tortuous veins with incompetent valves. Are irregular. .

g. hemorrhoids in rectum and varices in esophagus. . May develop in any vein and may be called by other names e.

 Usually affect the vein of the lower extremities. .

sale people & nurses)    . People in occupations that involve prolonged standing (e. Increased risk for varicose vein in women may relate to venous stasis during pregnancy.Incidence:  More common in women over age 35.g. Decreased exercise venous stasis. beauticians.

Sustained pressure on abdominal vein. . Venous thrombosis Congenital arteriovenous malformations.Contributing causes:     Obesity.

Pathophysiology: Long standing/ force of gravity/ lack of legs exercise Increase venous pressure stretches the vessel wall Impairs ability of the venous valve to close Reduce blood return to heart .

Leg fatigue and heaviness.Clinical manifestations:  Severe aching pain in the leg. Itching of the affected leg (stasis dermatitis)   .

Thin.Clinical manifestations:  Feelings of warmth in the leg. Visibly dilated veins. Stasis ulcers. discolored skin above ankle.    .

 .Diagnostic tests:  Doppler ultrasonography or duplex Doppler ultrasound. Trendelenburg test to determine the underlying cause of superficial venous insufficiency.


 .Treatments:  There are no cure but conservative measures are the core treatment for uncomplicated varicose veins. The measures often relieve symptoms and prevent complications by improving venous circulation and relieving pressure on venous tissues.

Regular.   . Elevated leg.Treatments:  Compression stockings. daily walking.

Compression sclerotherapy may be used to treat small symptomatic varicosities.  .Treatments:  Compression sclerotherapy:  Sclerosing solution is injected into the varicose vein and compression bandage is applied for period of time.

Treatments:  Surgery:  Involves extensive ligation and stripping of the greater and lesser saphenous veins .

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