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What is Hardware ?
Hardware is the physical components
which constitutes the entire computer
system.
!t includes all the !nput devices, Output
devices, Central Processing Unit and
Nemory.
Computer architecture
CENTRAL
PROCESSING UNIT
(C P U)
INPUT
DEVICE
OUTPUT
DEVICE
AUXILARY
MEMORY
MAIN
MEMORY
Nain Components of a PC :
Notherboard
CPU
RAN
Power supply (SNPS)
Floppy drive
Hard Disk Drive
CD Drive
Add·on Cards
Key Board
Nouse
Nodem
Printer
UPS
Desk Top Model Tower Model
Laptop PC
What is a Notherboard ?
!t is the main PCB in the system which
houses the CPU, Nemory, !nterfaces
and other daughter boards.
Notherboard Form Factors
The Baby AT (BAT) format reduced
the dimensions of the motherboard to
a typical 9in wide by 10in long, and
Baby AT motherboards are generally
characterised by their shape, an AT-
style keyboard connector soldered to
the board.
$erial and parallel port
connectors which are
attached using cables
between the physical
ports mounted on the
system case and
corresponding
connectors located on
the motherboard.
The ! format is a
specialised variant of
the Baby-AT used in
low profile desktop
systems.
pansion slots are
located on a central
riser card, allowing
cards to be mounted
horizontally.
The size and layout of % are
completely different to the Baby AT
format, following a new scheme known
as ATX. The dimensions of a standard
ATX board are 12in wide by 9.6in long;
the mini ATX variant is typically of the
order 11.2in by 8.2in.
The ATX uses a new specification of
power supply that can be powered on or
off by a signal from the motherboard.
This allows notebook-style power
management and software-controlled
shutdown and power-up. A 3.3V output
is also provided directly from the power
supply.
parallel, serial, P$2
keyboard and
mouse ports are
located at the rear.
Being soldered
directly onto the
board generally
means no need for
cable interconnects
to the on-board Ì
ports.
Ìntel's design, introduced in 1997,
is an improvement on the LPX design
for low-profile systems, with an
emphasis on ease of maintenance. The
NLX format is smaller, typically 8.8in
wide by 13in long, so well suited for low-
profile desktop cases.
All epansion slots,
power cables and
peripheral
connectors are
located on an edge-
mounted riser card,
allowing simple
removal of the main
motherboard.
AT Power Connector
1. Power good
2. ¹5 Volt
3. ¹12 Volt
4. 12 Volt
5. Ground
6. Ground
1. Ground
2. Ground
3. 5 Volt
4. ¹5 Volt
5. ¹5 Volt
6. ¹5 Volt
P8
P9
ATX Power Connector
1. ¹3.3 Volt
2. ¹3.3 Volt
3. Ground
4. ¹5 Volt
5. Ground
6. ¹5 Volt
7. Ground
8. PWRGD
9. ¹5 V SB
10.N C
11. ¹3.3 Volt
12. -12 Volt
13. Ground
14. PW-ON
15. Ground
16. Ground
17. Ground
18. 5 Volt
19. ¹5 Volt
20.N C
ayout of a typical Notherboard
AT
Nother
Board
ATX
Nother
Board
Ports and Connectors :
A number of ports and connectors can
be found at the back of the system.
Different !/O devices are connected to
the system through these.
!n AT system, these external ports are
connected to the ports present on the
mother board .
!n ATX system, these ports are directly
attached to the mother board.
What is B!OS ?
B!OS handles communication between
hardware and software. Whenever
software wants to talk to hardware or
vice·versa, it must use B!OS to
¨translate" the information.
B!OS can be :
Notherboard RON B!OS
Expansion Card RON B!OS
How does the B!OS operate ?
B!OS operates in two steps.
POST (Power On Self Test)
BS (Boot Strap oading)
POST (Power On Self Test)
When the system is powered on, the
B!OS program instructs the CPU to
make a self check of the system.
!t initializes the memory and other
hardware devices.
During the POST, if it finds that any of
the components or memory is not
working, then notifies it through :
Error Nessages
or
Error Beeps
BS (Boot Strap oading)
When POST is completed successfully,
the B!OS program searches for the
booting files and loads them in the
system memory(RAN).
The CPU accesses the booting files from
the system memory (RAN) once they
are loaded to it.
What is Booting ?
Once the booting files are loaded to the
RAN and CPU accesses them, the
command prompt (in case of DOS) or
the desk top screen (in case of
Windows) comes and system is ready to
accept command, the system is said to
have booted.
What is System Clock ?
!t is a train of square wave fed to all
the chips including CPU
The system clock synchronizes the
functions of all the components
Earlier, clock speed of CPU and mother
board used be the same, but now·a·
days, CPU speed much more than
mother board speed.
What is System BUS ?
System BUS is the mess of wires on the
Notherboard PCB which connects
different components, peripherals,
memory to the CPU.
!t is basically the path to carry Data,
Addresses of Nemory locations and
Peripherals and instructions to different
components.
There are three types of system buses :
Data Bus
Address Bus
Control Bus
What is Data Bus ?
!t is the bus or group of wires which
carries the data between CPU, memory
and peripheral devices
What is Address Bus ?
!t is the bus or group of wires which
carries the addresses of memory
locations and peripheral devices from
CPU
What is Control Bus ?
!t is the bus or group of wires which
carries the instructions from CPU to
different components of the system.
Buses are of two types :
5ter5al data Buses are the buses
which carry signals inside the CPU
ter5al Data Buses are the buses
which connects the CPU with the external
components for carrying signals
What is Expansion slot ?
!t is the slot or socket
on the mother board
through which
different add·on
cards can be
connected to the
system to perform
additional functions
What is BUS Architecture ?
Bus architecture defines the size of the
data bus, address bus and speed of the
expansion slots.
Depending on the architecture, there
are different types of expansion slots.
PC!
(Peripheral Component !nterconnect)
This is the latest type of expansion bus
designed by !ntel. !t provides more
flexible alternative to any other type of
expansion slots.
PC! can exist with any other expansion
slot present on the same board helping
the manufacture of ¨transitional
motherboards".
ACP
(Advanced graphic Port)
This bus is exclusively designed for
video cards.
!t is faster than any other type of
expansion bus as far as video cards are
concerned.
ACP has a speed of 33 NBps.
AGP Slot
Nemory
Nemory is of two types :
Primary memory
Secondary memory
PRIMARY
MEMORY
RAM
(Random Access Memory)
ROM
(Read Only Memory)
RAN
This is used as the main memory
This is a volatile memory
This is also known as read\write
memory
Data is retained as long as power is on
Data need not be accessed in a
sequential manner.
RON
This is used as the system B!OS.
This is non·volatile memory
This is a read only memory, !.e. data is not
frequently erased and rewritten.
!t does not require power to store data.
Cenerally it contains preprogrammed
instructions.
Types of RAN
DRAN
!t is made up of capacitors
!t is cheaper
Access speed is less
SRAN
!t is made up of flip·flops(transistors)
!t is costlier
Access speed is more
Types of RON :
PRON (Programmable RON)
EPRON (Erasable PRON)
EERON (Electrically Erasable RON)
EARON (Electrically Alterable RON)
Flash RON
Nemory Nodules
emory chips are generally packaged
into small plastic or ceramic dual inline
packages (DÌPs) which are themselves
assembled into a memory module.
emory modules use less board space
and are more compact than previous
memory-mounting hardware.
Cache Nemory
!t is a special type of memory
!t is used to enhance the system speed
!t is made up of SRAN
!t is used in small amount
!t may be present on the mother board
or integrated inside the CPU
What is Chipset ?
With the introduction of vS!, all the
supporting chips have been integrated
into one or two chips. So in modern
motherboards, one or two chips are
found with their manufacturer's name
embossed on them. These are known
as chipsets.
Some leading chipsets are :
!NTE
v!A
AND
OPT!
A!
S!S
Processor Socket
IF Socket Single Edge Cartridge Socket
!ntel Processors Family
8086/8088 (1378·1373)
80186 (1380)
80286 (1382)
80386 (138S·1330)
80486 (1383·1334)
Pentium (1333·1338)
Pentium Pro (133S·1333)
Pentium NNX (1337·1333)
Pentium !! (1337·Current)
Pentium Overdrive (1338·Current)
Pentium !!/!!! Celeron (1338·Current)
Pentium !!! (1333·Current)
Pentium !v (2000·Current)
Basics of Pentium Processors
Features of Pentium :
Data bus size is 64 bit
Address bus size is 32 bit
Naximum memory holding capacity is
4CB
Nath·co·processor is integrated
!t has branch prediction logic
!t has two integrated cache memories·
one for data and one for code

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