This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
By Elizabeth Hubbard, Kristin Bellamy-Crawford, Sarah Steinmetz, Phil Fazioli, and Sarah Izatt
How do the structures of schoolwide grading policies and processes impact students· motivation and achievement in the middle and high school grades?
1800s± In 1813 Yale switched to a 1 through 4 numerical grading system.. 2006). Inferiores and Pejores (Reynolds et al.. (Reynolds et al. 1971) 1918 ± Teachers favored the use of categorical grading (good.History of Grading Systems in the United States Pre 1800s± In 1785 Yale categorized students as Optimi.. 2006) 1912 ± A study by Starch and Elliot challenged the reliability of percentage grades (Kirschenbaum. poor) or letter grading . excellent. Second Optimi. In the 1840s schools began giving out report cards. et al. Public schools adopted the methods used by universities during the common school movement of the 1800s. H. This relative classification was the first grading scale.
. also some schools advocate pass/fail or verbal descriptions 1958± A study by Ellis Page investigated how grades and teachers¶ comments affect student learning ± They found that students who received comments obtained a higher grade on their subsequent test (Kirschenbaum.History Continued« 1930s± Curve grading or norm referenced grading is used in an effort to minimize the subjectivity of scoring. norm verses criterion referenced grading. 2006) . H.. et al. and how the purpose of grading affects students are some issues that are still relevant and unresolved today. 1971) Present debates ± The effect of non-achievement factors. (Reynolds et al.
± Also they lack descriptive data about students· strengths and weaknesses.How are grades determined or assigned? Formative assessment Summative assessment Letter grading Percentage Grading ± A benefit of these systems is that they are widely accepted and understood in our society. . ± A major limitation is that they convey little qualitative detailed information specific to the student.
How are grades determined or assigned? Continued« Competency based grading ² A system of grading used in some high schools which describes mastery of learning objectives through use of verbal descriptors .
671) Performance According to what is expected based on a developmental standard. rated 1-4. preparation. This policy of reporting separate grades to achieve a more precise and truthful representation of student work. p. (Information based on an interview with the Principal of North Hampton School) . such as organization. (Guskey.Performance. Letter grades are Process Progress used to report progress. 2006. Process and Progress North Hampton School·s Grading System Teacher¶s and schools face a difficult challenge to assign grades that offer a fair and accurate picture of students¶ achievement and performance. resilience of learning. This grade is the achievement measure. Based on students¶ work habits throughout the term. This is reported in descriptive codes. Takes into account evidence of the student¶s growth over time.
How does NHS·s policy affect students? Students take more ownership of their work by examining their own learning as a continual process through student assessments. Students aren·t motivated by extrinsic rewards or punishments such as honor roll or sports probation because these do not exist within this system. . They are more intrinsically motivated by becoming familiar with their own strengths and weaknesses which helps them build skills applicable to the real world. student led conferences and digital portfolios.
At NHS. the measurement of which is often based on standardized tests. but they are held accountable for poor process grades. there are students of varying academic levels working on the same topic. students are not retained in grades. and are required to make up missed work. . Within a grade.How do a Student·s Final Grades Affect Grade Promotion and Retention? Retained students are those who do not meet academic standards for their grade level.
µ p. by labeling them ´failuresµ and separating them from friends their own age. Anderson et. ´retained students experience lower self-esteem and lower rates of school attendanceµ (´Grade Retention: achievement and mental outcomes. .How does Grade Retention Affect Students· Motivation? Those in opposition to the practice assert that grade retention has negative emotional effects for children. 2). al writes. and these factors can lead to a student·s falling further behind. both of which can negatively affect a student·s motivation.
. 223). al writes. too. as shown through test scores and grades. ´repeating a grade is associated with improved. not impaired.How does Grade Retention Affect Students· Motivation? Alexander et. views of self and schoolµ (On the Success of Failure 2003. it makes sense that students· motivation would be given a boost. and that since repeating a grade and going through the curriculum a second time gives students an academic boost. p.
Oyster River School District High School Principal Middle School Teacher .
. Student adjustments? Weighted vs. un-weighted GPAs. Teacher adjustments.Oyster River High School Principal School moved from an 8 point scale to a 10 point scale. Bell curve.
Honor roll. Edline system. Better teaching doesn·t always result in a good grade.Oyster River Middle School Teacher Trying to use different assessment types. .
How do you say the B.S.J.is a good grade?µ . .´One kid gets a Beveryone else gets an A.
How are Grades Reported to Students and Parents? Report cards (varying kinds) Progress reports Online (PowerSchool) Calls to home Emails conferences .
and can access the student·s grades at any time. Students and parents are provided with login information. and they appear online just as they are recorded in their record books. . so students can track their progress online. Teachers update the grades in PowerSchool at their leisure.How are grades accessed or monitored by parents online? PowerSchool is a website where teachers report students· grades.
² These trends carried to the final year of students· experience with PowerSchool. ² The majority of their parents ´neverµ accessed P. in the first year it was available.S. ´a few times per monthµ in the first year during their education that it was available.PowerSchool in Merrimack High School In a survey asking graduates of Merrimack High School about their experiences with PowerSchool: ² The majority of students accessed P. .S.
a WHOLE LOT 37% .a little bit 12% .PowerSchool in Merrimack High School To the question ´to what degree do you believe having your grades available online motivated you to improve or maintain your grades?µ they answered: ² ² ² ² 16% .S. . while 18% report it affected them negatively.not at all 67% report that P. had a positive impact on their academic performance.a lot 35% .
µ UNH and many colleges consider progress in the application system? .How Do Student Grades Affect their Admissions into Colleges? In an interview with a staff member in the admissions office of the University of New Hampshire: ² He rated applicants· high school grades as being of the utmost importance ² ´Our reason for emphasizing grades from the high school years«is based on«research that says that grades from high school are the most predictive of who is going to do well in their first year of college.
.µ ² Principal of North Hampton School Principal of Oyster River High School agreed that schools can be run without grades.Can a School be Successful Without Grades? ´Schools can be run without grades if adequate feedback is provided. A student needs to know where they are compared to where they should be« The purpose is for each learner to understand themselves.
and follow a student through their school career. very important. Grades are the biggest motivator for students. The debate about the best way to grade is ongoing. There is a trend toward alternative grading systems and policies: traditional grading should be questioned. and can be changed. because they are considered so important. and so representative of a student·s performance. even into college.Conclusions Grades are very. .
Student perspectives .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.