The Rise of Dictators

Chapter 24 and 26 Notes

Part II

Hitler¶s Systematic Rise, 1933- 1939

Baby Adolf

Photo shopped picture of Baby Hitler in the arms of Stalin with the leaders of the Allies behind him as nurses.

Born in Austria, failed in school, dreams of becoming an artist. Hitler was treated severely by his father.

Hitler¶s Youth Inspires ³The Hitler Youth´
‡ ‡ As a boy he was abused and beaten by his father His mother dies at a very young age

‡ When he gains power he attempts to mold and raise Germany¶s youth through propaganda program: ³The Hitler Youth´

Young Hitler¶s Dreams of Being an Artist Die ‡ Twice rejected from Viennese Art Academy ‡ Believed he was an artist genius. Thus he raged against the world that refused to see his greatness. ‡ Dodged the Austrian draft & ran to Munich ± a ³real German city´ in his eyes.

Hitler at a pre-war rally in 1914

Hitler Fights in WW I

Hitler was an enlisted man on the Western Front of WW I

On the Western Front as a regimental runner. Fought at Ypres, the Somme, & Passchendaele.

What would the world have been like if Hitler would have died in World War I?

Portrait of Adolf Hitler during the war

Into British Private Tandey's line of fire, the battle weary German never raised his rifle and just stared at Tandey resigned to the inevitable. "I took aim but couldn't shoot a wounded man," said Tandey, "so I let him go.³ The young German soldier nodded in thanks and the two men took diverging paths, that day and in history.

The man who did not shoot Hitler was himself a hero John Tandey, the most highly decorated private British Soldier during WWI

"I took aim but couldn't shoot a wounded man," said Tandey, "so I let him go."

British Prime Minister Chamberlain met with Hitler early in his time as Chancellor in Hitler¶s Berchtesgaden or Eagle¶s Nest

National Socialist German Workers¶ Party (Nazi for short) ‡ 1919 ± Hitler joins the German Workers¶ Party ‡ Party grows from 15,000 members to 55,000 in 2 years. ‡ Party militia known as the SA or Storm Troops, aka ³Brownshirts,´ color of their uniform.

Hitler Reacts to Germany Losing WW I

1923 Rally

Hitler staged an armed uprising against the German government - The Weimer Republic He was jailed for a short time. Where he wrote Mein Kampf (³My Struggle´)

"When I returned from the War, I brought back home with me my experiences at the front; out of them I built my National Socialist community." He fanatically blamed the Jews, Communists, and even Democrats for German¶s failure to win.

Economic Conditions Worsen in Germany

‡ 6 million unemployed by 1932 ‡ The economic and psychological of the World-Wide Great Depression made extremist policies popular. ‡ 1930 ± President Hindenburg, the German parliament (Reichstag) & Weimar Republic had little power ‡ Hitler was growing in popularity.

Coat of arms and flag of the German Weimar Republic

Communist Extremists that battle Hitler for control.

An NSDAP meeting in December 1930, with Hitler in the center

1929 Nuremberg Rally

Hitler becomes Chancellor
January 30, 1933

Handed power by President Von Hindenburg

Hitler¶s First Speech Upon Taking Power

Click on the black area to see the video

Totalitarian State:
A government that aims to control the political, economic, social, intellectual, and cultural lives of it¶s citizens.

"Civil rights and liberties have disappeared. Opposition to the Nazi regime has become tantamount to suicide or worse. Free speech and free assembly are anachronisms."

³Do we not feel once again in this hour the miracle that brought us together? Once you heard the voice of a man, and it struck deep into your hearts; it awakened you, and you followed this voice« When we meet each other here, the wonder of our coming together fills us all. Joined together into one whole! « You come, that you may, once in a while, gain the feeling that now we are together; we are with him and he with us, and we are now Germany!´ - September 1936, Adolf Hitler speaks at the Nuremberg Rally

Show the first 10 min. of ³Triumph of the Will´

Hitler with Riefenstahl in 1934. She remained a darling of the Third Reich for the duration - and went on to make a second notable film about the Berlin Olympics in 1936. One of the most enduring propaganda images of the Third Reich - the omnipotent Führer (with Himmler and Lutze) in front of 160,000 Germans arraigned in perfect geometrical formation.

Leni Riefenstahl, with Adolf Hitler in the background, directs the shooting of a film about the celebration of Reich Party Day. Nuremberg, Germany, 1936

Leni Riefenstahl chats with Heinrich Himmler during filing at Nuremberg in September 1934. Below: A scene from her finished "Triumph of the Will" shows women greeting Hitler upon his arrival in Nuremberg.

³«Hitler became in 1938 the greatest threatening force that the democratic, freedomloving world faces today.´ - Time Magazine

Man of the year 1938: Adolf Hitler

1933 Nuremberg Rally

Adolf Hitler and Nazism (Video 2:50)

Click on the black area to play the video

Reichstag Fire 1933 ± Blamed on Communists, gives Hitler massive power as Nazi party becomes majority

Communists Arrested and Killed

Nazi Book Burning Rally

Nazi Youth Bonfire

Enabling Act 1933

Hitler¶s cabinet has the authority to enact laws without the participation of the Reichstag (German Legislature) and gave Hitler the chance to ignore it¶s constitution for four years.

Nuremberg Laws, Sept. 1935
Anti-semitic (anti-Jewish) ideas are now turned into law.

1. 2. 3.

Excluded Jews from German citizenship Forbade marriage between a Jew and non-Jewish German citizen Jews were made to wear yellow Stars of David and carry identification cards saying they were Jewish

Images from the movie ³Schindler¶s List´ Winner of 7 Academy Awards, including Best Picture; Official Holocaust Movie

Kristallnacht ± ³Night of Broken Glass´
Night of rampage against Jewish.
November 9, 1938 91 Jews were murdered 25,000 to 30,000 were arrested and placed in concentration camps. 267 synagogues were burned and destroyed. Business and store fronts were vandalized and windows broken.

The interior of the Fasanenstrasse Synagogue in Berlin after Kristallnacht

³Final Solution´ ± Holocaust Systematic Extermination of the Jews

Means« ³Work Sets Free´

Other Dictators Who Rose to Power

Fascism:

Glorifies the state above the individual by emphasizing the need for a strong central government led by a dictatorial ruler. People are controlled. Opposition suppressed.

Benito Mussolini Italy

As an Italian soldier during WWI

Italian Fascism under Mussolini
³Anti-individualistic, the Fascist conception of life stresses the importance of the State and accepts the individual only in so far as his interest coincide with those of the State. The Fascist conception of the State is an all-embracing; outside of it no human or spiritual values can exist. Thus understood, fascism is totalitarian, and the Fascist State« interprets, develops, and potentiates the whole life of a people. War alone keys up all human energies to their maximum tension and sets the seal of nobility on those people who have the courage to face it.´

Video: Intro Mussolini & Fascism

Joseph Stalin ± Soviet Union

1922, Lenin creates Soviet Union U.S.S.R. ± Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

1924 Lenin Dies, power struggle erupts Real name was Dzhugashvili, but took Stalin as his name ± translation: Man of Steel

Methods of Stalin¶s Control of the Opposition
Purges, prison camps, secret police, staterun press, forced labor camps, executions.

³Stalinist´
³Death is the solution to all problems. No man ± no problems.´ - Joseph Stalin
In the picture to the right Trotsky is shown celebrating the 2nd anniversary of the Russian Revolution with Stalin. In the picture to the right at the bottom, Trotsky is gone.

Stalin ³removes´ Yezhov

Francisco Franco - Spain

1936: Led by Franco Spanish military forces revolted against Democracy Italy, Germany and the Soviet Union aided Franco in Spanish Civil War

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