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a

presentation
on
Automated Control of Power
Generation
at
BAJAJ HINDUSTHAN SUGAR Ltd.
Kinauni,, Meerut.
Kinauni

By--
By
ATUL KUMAR
ASHEESH VIVEK
BHL : Overview
Bajaj Hindusthan Limited(BHL),a part of ·Bajaj Group·, is India·s
number one sugar and ethanol manufacturing company.

‡ Bajaj Hindusthan Limited (BHL) was incorporated on 23rd November,


1931 under the name - The Hindusthan Sugar Mills Limited - on the
initiative of Jamnalal Bajaj ² a disciple and adopted son of Mahatma
Gandhi.

‡ In 1967, a new Company - Sharda Sugar & Industries Limited - was


established as a subsidiary of Hindusthan Sugar Mills Limited.

‡ In the year 1988, The Hindusthan Sugar Mills Limited was renamed as
Bajaj Hindusthan Limited and shortly thereafter in 1990, Sharda Sugar &
Industries Limited was amalgamated with Bajaj Hindusthan Limited.
Overview contd
contd«.
«.
j The Company embarked on an aggressive Greenfield expansion drive
in 2003-2007, starting with a plant at Kinauni, near Meerut (UP). This
facility commenced commercial production in November 2004.

j Today, with its sugar manufacturing facilities across ten locations in UP,
BHL has a cane crushing capacity of 96,000 tcd and is also the
country's largest ethanol producer with an output of 480 KL/ day.

j The Company's total bagasse based power generation capacity is 430


MW. After meeting its own energy needs, the Company has a surplus
of 105 MW. It has already begun to supply a significant part of this
surplus power to the UP state grid.

j The Company's annual turnover was Rs. 17,807 million for the year
ended September 2008-2009.
Power Generation : Boilers & Turbines

K 4 Water tube boilers are used for generating steam.

K 4 turbines are used to generate power,1 for each boiler.3 out of 4 turbines generate
a power of 10MW and the remaining turbine generates a power of 5 MW.
Power Generation Control &
Monitoring
Distributed Control
System(DCS)

Programmable Logic
Controllers(PLC)

Pressure Reducing & de-


superheating System(PRDS)
Distributed Control System
j A V  V
   (DCS) refers to a control system usually
of a manufacturing system, process or any kind of dynamic system, in
which the controller elements are not central in location but are
distributed throughout the system with each component sub-system
controlled by one or more controllers.

j The entire system of controllers is connected by networks for


communication and monitoring.

j A DCS typically uses custom designed processors as controllers and uses


both proprietary interconnections and communications protocol for
communication.

j Input and output modules form component parts of the DCS.


K The processor receives information from input modules and sends
information to output modules. The input modules receive information
from input instruments in the process and transmit instructions to the
output instruments in the field.

K Computer buses or electrical buses connect the processor and modules


through multiplexer or demultiplexers. Buses also connect the distributed
controllers with the central controller and finally to the Human-Machine
Interface(HMI) or control consoles.

K Elements of a distributed control system may directly connect to


physical equipment such as switches, pumps and valves or may work
through an intermediate system such as a SCADA.

K DCS for controlling the boiler parameters are installed near the
turbines. Any regulation in the voltage generated by the turbine can be
achieved by altering the boiler output to turbine.
Programmable Logic Controllers(PLCs)
j A PLC is an industrial computer used to monitor inputs, and
depending upon their state make decisions based on its program or
logic, to control (turn on/off) its outputs to automate a machine or a
process.

j PLC controller is usually the central part of any process control


system.

j PLCs make use of :


å Processing Unit: For processing the instructions Input and Output.
å Memory Unit : For storing the reference values of the parameters.
å Input/Output Unit : For input/output operations of the parameters.
å Power Supply Unit : For powering the PLC unit.
å Programming Unit : For implementing the logic into the processor.
K PLCs are used to control the operating conditions of the boilers.

K This is brought about by a number of actuators, like current to pnuematic


converters & vice-versa, current to displacement converters & vice-versa,
employed along with the boilers to control the process of production of
steam.

K PLCs are used because of certain YV


 
 
Î PLCs have a rugged design and they can withstand vibrations,
temperature, humidity, and noise.

Î PLCs provide interfacing for inputs and outputs already inside the
controller.
Therefore external interfacing devices need not to be used which
unnecessarily increase the cost of installation as well as the PLC
system.

Î PLCs can be easily programmed and have an easily understood


programming language.
Pressure Reducing & de-
de-superheating
System (PRDS)
j PRDS is a pressure reducing and de-superheating system in single valve
with an efficient mixing of steam with spray water.

j PRDS has a high turndown ratio of 40 : 1 i.e. the output pressure and
temperature conditions are reduced 40 times the input pressure and
temperature conditions.

j The use of a PRDS system is necessary in a power generation plant as


the steam output from the boiler is at a very high temperature and
pressure.

j In PRDS valve, the pressure of the input steam is reduced by increasing


the cross-sectional area of the valve, with the broader end towards the
ouput.
K After this,spray water is injected at the Vena contracted region
immediately after the pressure reduction.

K This is a highly turbulent zone and since steam is at an adiabatically


cooled condition, the spray water evaporates spontaneously.

K Thus the steam is effectively de-superheated bringing down its


temprature is considerably before it is fed to the turbines.

K Reduction of noise level due to mist formation by water is an added


advantage.

K This is the most effective way of desuperheating since steam


temperature, after pressure reduction, is not allowed to recover back.

K The PRDS used in the plant converts 22 kg/cm2, 30kg/cm2 & 45


kg/cm2 steam pressure from the boilers to 9.5 kg/cm2, 11 kg/cm2, 15
kg/cm2 respectively.

K The temperatures are reduced to 45 C & 70 C.


K A typical PRDS valve has a linear characteristic. Modified
characteristics can be obtained through specially designed valves.

K The water used as spray water should be of boiler feed quality.

K The locations for the temperature and pressure sensors should be


located at 11m and 1.5 m from the valve for accurate temperature and
pressure measurements of the input as well as output steam.

K Minimum Controllable temperature should be saturation temperature


+ 7 C so that the valve is able to produce the rated temperature of the
steam at output.

KIn the plant the PRDS valves were used for following purposes :
K Single stage pressure reduction for normal duty conditions.
K High pressure drops with multi stage trims.
K Pressure Balanced trims to achieve low thrust requirements.
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