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 Introduction and History of Memristor.
 Fundamental Circuit Elements
 The 4th New Fundamental Element
 Delay in Discovery
 Properties and Working
 Analogous System
 Potential Applications
 Conclusion
 Currently known fundamental passive elements –
Resistors, Capacitors & Inductors.
 Does a 4th passive element exist..?
 Leon O. Chua formulated Memristor theory in his
paper “Memristor-The Missing Circuit Element” in
 Team of scientists headed by R. Stanley Williams of
Hewlett Packard, realized Memristor made of
Titanium Dioxide in 2008.
 Memristors are passive two terminal circuit elements.
 Behaves like a nonlinear resistor with memory.
 Resistor is a 2 terminal Symbol
electronic component
that produces a voltage
across its terminals that
is proportional to electric
current through it in
accordance with ohm’s
 Ohm’s Law: “ Voltage
(V) across a resistor is
proportional to the
current (I) through it
where constant of
proportionality is the
resistance (R)”.
 V=IR
 SI unit is ohm (Ω).
Capacitor is a passive Symbol
electronic component consisting
of a pair of conductors
separated by a dielectric.
When a voltage potential
difference exists between the
conductors, and electric field is
present in the dielectric.
This electric field produced
stores energy.
Current- voltage relation:

C = Capacitance
i(t) = Current
v(t) = Voltage
q(t) = Charge = C*v(t)
SI unit of Capacitance is farad
Inductor is a passive circuit
element that can store
energy in a magnetic field
created by the current
passing through it.
Inductor is a conducting
wire shaped as a coil.
When current flows through
a coil, it sets up a magnetic
field inside the coil.
Current-Voltage relation:

L = Inductance.
SI unit of Inductance is
henry (H).

 Resistor – Voltage
and Current
 Inductor – Current
and Flux
 Capacitor – Voltage
and Charge
 No relation between
Flux and Charge.
 Leon Chua first theorized the
existence of Memristors.
 In 2008, R. Stanley Williams
& team at HP Labs
developed a TiO2 Memristor.
 The memristance relates the
Flux and the Charge.
 No combination of existing
fundamental circuit
elements can emulate the
effect of Memristor.

An atomic force microscope image of a simple circuit with 17 memristors lined up in a

row.  Each memristor has a bottom wire that contacts one side of the device and a top
wire that contacts the opposite side.  The devices act as 'memory resistors', with the
resistance of each device depending on the amount of charge that has moved through
each one. The wires in this image are 50 nm wide, or about 150 atoms in total width.
 Definition:  Equation:
“The Memristor is formally
defined as a two-terminal
element in which the  Memristance is a property of an
magnetic flux Φm between electronic component to retain its
the terminals is a function resistance level even after power
had been shut down or lets it
of the amount of electric remember (or recall) the last
charge q that has passed resistance it had before being shut
through the device.” off.
 Unit of measurement is ohm (Ω).

 Symbol:

•Information can be written into the material as the resistance

state in a few nanoseconds using few pico-joules of energy.
 Current v/s Voltage  Hysteresis model of
Characteristics Resistance v/s
 The effect depends
on atomic scale
 Detectable only
under nano-scale.
 M is 1 million times
larger are nano-scale
than at micrometer
scale due to factor
D = Thickness of
semiconductor film Memristance as a function of charge:
sandwiched between
two metal contacts
 Semiconductor used is
TiO2 .
 Two layers, one pure and
another doped.
 Voltage applied with
negative potential to
doped region yields high
 Voltage applied with
positive potential to
doped region yields low
 Device remembers its
previous state even after
power is switched off.
Black Circles – Memristor
 A
– VD - Inputs

V1, V2 – Transistor Power Supply Voltages
Memristor behaves like a pipe whose diameter varies according to the amount and
direction of current passing through it.
The diameter of pipe remains same when the current is switched off, until it is switched
on again.
The pipe, when the current is switched on again, remembers what current has flowed
through it.
 Nano-Scale devices.
 Replacement of Flash Memory.
 Replacement for D-RAM.
 Brain-like Systems.
 Self-Learning Systems.
“ Memristors are so significant that it would
be mandatory to re-write the existing
Electronics Engineering textbooks”.

- Leon Chua & R. Stanley Williams