RESEARCH REPORT WRITING

PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education

Report 

A report is a communication of information or advice from a person who has collected and studied the facts, to a person who has asked for the report because they need it for a specific purpose.

PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education

They should be concise and have a specific structure. political organizations. Courses require report writing to give you practice at producing information in a relevant way for employment.  PCTI Limited . investigationsgovernments. Reports are the most usual way of communicating the result of projects or investigations-for employers.A Unique Name For Quality Education .

RESEARCH REPORT  A research report is:  a written document or oral presentation based on a written document that communicates the purpose. methodology. scope. limitations and finally. PCTI Limited . findings.A Unique Name For Quality Education . objective(s). hypotheses. recommendations of a research project to others.  The researcher has to convince the client [and others who may read the report] that the research findings can be acted on for their own benefit.

 Any research report contains:    descriptions on methodology.  The basic orientation of a research report depends on its audience. results obtained. PCTI Limited . and recommendations made. Before writing the report   the researcher must know his or her audience.A Unique Name For Quality Education . background and interests of the target readers. he/she may have to make assumptions about the composition.

A Unique Name For Quality Education . R es earc h D es ig n an d M eth o d o lo g y D ata A n a l y s is P re -re p o rt W ritin g A c tiv itie s In t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Res earc h fin d in g s Rep o rt Prep aratio n R e p o rt W ritin g A c tiv itie s O ral Pres en tattio n RESEA RCH F O L L O W -U P R ead in g o f th e Rep o rt b y th e c lien t P o st R e p o rt W ritin g PCTI Limited .REPORT PREPARATION AND PRESENTATION PROCESS P ro b lem D efin itio n .

or policies)  Your topic and focus (what is the main subject area and which particular aspect/issue will you cover) PCTI Limited . persuade.Purpose of Report It is important to make sure your report fits the purpose and meets its aims.  Your audience (who is your report for? What are the readers need and characteristics?  Your aim (what end result do you want-to inform. will it lead to decision.A Unique Name For Quality Education . wantrecommend.

They are prepared for internal or wider distribution by many organizations.Types of Research Reports   Technical Reports: Technical reports are today a major source of scientific and technical information. most of which lack the extensive editing and printing facilities of commercial publishers. examples of this include inindepth experimental details.A Unique Name For Quality Education . Another case where a technical report may be produced is when more information is produced for an academic paper than is acceptable or feasible to publish in a peer-reviewed peerpublication. Technical reports are often prepared for sponsors of research projects. or the architecture of a computer model. additional results. PCTI Limited .

3. 5. 4.Other Types of research reports 1. Popular Report Interim Report Summary Report Research Abstract Research Articles PCTI Limited . 2.A Unique Name For Quality Education .

Lists PCTI Limited . Results XIV. Major findings b. Data collection from secondary sources d. Plan of data analysis X. Recommendations XI. List of graphs VI. Questionnaire development and pretesting g. Methodology b. Table of contents IV. Conclusions c. Statement of the problem h. Data collection from primary sources e. Conclusions and recommendations XVI. Executive summary I.A Unique Name For Quality Education . Appendix a. Approach to the problem XIII. Limitations and caveats XV. List of appendices VII. Scaling techniques f. Statistical output c. Field work XII. Sampling techniques IX. Questionnaires and forms b. Background to the problem b. a. List of exhibits VIII.CONTENTS OF RESEARCH REPORT Title page II. Data analysis a. Research design a. Letter of transmittal III. Introduction a. Type of research design b. Information needs c. List of tables V.

. believed. and the research design and methodology followed. PCTI Limited .  the interpretation of the results of data analysis in light of:   the marketing research problem investigated. and acted upon by the decision maker.A Unique Name For Quality Education . trusted by everyone who are likely to be affected by the research.The first step in the process involves.  The research report is a means of communication that can be understood.

 necessary to ensure that the report meets the client's needs and is ultimately accepted. PCTI Limited . should present the findings in such a way that they can be used directly as input into decision making.A Unique Name For Quality Education  The entire marketing research project:   . conclusions. should be summarized in a single written report or in several reports addressed to different readers.Before writing the report«  the researcher should discuss: the major findings. and recommendations with the key decision makers.

and responsibility of the researcher and those of the decision maker for whom the report is written interact to give each report a unique character. Different researchers may prepare their reports differently. However.Report Format  No universally accepted standard format or style for research writing. expertise. background. the research report closely resembles the steps of the marketing research process. PCTI Limited . Report formats are likely to vary with the nature of the project itself.A Unique Name For Quality Education .   The personality.

ability to understand as well as the circumstances under which they will read the report and how they will use it.. logically structured. their interest in the project...A Unique Name For Quality Education . and clearly and lucidly written.  It should be well organized.Report Writing   Effective report writing is an art. Some basic points to note in writing a report.  Readers: The report should take into account the level of readers' technical sophistication. Headings and sub-headings should be used for subdifferent topics and subtopics respectively.  Easy to follow: The most basic characteristic of a good report is that it is easy to follow. PCTI Limited .  Adherence to study objectives: A research report must show that the research objectives have been accomplished.

Selectivity: A researcher must use his or her discretion in deciding what should be included in the report.    Objective: Report writing should always be guided by objectivity. good typing. and attractive binding. without slanting the findings to conform to the expectations of management. PCTI Limited . Yet brevity should not be achieved at the expense of completeness. Presentation: The report should be professionally done with quality paper.  Should accurately present the methodology. Concise: A report should be concise.A Unique Name For Quality Education . and conclusions of the project. results.

Guidelines for Tables: Statistical tables are a vital part of the report and deserve special attention. pictures.  The arrangement of the data item should emphasize the most important aspect of the data being presented.A Unique Name For Quality Education . PCTI Limited .  If necessary. and other visual devices. should be provided as footnotes.  Basis or unit of measurement should be clearly stated to facilitate understanding.  Every table should have a number and brief but clear title. graphs. explanations. maps.  Visual aids: Key information presented in the text of a research report should be reinforced with tables. comments etc. the source(s) must be cited clearly.  If the table presents secondary data.

Appropriate language      Precise Concise Explain words/terms your reader may not understand Abbreviations should be written in full first with the abbreviation in brackets. after which the abbreviation can be used Short sentences PCTI Limited .Styles of Reporting 1.A Unique Name For Quality Education .

2. Layout of a report presentation    Overall image: word processing Headings: use headings Numbering: numbering your sections and makes things clearer PCTI Limited .A Unique Name For Quality Education .

Use of images/visuals    To make something clearer rather than to pretty things up When something is difficult to describe in words or visual in nature To show how something works PCTI Limited .3.A Unique Name For Quality Education .

Editing  Purpose Have your clarified your purpose? Have you identified your reader¶ reader¶s needs/characteristics? PCTI Limited .A Unique Name For Quality Education .4.

A Unique Name For Quality Education . Information Have you included the main points? Are points supported by evidence? Is the information relevant to the purpose? PCTI Limited .5.

Accuracy Are there any spelling mistakes Is the grammar/punctuation correct? Do figures add up? Are the reference correct. in the text and at the end? Are the reference of information listed in the reference sections? Are abbreviations consistent? PCTI Limited .6.A Unique Name For Quality Education .

Format Is there a balance between sections? Do the most important items take up the most space? Is the report easy to follow? Is it easy to find information in the report? Are headings and numbering clear? Are the arguments followed through? Is it logical/easy to follow? PCTI Limited .7.A Unique Name For Quality Education .

A Unique Name For Quality Education .8.Language Is it clear? Direct. easy to read? Will the readers understand it? Will its tone help you achieve the purpose? Can unnecessary words/phrases be deleted? Is there any repetitions? PCTI Limited .

Presentation Is the layout appealing? Does it highlight important points? Are images clear? PCTI Limited .A Unique Name For Quality Education .9.

10. evaluate and improve your report    Look at any assessment criteria to see how far it meets them Look at your aim to see if you have met them Use feedback PCTI Limited .A Unique Name For Quality Education .

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