BAROQUE ERA 1600-1750

Mark Kevin F. Tengco III-20 BSE Music Education


THE BAROQUE ERA (1650-1750

‡ 1618 - 1648 the mounting war between Protestants and Catholics ‡ Early 17th century English Puritans broke away from church of England; called themselves pilgrims . Life based on Bible. ‡ Mainly were poor farmers and uneducated people. ‡ King James Bible was publish in 1611.

‡ Galileo Galilei discovered a number of natural laws (for example, uniform accelerated motion, gravity and oscillation) after a series of experiments with pendulums, inclined planes, and projectiles. ‡ also invented the microscope, constructed a telescope, and observed the planets during this period ‡ the "father of modern astronomy," as the "father of modern physics," and as the "father of science."


Pierre de Fermat and Isaac Newton developed the foundations for analytic geometry.‡ Johannes Kepler engaged in the study of astronomy and developed the laws of planetary motion in 1609. E X T . and integral calculus ‡ Robert Boyle discovered the laws of N pressure. ‡ Rene Descartes. Blaise Pascal. probability.

‡ Santorio Santorii measured human body temperature with his invention. pressure cooker. barometer. PRE-MENU . slide rule.‡ William Harvey studied the circulation of blood and the function of the heart. tuning fork. the thermometer ‡ Other inventions of the period include the syringe. wind gauge. and steam engine.





‡ originated in the 1860s to describe the highly decorated style of 17th and 18th century religious and public buildings in Italy.HISTORICAL BACKGROUND ‡ The English word baroque is derived from the Italian barocco. though probably exuberant would be a better translation more accurately reflecting the sense. meaning bizarre. Germany and Austria N E X T .

as Italian music began to blossom and produced the wonderful melodies and surprisingly sensitive poetry which accompanied them .‡ today the term baroque has come to refer to a very clearly definable type or genre of music which originated. It's relatively primitive in terms of melody and harmony. N E X T .or vice versa. broadly speaking. ‡ If we move to the 1500s we find a great difference. around 1600 and came to fruition between 1700 and 1750. ‡ Listen to music of the 1200s and 1300s.

N E X T .‡ A major theme underlying music at that time however was the exploration of form ‡ There was still so much new to discover: new melodic lines and harmonic progressions to be explored. ‡ As the 1600s progressed. new combinations of instruments. a popular tune or a chorale. so these different musical forms took on definite shape. and new forms in music such as the fugue. canon. and the period from 1700 to 1750 can clearly be seen as the "high baroque". and variations on a bassline.

in Rome. and particularly Dietrich Buxtehude were concentrating mainly on the art of counterpoint. N E X T . the instrumental forms of the sonata and concerto were formalized. especially the fugue. composers such as Froberger. ‡ organ and voice were the major elements. Kerll.GEOGRAPHICAL INFLUENCES ‡ In north Germany and Holland. ‡ At the other end of Europe.

specific cadences and snatches of melody. from his Italian contemporaries and students to Handel who sojourned in Rome from 1704 to 1710. can be traced back to one Arcangelo Corelli. and much of what is typical in baroque music. MAP N E X T . ‡ "Italian" influences spread northwards while the stricter north German forms flowed southwards.‡ Every period in music has certain recognizable clichés. who seems to have influenced just about everybody. intermingling to produce a common baroque vocabulary.

often rewriting them for different instruments. Geminiani.‡ Vivaldi. Indeed this was a recognized method of study widely practiced in baroque times. Handel and many others all met one another or were thoroughly conversant with one another's music ‡ Bach owned and/or copied the music of many of his contemporary composers. N E X T . Scarlatti. Corelli.

‡ The baroque age favored the harpsichord.INSTRUMENTS ‡ Many instruments reached the peak of their development at the height of the baroque era ‡ the violins and other stringed instruments of the baroque Italian masters are the prized possessions of today's professional string players. N E X T . in which the strings are plucked and the player cannot vary the tone through finger touch.

who contributed substantially to the development of the piano.‡ Interestingly however it was the organ builder Gottfried Silbermann. N E X T . working with Bach.

combining brilliant ideas with perfect workmanship.‡ "A composition meets the demands of good taste if it is well constructed. aims at the sublime. N E X T .Words of baroque composer and theorist Johann Joseph Fux ‡ Music which is melodious yet so constructed as to reflect the "perfect order" of the universe: that is the essence of the baroque. but moves in a natural ordered way. . avoids trivialities as well as willful eccentricities.

Arcangelo Corelli BACK .

Antonio Vivaldi BACK .





George Frideric Handel BACK .

Johann Sebastian Bach BACK .

Fugue and counterpiont German influence BAROQUE Italian influence Sonata and concerto BACK .

Johann Josef Fux BACK .

N E X T . ± Words could be projected smoothly by using only one melody with chordal accompaniment. one or more solo singer were against a chorus or voices against instruments.THREE PHASES OF BAROQUE ERA ‡ EARLY PHASE (1600-1640) ± Favored homophonic texture over the polyhonic texture typical of the Renaissance Music. ± Used dissonances with freedom ± Contrast of sound were stressed.

± By 1680. ± New importance of instrumental music ± Many compositions were written for specific instruments. the violin family being most popular N E X T .‡ MIDDLE PHASE (1640 1680) ± New musical style spread to Italy. major and minor scales become the basis of most composition. ± The church modes gave way to Major and Minor Scales.

± Late baroque composers glorifies polyphony BAROQUE will pertain to the LATE BAROQUE PHASE MAIN MENU .‡ LATE PHASE (1680-1750) ± Yield most of the Baroque Music heard today. ± Emphasis of the Dominant Chord s attraction to the tonic arose in this period ± Intrumental music became as important as vocal music for the first time.

Scarlatti Velasco BACK .

Characteristics of Baroque Music Unity of Mood Rhythm Melody Terraced Dynamics Texture Chords and Basso Continuo Baroque Orchestra Words and Music Baroque Forms Baroque Opera BACK .

grief and agitation were represented (at this times they were called affections) back .UNITY OF MOOD ‡ One basic mood what begins joyfully will remain joyfully all throughout. ‡ Joy.

RHYTHM ‡ Continuity of rhythm ‡ Beat is emphasize back .

unfolding and unwinding of melody ‡ Repetition at higher or lower pitches. ‡ Elaborate and ornamental and not easy to sing ‡ Dynamic expansion rather than balance and symmetry ‡ Short opening phrase is often followed by longer phrase with an unbroken flow of rapid notes back .MELODY ‡ Opening melody will be heard again and again all throughout the piece ‡ Continuous expanding.

TERRACED DYNAMICS ‡ Volume is constant at a time ‡ Sudden shift of dynamics is called terraced dynamics back .

were the changes of mood in the words demand musical contrast.TEXTURE ‡ Predominantly polyphonic in texture ‡ Imitation of various lines ‡ A piece might shift in texture especially in vocal music. Handel contrast between polyphonic and homophonic back . Bach polyphonic. ‡ Depending on the baroque composers.

CHORDS AND THE BASSO CONTINUO ‡ Chords become increasingly important in the period ‡ Bass part together with numbers which specify the chords to be played above it ‡ Played by at least two instruments: organ of harpsichord back .

back .WORDS AND MUSIC ‡ Used music to depict the meaning of specific words ‡ Descending chromatic scales associated with pain and grief ‡ Many rapid notes for a single syllable of text ‡ Displayed singer virtuosity ‡ Individual words and phrases are repeated as the music continuously unfolds.

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ back . complex melodic lines to play in higher register. ‡ Composers love to experiment by combining different instruments. Small orchestra 10 to 30 or 40 players Basso continuo is the nucleus and upper strings Trumpets and Timpani only joins the orchestra during festive. ‡ Trumpeter was the aristocrat of the Orchestra difficulty and royalty.BAROQUE ORCHESTRA Evolved from string family. ‡ Baroque trumpet had no valves but was given rapid.

a fast and energetic opening. light and humorous. slow and solemn middle.BAROQUE FORMS ‡ Movement is a piece that sounds independent and fairly complete but is a part of a larger composition ‡ unity of mood. and a conclusion with quick. back . ‡ Baroque composition in three movements may contain.

± Composed for the wedding of King Henry IV of France and Marie de Medici. it includes Vicenzo Galilei. poets and composers around 1575. father of the astronomer Galileo. earliest opera to be preserve. ‡ they also want to follow the rhythm and fluctuation of speech recitative ‡ Euridice Jocopo Peri. performed in 1600 in Florence. ‡ They wanted to create a new vocal style modeled on the music of the ancient greek tragedy. NEXT .BAROQUE OPERA ‡ Camerata small group of nobles.

‡ Greek Mythology and Ancient History ‡ Marked the rise of virtuoso singers. ± Agility.‡ 7 years later. ‡ Ceremonial occasions at court and was designed to display magnificance and splendor. ‡ Castrato male singer who has been castrated during Puberty. \Monteverdi composed Orpheus first GREAT opera. breath control. and unique sound intrigued listeners NEXT . ± combination of lung power and vocal range of a woman.for the court of Gonzaga family in Mantua.

‡ Accompanied Recitatives supported by orchestra ‡ ABA form typical baroque aria form ‡ Da Capo from the beginning ‡ By combining virtuosity. nobility and extravagance.‡ Baroque audiences were more interested in vocal virtuosity than dramatic realism ‡ Secco Recitatives recitatives that is accompanied by a basso continuo. MAIN MENU . baroque opera perfectly expressed the spirit of a grand age.

VOCAL FORMS Chorale Orfeo 1607 Cantata The Opera Oratorio Voice Ranges Dido and Aeneas 1689 MAIN MENU .

‡ Performers who can sing and act simultaneously ‡ Supers / extras additional effect to the play ‡ Associated with high social status ‡ Mainly for aristocratic entertainment ‡ Libretto text of the opera librettist dramatist BACK . and costumes.OPERA ‡ Drama that is sung to a orchestral accompaniment ‡ Fusion of music. dance. scenery. poetry. acting.

capable of heroic expression ‡ Basso Buffo takes comic roles. powerful voice. bright voice ‡ Dramatic Tenor powerful voice. NEXT . takes roles calling for great dignity. is capable of passionate intensity ‡ Lyric Tenor relatively light.VOICE RANGE ‡ Coloratura Soprano Very high scales. Can sing very rapidly ‡ Basso Profundo very low range. powerful voice. can execute rapid scales and trills ‡ Lyric Soprano rather light voice. sings roles calling for grace and charm ‡ Dramatic Soprano full.

words are sung quickly and clearly often in repeated tones. monologues and dialogues ‡ Duets. ‡ Ensemble 3 or more singers NEXT . sextets. one note to syllable.‡ Aria song for solo voice with orchestral accompaniment. quartets. quintets. main attraction for many opera ‡ Recitative a vocal line that imitates the rhythms and fluctuations of speech. trios. one note stretched over many notes. outpouring of melody that expresses an emotional state.

‡ Prompter the person who gives cues and reminds the singers of words or pitches if they momentarily forget.‡ Chorus generates atmosphere and makes comment on the action. tonal background for soloist ‡ Dance ornamental interlude ‡ Orchestra pit sunken area in front of the stage. BACK . full symphony orchestra but smaller string section. prompter box ‡ Overture or prelude short musical statement that involves the audience to overall dramatic moods.

‡ A story of the supremely gifted musician of the Greek myth. ‡ Composed for Mantuan Court 1607 PLOT MOVIE .ORFEO (Orpheus 1607) ‡ Monteverdi s first opera.

is ecstatically happy after his marriage to Eurydice. Nonetheless. During a moment of anxiety. there is a happy ending. where he can gaze eternally at Eurydice s radiance in the sun and stars. Orpheus does look back. Because of his beautiful music. he is granted this privilege on the condition that he not look back at Eurydice while leading her out of the underworld. however. of sorts. back . Orpheus goes down to Hades hoping to bring her life back.PLOT ‡ Orpheus. Apollo pities Orpheus. But his joy is shattered when his bride is killed by a poisonous snake. son of the God Apollo. and Eurydice vanishes. and brings him up to heaven.

back .


while in the port. deeply tragic lament and kills herself. Aeneas agrees but is desolate at the thought of deserting Dido. Aeneas falls in love with Dido. a north African seaport. and Aeneas. A sorceress and two witches see this an opportunity to plot Dido s fall. Aeneas still sails away. queen of Carthage. king of the defeated Trojans. Aeneas has been ordered by the Gods to seek a site for building a new city. The opera concludes with the mourning of the chorus BACK . A false messenger tells Aeneas that the gods command him to leave Carthage immediately to renew his search.PLOT ‡ Dido. Dido called Aeneas a hypocrite and sing a noble. After landing at Carthage. He sets out on the search with twenty-one ships. ‡ After the destruction of his native Troy.


‡ Chorale Prelude played by the organist that is a short composition based from the hymn that reminded the congregation of the melody. Germany ‡ Or hymn tune sun in German Text ‡ Easy to sing and remember. having one note to a syllable and moving in a steady rhythm ‡ Tunes that has been composed in the sixteenth and seventeenth century or had been adapted from folk songs and Catholic Hymns ‡ The hymn melody was sung in the top part and supported by three lower part. BACK .CHORALE ‡ Lutheran Church.



25) BACK . 195 in still existence ‡ Cantata no. 140 Bach s best cantata (parable of the wise and foolish virgins Matt.‡ Cantor/music editor had to provide church cantatas for Sunday and holiday ‡ Bach -295 cantatas.


and orchestra ‡ Narrative-text ‡ No acting. vocal soloist.ORATORIO ‡ Large-scale composition for chorus. ‡ Messiah by Handel Most loved oratorio BACK . scenery or costumes ‡ Most oratorios are from biblical stories but they are not intended for religious services ‡ Longer than cantatas ‡ First appeared in Italy in early 17th century ‡ Musical dramatization of biblical stories and performed in prayer halls called oratorios.



fast NEXT .CONCERTO GROSSO AND RITORNELLO FORM ‡ Concerto Grosso a small group of soloist is pitted against a large group of players called the tutti ‡ 2-4 soloist against 8 20 or more musicians ‡ Tutti-consist mainly of string instruments and a harpsichord which plays the basso continuo ‡ Several movements that contrast in tempo and character: 1. 2. 3. fast. slow.

contrasts between forte and piano and between the large and small string groups constituting the dynamic variety of the scores. and the larger of a string orchestra. Dynamic markings in all the music of this period were based on the terrace principle. crescendo and diminuendi are unknown.‡ The Concerto Grosso form is built on the principle of contrasting two differently sized instrumental groups. The smaller group consists of two violins and a cello. NEXT .

tutti f ritornello in home key ‡ In contrast to tutti ritornello. rapid scales.‡ The first and last movements of concerto grossi are often in ritornello form. a. solo section offers fresh melodic ideas. and broken chords. solo 4. BACK . ‡ Based on alteration between tutti and solo section ‡ Ritornello or refrain ‡ A typical concerto grosso movement might be outlined as follows: 1. tutti f ritornello fragment b. tutti f ritornello in home key b. tutti f ritornello fragment b. softer dynamics. solo 3. a. solo 2. a.



dignified character and sacred performance ‡ Sonata da camera chamber sonata. and even in churches. before or after ‡ Sonata da chiesa Church sonata. dance like and intended for court performance NEXT .THE BAROQUE SONATA ‡ A composition in several movements for one to eight instruments. two high ones and a basso continuo ‡ Played in homes. ‡ Trio sonatas three melodic lines.

possibly for commercial reasons. The trio sonata was the foundation of the concerto grosso . with a harpsichord or other chordal instrument to fill out the harmony.‡ Instrumentation of the trio sonata. allowed some freedom of choice. Nevertheless the most frequently found arrangement became that for two violins and cello.


THE FUGUE ‡ A cornerstone in baroque music ‡ Can be written for group of instruments or voices or for a single instrument like the organ or harpsichord ‡ It is a polyphonic composition based from one melody called the subject. ‡ Different melodic lines or voices imitate the subject ‡ 3. NEXT .4 or 5 voices ‡ The subject takes new meanings when shifted to different keys or combined with different melodic and rhythmic ideas.

‡ The subject is represented in two different scales. a constant companion sometimes it appears with the subject. it is then called the answer. below it or above it. it is based on the tonic notes. but when the second voice represent the subject it is in dominant scale five scale step higher than the subject. ‡ Countersubject the subject in one voice is constantly accompanied by another voice by a different melodic idea. NEXT . the first time.

it also lends variety to the fugue and make reappearances of the subject sound fresh. offers new material or fragments of the subject or countersubjects. do not present the subject entirely. NEXT . ‡ Streeto a subject is imitated before it is completed. is held while the other voices produces a series of changing harmonies against it. one voice tries to catch the other.‡ Episodes a transitional section. ‡ Pedal point/ organ point a single tone. usually in the bass.

‡ Can be written in independent works or as a single movements within a larger composition.‡ Single mood and a sense of continuos flow. ‡ Very often an independent fugue is introduce by a short piece called prelude NEXT .

If the subject moves upward by leap. by beginning with the last note of the subject and proceeding backward to the first. each interval in the subject is reversed in direction. The subject may be presented retrograde. a procedure known as inversion. 2. that is. NEXT . It can be turned upside down.FOUR PRINCIPLES OF FUGUE 1. the inversion will move downward the same distance. vice versa.

4. The subject may be presented in augmentation. in which the original time values are lengthened. with shortened time values BACK . The subject may appear in diminution.3.


‡ Dance inspired movements ‡ Solo, small groups or orchestra ‡ Made up of movements that are written in the same key but differ in tempo, meter and character ‡ Allamande moderately paced (Germany) ‡ Courante fast (France) ‡ Gavotte moderate (France) ‡ Sarabande slow and solemn (Spain) ‡ Gigue fast (England and Ireland) ‡ Usually AABB form; tonic A dominant A balanced by dominant B then ends in tonic B.


BAROQUE COMPOSERS Arcangelo Corelli Francois Couperin Henry Purcell Johann Sebastian Bach Antonio Vivaldi George Friedrich Handel MAIN MENU .

in 1653 ‡ studied in Bologna.Arcangelo Corelli ‡ Born in Fusignano. Italy. a distinguished musical center ‡ "Founder of Modern Violin Technique ‡ "World's First Great Violinist ‡ "Father of the Concerto Grosso" .

‡ Concerti Grossi Opus 6 that Corelli reached his creative peak and climaxed all his musical contributions. . composer. and teacher ‡ first person to organize the basic elements of violin technique. as violinist. in fact. ‡ His music was performed and honored throughout all Europe. his was the most popular instrumental music ‡ compositional output was rather small.‡ His contributions can be divided three ways.

it would have been impossible for Vivaldi. and wrote the first great music for it ‡ Through his efforts. it achieved the same preeminent place in the baroque period of musical history that the symphony did in the classical period ‡ Without Corelli's successful models.‡ Although Corelli was not the inventor of the Concerto Grosso principle. popularized it. and Bach to have given us their Concerto Grosso masterpieces. it was he who proved the potentialities of the form. Handel. .

‡ occupied a leading position in the musical life of Rome for some thirty years. It was Vivaldi who became Corelli's successor as a composer of the great Concerti Grossi and who greatly influenced the music of Bach. Among his many students were included not only Geminiani but the famed Antonio Vivaldi. both through a wide dissemination of works published in his lifetime and through the performance of these works in Rome .‡ Corelli's achievements as a teacher were again outstanding. His style of composition was much imitated and provided a model. performing as a violinist and directing performances often on occasions of the greatest public importance.

and he maintains that exalted position today. . But long before his death. he had taken a place among the immortal musicians of all time. 1713. at Rome in the 59th year of his life.‡ Corelli died a wealthy man on January 19.



Purcell worked in Westminster for three different Kings over twenty-five years. a chorister at the Chapel Royal. . and the holder of continuing royal appointments until his death.Henry Purcell ‡ Born in 1659 ‡ finest and most original composer of his day ‡ As the son of a musician at Court.

. but he would also write chamber music in the form of harpsichord suites and trio sonatas ‡ There is hardly a department of music. and incidental stage music.‡ devoted much of his talent to writing operas. his keyboard works. his fantasies and sonatas entitle him to honor in the history of chamber music. hold their place in the repertory. his one true opera. there are enough fine orchestral movements in his works for the theatre to establish him in this field. to which Purcell did not contribute with true distinction. or rather musical dramas. if less significant in themselves. as known in his day. His anthems were long since accorded their place in the great music of the church.

‡ Dido and Aeneas. Purcell's songs themselves would be sufficient to insure his immortality. . when he had worthy poetry to set. is an enduring masterpiece. And. and his other dramatic works (sometimes called operas) are full of musical riches. he could hardly fail to produce a masterpiece. His sensitivity to his texts has been matched by few masters in musical history. most especially.

‡ Though ordained a priest in 1703. or a nervous disorder. asthmatic bronchitis. according to his own account. within a year of being ordained Vivaldi no longer wished to celebrate mass because of physical complaints ("tightness of the chest") which pointed to angina pectoris. .Antonio Vivaldi ‡ born in Venice on March 4th. 1678.

due largely to its four conservatories of music ‡ Vivaldi was employed for most of his working life by the Ospedale della Pietà. and many of his concerti were indeed exercises which he would play with his many talented pupils. generally accepted as being the best of the four Ospedali. The brilliance of some solo writing in his "student exercise" concertos testifies to the extremely high standard attained by "his" ladies. .‡ The reputation of baroque Venice as a musical centre was one of the highest in Europe.

an opera theater. Until 1709. He also remained active as a composer . .in 1711 twelve concertos he had written were published in Amsterdam by the music publisher Estienne Roger under the title l'Estro armonico (Harmonic Inspiration). Perhaps in this period he was already working for the Teatro Sant' Angelo. Between 1709 and 1711 Vivaldi was not attached to the Ospedale. when he was named as violin teacher there. Vivaldi's appointment was renewed every year and again after 1711.‡ Vivaldi's relationship with the Ospedale began right after his ordination in 1703.

Louis XV . for example.‡ Vivaldi also wrote works on commission from foreign rulers. . This work cannot be dated precisely. And if we can believe Vivaldi himself. but it was certainly written after 1720. the Pope asked him to come and play the violin for him at a private audience. such as the French king. a great music lover.the serenade La Sena festeggiante (Festival on the Seine). who earlier had been the patron of Arcangelo Corelli. ‡ In Rome Vivaldi found a patron in the person of Cardinal Pietro Ottoboni.

like Mozart fifty years later.‡ suffering a severe economic downturn. for he died on July 28th 1741 "of internal fire" (probably the asthmatic bronchitis from which he suffered all his life) and. . His stay in Vienna was to be shortlived however. planning to move to Vienna under the patronage of his admirer Charles VI. received a modest burial. he resigned from the Ospedale in 1740.