of Fe-Cr alloy Fewas first recognized in 1821 by French Metallurgist µ Dirre Beithier µ who noted their resistance against attack by some acids and suggested their use in cutlery.

Stainless Steel was used in the construction of orthodontic wires in Ireland by FRIEL in 1933 . .

Ferretic Stainless Steel.3 major types of stainless. classified on the basis of the crystal structures formed by the Iron atoms. . Austenitic Stainless Steel. Martensitic Stainless Steel.

At certain temperature of 1665* C ferrite is 1665* Non magnetic. worked.FERRITIC STAINLESS STEEL AISI {American Iron & Steel Institute} Series 400 stainless steels. Can be cold worked/hot worked. PROPERTIES Magnetic. On further cooling it becomes Magnetic. Good Corrosion Resistance. . Ferrite is a BCC phase stable at temperatures above 900 d C.

0% Carbon .5% .27.2% . Used in parts of vessels in chemical and food industries & also in architectural and automobile industries. COMPOSITION Nickel .0% Chromium . ductility and corrosion resistance in ANNEALED condition.11. Low cost.They develop maximum softness.0. VERY LITTLE APPLICATION IN DENTISTRY.

MARTENSITIC STAINLESS STEEL AISI SERIES 400. 420. 416. Yield strength _ 500MPa ± 1900MPa Hardness _ BHN 230-600. Easily Cold worked. Good Toughness. Magnetic. Good corrosion resistance. 410. 440A. Easily hot worked. 230- . 501 & 501 }.{ 403.

USES Turbine Blades & Corrosion Resistant Castings. . Surgical & Cutting instruments.

FCC phase. Ni is known as Austenite stabilizing factor.AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL AISI Series 300 S. . It helps to stabilize austenite at room temperature and also strengthens steel.S. 18:8 Stainless steel. Stable 900 ± 1000*C. Obtained by adding Nickel to the FeFeCrCr-C composition.

The total content of Ni-Cr is at least 23% .15% . COMPOSITION Chromium Nickel Carbon 18% 08% 0. Do not harden by Heat Treatment.08% .0. Endodontic instruments & crowns in Pedodontics.Most corrosion resistant alloys of the 3 major types . Mostly Non Magnetic in Annealed condition. Used for ORTHODONTIC WIRES.

Chromium _ Resistance to tarnish & corrosion.USE OF EACH COMPONENT IRON { 71% } _ Base Metal. Nickel _ Austenite Stabilizing Factors. .

Implants. iel strengt -1 esilience. .USES Orthodontic Wires and Bands. Aust t Hi Hi High ti erties: iti ll s t i l ss t l is f i l t use f t e f ll tiff ess. . rmabilit .

Adequate Springback. . Substantial strengthening during cold working. Corrosion resistance except at weld sites.Good Environmental Stability. Good Joinability. Biocompatible. Economical. Greater ease of Welding.

Lower springback than Ni-Ti alloys. NiHigh modulus of Elasticity. Sensitization. .DISADVANTAGES Soldering is demanding.

because of the passivating effect of Cr . transparent but tough and impervious oxide layer forms on the surface of the alloy when its exposed to air or moisture . . A thin. which protects it against Tarnish and Corrosion.PASSIVATION The Stainless Steel are Resistant to Tarnish and Corrosion. It looses its protection if Oxide Layer is ruptured by mechanical/chemical Factors.

SENSITIZATION The 18:8 S. The reason for the decrease in corrosion resistance is the precipitation of Chromium Carbide at the grain boundaries at this high temperatures. . The small rapidly diffusing C atoms migrate to the grain boundaries from all parts of the crystal to combine with the large.S. slowly diffusing C atoms at the periphery of grain boundaries. may loose its resistance to tarnish and corrosion if its heated to 400 ± 900900-* C [temperature during soldering and welding].

the passivating qualities are lost and the corrosion resistance of the steel is reduced. .When the Chromium combines with the Carbon in this manner .

Reducing C content of the steel . . Ti inhibits precipitation of CrC at soldering temperatures.some element is introduced that precipitates as a carbide in preference to Chromium. Stabilized Stainless Steels. Titanium is commonly used.STABILIZATION Method to minimize Sensitization . By stabilization . to such an extent that carbide precipitation cannot occur.

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