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m Ethics and environment

m Modern industry has benefited human society in
many ways but has also create strains on and
threats mainly the POLLUTION on the environment.
m The acceleration of world industrialization-global
economy grew more from 1985 to 1995 and
population explosion since 1950 had spiraled
human demands for resources and beginning to
outgrow the capacity of earth·s natural systems,
resulting in :
Õ Ôollapsing fisheries
Õ Shrinking forest

Õ Soil erosion

Õ Drying lakes

Õ Disappearing species

Õ Global warming

ÕHuman societies are facing decreasing resources in

the middle of accumulations of waste and declining
environment quality.
m The problems are so varied and vast and the
means of solution are far beyond the resources of
scientific and technological know how which we
have relied and there is no time to avoid the
coming catastrophe.
m Normatively if disaster is impending for civilization,
human, animals and earth itself:ecosystem,
shouldn·t we be doing everything in our power to
refrain it for future generation sake and for earth
m The dimensions of pollution:
mInvolves undesirable environment
contamination by manufacture or use of
mÔontamination of air, water and land
diminishes their beneficial qualities.
mPollution is also a type of resource depletion.
m Vir pollution
m V result of industrial production and certain
industrial products such as industrial smoke
stacks, utilities and automobiles that pollute
m Global warming ² ´Green house effectµ where
atmosphere becomes like blanket keeping
more heat in. Rising of carbon dioxide and
other green house gas.
mOzone depletion ² release of
chlorofluorocarbons into the air destroy ozone
and deteriorate ozone layer.
mVirborne toxins ² associated with increase
cancer rate.
mVcid rain ² nitrogen oxide and sulfur oxide
mVir quality ² other pollutants such as assorted
m ÷ater Pollution
m Notable pollutants & their effects ² organic
waste & phosphorus compound.
m Inorganics pollutants ² heavy metals e.g.
m Heat ² due to use of water as a coolant

m Ocean & underground water pollution.

m Land Pollution
mToxic substances ² acidic chemicals,
pesticides herbicides, inorganic metals,
flammable solvent and radioactive waste.
m Solid waste ² Residential garbage and
Industrial garbage.
mNuclear waste ² high level emit gamma rays,
transuranic and low level contamination from
nuclear plant.

m ÷hat is ecology
mEcology is the scientific study of the
interactions between organisms and the
mIt is the science that seek to describe and
explain the relationship between living
organism and their surroundings.
mEcology is study of interactions between non-
living components in the environment and living
m Ôlassification of ecology
mEcology is abroad discipline comprising of many
subjects. The classifications are:
mBehavioral ecology
mPopulation ecology
mÔommunity ecology
mEcosystem ecology
mSystem ecology
mSystem ecology
mLandscape ecology
mEvolutionary ecology
mPolitical ecology
m Levels of ecology are:
m Landscape
m Ecosystem
m Ôommunity
m Population
m Individual

m Ecosystem

mV system of interrelated mutually dependent set

of organisms and environment.
m Status of ecology

mPast status of ecology

mcalm and quite, no disturbance from human.

mPresent status
m Population are increasing
m Negative effect
m Ecological crisis
m Ecological crisis
mThe main causes of ecological crisis are:
mOver population
mEnvironment pollution
m Ecological ethics - the discussions
m Business have been ignoring their impact on
the environment because the economic costs
and harmful effects are unclear.
m Treating the air, water as free goods not own
by any one.
m Its sees its contribution to pollution as
m Pollution occurs from activity of businesses directly and indirectly.
m Ecological ethics holds that we have a duty to protect the environment which extends beyond the
welfare of humans to other nonhuman parts of the system.

m The idea maintains that environment deserved to be preserved for its own sake, regardless whether it
benefits human being.
m Ecological ethics claims that welfare of at least
some nonhumans is intrinsically value and
deserve to be respected and protected.
m Two traditional views such as utilitarianism and
concern for human rights can help us to
develop an environmental ethics.
m Utilitarianism views claims that moral worth of
an action by any human being ! ! 
! ! !  !! !   

m The fact that we are only part of large
ecological system, has led many writers insist
that we should recognize our moral duty to
protect the welfare of human and non human
parts of the system.
m Several supporters of this approach have
formulated their views/statements:
m The well being and flourishing of human and
nonhuman life have value in themselves.
m Richness and diversity of life forms
contribute to the realization of these values.
m Humans has no right to reduce this richness
and diversity except to satisfy vital needs.
m Flourishing of human life and culture is
compatible with a substantial decrease of
human population. The flourishing of
nonhuman life requires such decrease.
m Present human interference with nonhuman
world is excessive and situation is rapidly
m Policies must be changed which will affect
basic economic, technological and ideological
m The ideological change is mainly that of
appreciating life rather than to increase high
leaving standard.
m Those who wants to make changes have
obligations directly/indirectly to participate in the
attempt to implement necessary changes.
m Varieties of ecological ethics
mThe most popular version claims that animals
have intrinsic value and deserve our respect and
mThe first utilitarians Jeremy Bentham says that
pain is evil whether it inflicted human or animals.
mVccording to Peter Singer most recent utilitarian
the pain of animal must be considered equal
comparable to human pain to do other wise is
speciesism comparable to racism & sexism.
mSo we have the direct duty to animals to avoid
causing pain to them.
mÔertain nonutilitarians conclude that life of every
animal itself has value apart from the interest of
human being.
m Human has duty to respect the right of animal to
be treated with respect.
m More extreme arguments extend rights and an
interest in living & flourishing beyond animals to
m Natural things such as wild rivers, mountains
have right to have their integrity, stability and
beauty preserved.
m Rights extend beyond individual living things to
whole systems.
m Utilitarianism approach on environmental
mSees environmental problems as market defects.

mIf an industry pollutes it, the market prices of its

commodities will no longer reflect the true cost of
producing the commodities.
mThe result is misallocation of resources, a rise in
waste and inefficient distribution of commodities.
m Ôonsequently, society as a whole is harmed
when overall economic welfare declines.
m Therefore utilitarian argue that individuals
should avoid pollution to avoid harming
society·s welfare.

m The cost should be classify as Private Ôost and

Social Ôost.
m Private Ôost

mEconomists often distinguish between:

m÷hat it cost private manufacturer to make a

product and
m÷hat the manufacturer of that product cost

society as a whole.
mFor example, an electric firm consumes
certain amount of fuel, labor and equipment to
produce one kilowatt of electricity.
mThe cost of these resources is its private cost.
mTherefore, private cost is the price it must pay
from its own pocket to manufacture the
mPrivate cost are the actual cost firms incur too
produce a commodity.
m Vccording to utilitarians the remedy for external
costs is to internalize the that is to ensure
producer pays all the real cost of production
and use this costs to determine price of
m Internalizing external costs is consistent with
the retributive of justice compensatory justice ²
those responsible for pollution bear the burden
to rectify and compensate those harmed.
m Duties of the firm
mThe polluting agent has the duty to pay all
those being harmed an amount equal to the
cost the pollution imposes on them, voluntarily
or by law.
m But the problem is when several polluters
involved it is not clear who is damaging
m Polluter should stop pollution by installing
pollution control devices. This way external
costs of pollution are translated into internal
costs where firms itself pay the installation of
pollution control device.
m Ôonclusions
mThe costs of pollution control should be borne
by those who cause them and benefiting from
pollutions activities.
mThose who had to bear the external cost of
pollution should benefit from pollution control.
mInternalizing cost meets the requirement

mThe costs of pollution control are both borne

by stakeholders and customers who benefit
from the polluting activities.
mThe benefit of pollution control flow to those
that had to put up with the firm·s pollution.
m Social Ôost
mRefer to the above example when firm
produce the kilowatt of electricity it may also
involve external cost that it does not pay.
mThe external cost include the cost that
surrounding neighbors have to pay for cleanup
when the firm generate smoke and cost of any
medical care that arise.
mTherefore, Social Ôost is the sum total of cost of the private internal
cost plus the neighbors external cost.
mSocial cost include the cost that firm does not pay.
m ÷hen firms pollutes environment in anyway the firm·s private cost
are always less than total social cost involved.
m Pollution always imposes external costs, costs which the one who
produces pollution does not have to pay.
m The divergence of private and social cost means that the price no
longer accurately reflects all cost of commodity.
m This means resources not allocated efficiently and society·s welfare
m Since goods are no longer efficiently distributed to consumers ,
pollution violate the utilitarian principles that underlie market system.