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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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1DS07EE006

Introduction and History of Memristor.

Fundamental Circuit Elements

The 4th New Fundamental Element

Delay in Discovery

Properties and Working

Analogous System

Potential Applications

Conclusion

Currently known fundamental passive elements –

Resistors, Capacitors & Inductors.

Does a 4th passive element exist..?

Leon O. Chua formulated Memristor theory in his

paper “Memristor-The Missing Circuit Element” in

1971.

Team of scientists headed by R. Stanley Williams of

Hewlett Packard, realized Memristor made of

Titanium Dioxide in 2008.

Memristors are passive two terminal circuit elements.

Behaves like a nonlinear resistor with memory.

Resistor is a 2 terminal Symbol

electronic component

that produces a voltage

across its terminals that

is proportional to electric

current through it in

accordance with ohm’s

law.

Ohm’s Law: “ Voltage

(V) across a resistor is

proportional to the

current (I) through it

where constant of

proportionality is the

resistance (R)”.

V=IR

SI unit is ohm (Ω).

Capacitor is a passive Symbol

electronic component consisting

of a pair of conductors

separated by a dielectric.

When a voltage potential

difference exists between the

conductors, and electric field is

present in the dielectric.

This electric field produced

stores energy.

Current- voltage relation:

Where,

C = Capacitance

i(t) = Current

v(t) = Voltage

q(t) = Charge = C*v(t)

SI unit of Capacitance is farad

(F).

Symbol

Inductor is a passive circuit

element that can store

energy in a magnetic field

created by the current

passing through it.

Inductor is a conducting

wire shaped as a coil.

When current flows through

a coil, it sets up a magnetic

field inside the coil.

Current-Voltage relation:

Where,

L = Inductance.

SI unit of Inductance is

henry (H).

RELATION WITH THE

FUNDAMENTAL ELEMENTS:

Resistor – Voltage

and Current

Inductor – Current

and Flux

Capacitor – Voltage

and Charge

No relation between

Flux and Charge.

Leon Chua first theorized the

existence of Memristors.

In 2008, R. Stanley Williams

& team at HP Labs

developed a TiO2 Memristor.

The memristance relates the

Flux and the Charge.

No combination of existing

fundamental circuit

elements can emulate the

effect of Memristor.

Memristor

row. Each memristor has a bottom wire that contacts one side of the device and a top

wire that contacts the opposite side. The devices act as 'memory resistors', with the

resistance of each device depending on the amount of charge that has moved through

each one. The wires in this image are 50 nm wide, or about 150 atoms in total width.

Definition: Equation:

“The Memristor is formally

defined as a two-terminal

element in which the Memristance is a property of an

magnetic flux Φm between electronic component to retain its

the terminals is a function resistance level even after power

had been shut down or lets it

of the amount of electric remember (or recall) the last

charge q that has passed resistance it had before being shut

through the device.” off.

Unit of measurement is ohm (Ω).

Symbol:

state in a few nanoseconds using few pico-joules of energy.

Current v/s Voltage Hysteresis model of

Characteristics Resistance v/s

Voltage

The effect depends

on atomic scale

movements.

Detectable only

under nano-scale.

M is 1 million times

larger are nano-scale

than at micrometer

scale due to factor

1/D2.

Where,

D = Thickness of

semiconductor film Memristance as a function of charge:

sandwiched between

two metal contacts

Semiconductor used is

TiO2 .

Two layers, one pure and

another doped.

Voltage applied with

negative potential to

doped region yields high

resistance.

Voltage applied with

positive potential to

doped region yields low

resistance.

Device remembers its

previous state even after

power is switched off.

Black Circles – Memristor

V

A

– VD - Inputs

V1, V2 – Transistor Power Supply Voltages

Memristor behaves like a pipe whose diameter varies according to the amount and

direction of current passing through it.

The diameter of pipe remains same when the current is switched off, until it is switched

on again.

The pipe, when the current is switched on again, remembers what current has flowed

through it.

Nano-Scale devices.

Replacement of Flash Memory.

Replacement for D-RAM.

Brain-like Systems.

Self-Learning Systems.

“ Memristors are so significant that it would

be mandatory to re-write the existing

Electronics Engineering textbooks”.

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