KUMASÌ POLYTECHNÌC

CHEMÌCAL ENGÌNEERÌNG DEPT.
PROCESS DYNAMÌCS AND CONTROL
TYPES OF CONTROL VALVES AND THEÌR
ÌNDUSTRÌAL APPLÌCATÌONS
BY
GROUP 3
LECTURER: MR. ERÌC DANSO-BOATENG
6
TH
MAY, 2011
GROUP 3
NAMES INDEX NO.
ABDU-SAMAD FAIZAH CME 05081388
AGYEI EMMANUEL CME05081395
APPIAH-BONSU EUGENE CME 05081412
KWABLAH BERNARD CME 05081422
OKUTU MANESSEH CME 05081432
ANDERSON FREDERICK CME 05081401
MUSAH SALIFU CME05061081
ControI VaIves
Control valves are valves used mainly within industrial plants to control operating
conditions such as Ilow, pressure, temperature, and liquid level by Iully or partially opening
or closing in response to signals received Irom controllers that compare a "setpoint" to a
"process variable" whose value is provided by sensors that monitor changes in such
conditions.
The opening or closing oI control valves is done by means oI electrical, hydraulic or
pneumatic systems. Positoners are used to control the opening or closing oI the actuator
based on Electric, or Pneumatic Signals.
(www.cpcrefinery.blogspot.com/2009/03/control-valves-control-valves-are.html)
A Ilow control valve regulates the Ilow or pressure oI a Iluid. Control valves normally
respond to signals generated by independent devices such as Ilow meters or temperature
gauges. (www.wikipedia.com/controlvalves)
A valve is a device that regulates the Ilow oI a Iluid (gases, liquids, Iluidized solids, or
slurries) by opening, closing, or partially obstructing various passageways.
'alves are technically pipe Iittings, but are usually discussed as a separate category. In
an open valve, Iluid Ilows in a direction Irom higher pressure tolower pressure.The
industries in which the maiority oI valves are used are oil and gas, power generation,
mining, water reticulation, sewerage and chemical manuIacturing. The most common
valves used in chemical processing are ball valves, butterIly valves, diaphragm valves,
and check valves. (Easily Select and Size Control 'alves, Chemical Engineering
Progress, March 1999, pages 45-50)
'alves are essential to the operation oI any piping system that transports liquid. They
range Irom the simple manual control valve with an on/oII Ilow switch to the
sophisticated actuated valve controlled by a computer-based programmable logic
controller (PLC) that can proportion Ilow rate based on a variety oI criteria. Choosing
the right valve requires engineers to consider several Iactors. (Standard Handbook oI
Plant Engineering, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995, pages 10-110 through 10-122)
Types of control valve
Control valves may be categorized as below:
o Conventional valve
o Severe service valve
o Pressure independent control valve
Types oI control valve bodies
The most common and versatile types oI control valves are sliding-stem globe and
angle valves. Their popularity derives Irom rugged construction and the many options
available that make them suitable Ior a variety oI process applications, including
severe service. Control valve bodies may be categorized as below.
Globe control valve with pneumatic actuator and smart positioner
(www.cpcreIinery.blogspot.com/2009/03/control-valves-control-valves-are.html)
Gate Valves
est Suited Control: Quick Opening
Recommended Uses:
· Fully open/closed, non-throttling
· InIrequent operation
· Minimal Iluid trapping in line
ate VaIves
Applications: Oil, gas, air, slurries, heavy liquids, steam, non-condensing gases, and
corrosive liquids.
Advantages:
1. High capacity
2. Tight shutoII
3. Low cost
4. Little resistance to Ilow
Disadvantages:
1. Poor control
2. Cavitate at low pressure drops
3. Cannot be used Ior throttling
Globe Valves
est Suited Control: Linear and Equal percentage
Recommended Uses:
1. Throttling service/Ilow regulation
2. Frequent operation
3. Applications: Liquids, vapors, gases, corrosive substances, slurries
Advantages:
1. EIIicient throttling
2. Accurate Ilow control
3. Available in multiple ports
Disadvantages:
1. High pressure drop
2. More expensive than other valves
Iobe VaIve
Ball Valves
est Suited Control: Quick opening, linear
Recommended Uses:
1. Fully open/closed, limited-throttling
2. Higher temperature Iluids
Applications: Most liquids, high temperatures, slurries
aII VaIve
Advantages:
1. Low cost
2. High capacity
3. Low leakage and maintenance
4. Tight sealing with low torque
Disadvantages:
1. Poor throttling characteristics
2. Prone to cavitations
Butterfly Valves
est Suited Control: Linear, Equal percentage
Recommended Uses:
1. Fully open/closed or throttling services
2. Frequent operation
3. Minimal Iluid trapping in line
Applications: Liquids, gases, slurries, liquids with
suspended solids
:tterfIy VaIve
Advantages:
1. Low cost and maintenance
2. High capacity
3. Good Ilow control
4. Low pressure drop
Disadvantages:
1. High torque required Ior control
2. Prone to cavitations at lower Ilows
Piston Valves
This type oI valve has a hollow piston which is moved up and down by the actuator,
covering and correspondingly uncovering the two-ports A and . Port A and port have
the same overall Iluid transit area and, at any time, the cumulative cross-sectional area oI
both is always equal. For instance, iI port A is 30° open, port is 70° open, and vice
versa. This type oI valve is inherently balanced and is powered by a selI-acting control
system.
Piston valve (shown as a diverting valve)
Slide Valves, Spindle Operated
Slide valves tend to come in two diIIerent designs; wedge gate type and parallel slide type.
oth types are well suited Ior isolating Iluid Ilow, as they give a tight shut-oII and, when
open, the pressure drop across them is very small. oth types are used as manually operated
valves, but iI automatic actuation is required, the parallel slide valve is usually chosen,
whether Ior isolation or control. Typical valves are shown below.
Wedge gate valve and parallel slide valve (manual operation)
The parallel slide valve closes by means oI two spring loaded sliding disks (springs not
shown), which pass across the Ilow-path oI the Iluid, the Iluid pressure ensuring a tight ioint
between the downstream disk and its seat. Large size parallel slide valves are used in main
stream and Ieed lines in the power and process industries to isolate sections oI the plant.
Small-bore parallel slides are also used Ior the control oI ancillary steam and water services
although, mainly due to cost, these tasks are oIten carried out using actuated ball valves and
piston type valves.
References
www.cpcreIinery.blogspot.com/2009/03/control-valves-control-valves-are, 5
th
may, 2011,
21:10 GMT
www.wikipedia.com/controlvalves, 5
th
may, 2011, 21:17 GMT
www.thevalve.com.my, 5
th
may, 2011, 21:19 GMT
Rosaler, Robert C., Standard Handbook oI Plant Engineering, McGraw-Hill, New
York, 1995, pages 10-110 through 10-122
Purcell, Michael K., "Easily Select and Size Control 'alves", Chemical
Engineering Progress, March 1999, pages 45-50

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