BAROQUE ERA 1600-1750

Mark Kevin F. Tengco III-20 BSE Music Education


THE BAROQUE ERA (1650-1750

‡ 1618 - 1648 the mounting war between Protestants and Catholics ‡ Early 17th century English Puritans broke away from church of England; called themselves pilgrims . Life based on Bible. ‡ Mainly were poor farmers and uneducated people. ‡ King James Bible was publish in 1611.

‡ Galileo Galilei discovered a number of natural laws (for example, uniform accelerated motion, gravity and oscillation) after a series of experiments with pendulums, inclined planes, and projectiles. ‡ also invented the microscope, constructed a telescope, and observed the planets during this period ‡ the "father of modern astronomy," as the "father of modern physics," and as the "father of science."


probability. ‡ Rene Descartes. Blaise Pascal. and integral calculus ‡ Robert Boyle discovered the laws of N pressure. E X T . Pierre de Fermat and Isaac Newton developed the foundations for analytic geometry.‡ Johannes Kepler engaged in the study of astronomy and developed the laws of planetary motion in 1609.

the thermometer ‡ Other inventions of the period include the syringe. barometer. tuning fork.‡ William Harvey studied the circulation of blood and the function of the heart. pressure cooker. ‡ Santorio Santorii measured human body temperature with his invention. wind gauge. slide rule. and steam engine. PRE-MENU .





though probably exuberant would be a better translation more accurately reflecting the sense. Germany and Austria N E X T . meaning bizarre. ‡ originated in the 1860s to describe the highly decorated style of 17th and 18th century religious and public buildings in Italy.HISTORICAL BACKGROUND ‡ The English word baroque is derived from the Italian barocco.

‡ If we move to the 1500s we find a great difference. as Italian music began to blossom and produced the wonderful melodies and surprisingly sensitive poetry which accompanied them . It's relatively primitive in terms of melody and harmony.or vice versa. N E X T . around 1600 and came to fruition between 1700 and 1750. ‡ Listen to music of the 1200s and 1300s.‡ today the term baroque has come to refer to a very clearly definable type or genre of music which originated. broadly speaking.

N E X T . and new forms in music such as the fugue.‡ A major theme underlying music at that time however was the exploration of form ‡ There was still so much new to discover: new melodic lines and harmonic progressions to be explored. canon. a popular tune or a chorale. and variations on a bassline. ‡ As the 1600s progressed. and the period from 1700 to 1750 can clearly be seen as the "high baroque". new combinations of instruments. so these different musical forms took on definite shape.

especially the fugue. in Rome. composers such as Froberger. ‡ At the other end of Europe. N E X T . ‡ organ and voice were the major elements.GEOGRAPHICAL INFLUENCES ‡ In north Germany and Holland. and particularly Dietrich Buxtehude were concentrating mainly on the art of counterpoint. Kerll. the instrumental forms of the sonata and concerto were formalized.

who seems to have influenced just about everybody. can be traced back to one Arcangelo Corelli. intermingling to produce a common baroque vocabulary. ‡ "Italian" influences spread northwards while the stricter north German forms flowed southwards. specific cadences and snatches of melody. and much of what is typical in baroque music. MAP N E X T .‡ Every period in music has certain recognizable clichés. from his Italian contemporaries and students to Handel who sojourned in Rome from 1704 to 1710.

N E X T . Handel and many others all met one another or were thoroughly conversant with one another's music ‡ Bach owned and/or copied the music of many of his contemporary composers. Geminiani.‡ Vivaldi. Scarlatti. Indeed this was a recognized method of study widely practiced in baroque times. often rewriting them for different instruments. Corelli.

INSTRUMENTS ‡ Many instruments reached the peak of their development at the height of the baroque era ‡ the violins and other stringed instruments of the baroque Italian masters are the prized possessions of today's professional string players. ‡ The baroque age favored the harpsichord. N E X T . in which the strings are plucked and the player cannot vary the tone through finger touch.

who contributed substantially to the development of the piano. N E X T . working with Bach.‡ Interestingly however it was the organ builder Gottfried Silbermann.

aims at the sublime. combining brilliant ideas with perfect workmanship. avoids trivialities as well as willful eccentricities. N E X T . but moves in a natural ordered way. .Words of baroque composer and theorist Johann Joseph Fux ‡ Music which is melodious yet so constructed as to reflect the "perfect order" of the universe: that is the essence of the baroque.‡ "A composition meets the demands of good taste if it is well constructed.

Arcangelo Corelli BACK .

Antonio Vivaldi BACK .





George Frideric Handel BACK .

Johann Sebastian Bach BACK .

Fugue and counterpiont German influence BAROQUE Italian influence Sonata and concerto BACK .

Johann Josef Fux BACK .

± Used dissonances with freedom ± Contrast of sound were stressed.THREE PHASES OF BAROQUE ERA ‡ EARLY PHASE (1600-1640) ± Favored homophonic texture over the polyhonic texture typical of the Renaissance Music. one or more solo singer were against a chorus or voices against instruments. ± Words could be projected smoothly by using only one melody with chordal accompaniment. N E X T .

major and minor scales become the basis of most composition. ± The church modes gave way to Major and Minor Scales.‡ MIDDLE PHASE (1640 1680) ± New musical style spread to Italy. the violin family being most popular N E X T . ± New importance of instrumental music ± Many compositions were written for specific instruments. ± By 1680.

± Emphasis of the Dominant Chord s attraction to the tonic arose in this period ± Intrumental music became as important as vocal music for the first time. ± Late baroque composers glorifies polyphony BAROQUE will pertain to the LATE BAROQUE PHASE MAIN MENU .‡ LATE PHASE (1680-1750) ± Yield most of the Baroque Music heard today.

Scarlatti Velasco BACK .

Characteristics of Baroque Music Unity of Mood Rhythm Melody Terraced Dynamics Texture Chords and Basso Continuo Baroque Orchestra Words and Music Baroque Forms Baroque Opera BACK .

grief and agitation were represented (at this times they were called affections) back . ‡ Joy.UNITY OF MOOD ‡ One basic mood what begins joyfully will remain joyfully all throughout.

RHYTHM ‡ Continuity of rhythm ‡ Beat is emphasize back .

MELODY ‡ Opening melody will be heard again and again all throughout the piece ‡ Continuous expanding. unfolding and unwinding of melody ‡ Repetition at higher or lower pitches. ‡ Elaborate and ornamental and not easy to sing ‡ Dynamic expansion rather than balance and symmetry ‡ Short opening phrase is often followed by longer phrase with an unbroken flow of rapid notes back .

TERRACED DYNAMICS ‡ Volume is constant at a time ‡ Sudden shift of dynamics is called terraced dynamics back .

Bach polyphonic.TEXTURE ‡ Predominantly polyphonic in texture ‡ Imitation of various lines ‡ A piece might shift in texture especially in vocal music. ‡ Depending on the baroque composers. were the changes of mood in the words demand musical contrast. Handel contrast between polyphonic and homophonic back .

CHORDS AND THE BASSO CONTINUO ‡ Chords become increasingly important in the period ‡ Bass part together with numbers which specify the chords to be played above it ‡ Played by at least two instruments: organ of harpsichord back .

back .WORDS AND MUSIC ‡ Used music to depict the meaning of specific words ‡ Descending chromatic scales associated with pain and grief ‡ Many rapid notes for a single syllable of text ‡ Displayed singer virtuosity ‡ Individual words and phrases are repeated as the music continuously unfolds.

complex melodic lines to play in higher register. ‡ Trumpeter was the aristocrat of the Orchestra difficulty and royalty. ‡ Composers love to experiment by combining different instruments.BAROQUE ORCHESTRA Evolved from string family. ‡ Baroque trumpet had no valves but was given rapid. Small orchestra 10 to 30 or 40 players Basso continuo is the nucleus and upper strings Trumpets and Timpani only joins the orchestra during festive. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ back .

slow and solemn middle. back . light and humorous. a fast and energetic opening. and a conclusion with quick. ‡ Baroque composition in three movements may contain.BAROQUE FORMS ‡ Movement is a piece that sounds independent and fairly complete but is a part of a larger composition ‡ unity of mood.

BAROQUE OPERA ‡ Camerata small group of nobles. earliest opera to be preserve. ‡ they also want to follow the rhythm and fluctuation of speech recitative ‡ Euridice Jocopo Peri. ± Composed for the wedding of King Henry IV of France and Marie de Medici. father of the astronomer Galileo. poets and composers around 1575. performed in 1600 in Florence. it includes Vicenzo Galilei. NEXT . ‡ They wanted to create a new vocal style modeled on the music of the ancient greek tragedy.

‡ Greek Mythology and Ancient History ‡ Marked the rise of virtuoso singers. ± Agility.‡ 7 years later. and unique sound intrigued listeners NEXT . breath control. ‡ Castrato male singer who has been castrated during Puberty. ± combination of lung power and vocal range of a woman. ‡ Ceremonial occasions at court and was designed to display magnificance and splendor.for the court of Gonzaga family in Mantua. \Monteverdi composed Orpheus first GREAT opera.

MAIN MENU . ‡ Accompanied Recitatives supported by orchestra ‡ ABA form typical baroque aria form ‡ Da Capo from the beginning ‡ By combining virtuosity.‡ Baroque audiences were more interested in vocal virtuosity than dramatic realism ‡ Secco Recitatives recitatives that is accompanied by a basso continuo. baroque opera perfectly expressed the spirit of a grand age. nobility and extravagance.

VOCAL FORMS Chorale Orfeo 1607 Cantata The Opera Oratorio Voice Ranges Dido and Aeneas 1689 MAIN MENU .

poetry.OPERA ‡ Drama that is sung to a orchestral accompaniment ‡ Fusion of music. dance. and costumes. acting. ‡ Performers who can sing and act simultaneously ‡ Supers / extras additional effect to the play ‡ Associated with high social status ‡ Mainly for aristocratic entertainment ‡ Libretto text of the opera librettist dramatist BACK . scenery.

bright voice ‡ Dramatic Tenor powerful voice. powerful voice. powerful voice. can execute rapid scales and trills ‡ Lyric Soprano rather light voice.VOICE RANGE ‡ Coloratura Soprano Very high scales. Can sing very rapidly ‡ Basso Profundo very low range. is capable of passionate intensity ‡ Lyric Tenor relatively light. takes roles calling for great dignity. sings roles calling for grace and charm ‡ Dramatic Soprano full. capable of heroic expression ‡ Basso Buffo takes comic roles. NEXT .

main attraction for many opera ‡ Recitative a vocal line that imitates the rhythms and fluctuations of speech. sextets. one note stretched over many notes. outpouring of melody that expresses an emotional state. ‡ Ensemble 3 or more singers NEXT .‡ Aria song for solo voice with orchestral accompaniment. quartets. quintets. monologues and dialogues ‡ Duets. trios. words are sung quickly and clearly often in repeated tones. one note to syllable.

prompter box ‡ Overture or prelude short musical statement that involves the audience to overall dramatic moods. tonal background for soloist ‡ Dance ornamental interlude ‡ Orchestra pit sunken area in front of the stage.‡ Chorus generates atmosphere and makes comment on the action. full symphony orchestra but smaller string section. ‡ Prompter the person who gives cues and reminds the singers of words or pitches if they momentarily forget. BACK .

‡ Composed for Mantuan Court 1607 PLOT MOVIE .ORFEO (Orpheus 1607) ‡ Monteverdi s first opera. ‡ A story of the supremely gifted musician of the Greek myth.

Orpheus does look back. and brings him up to heaven. back . and Eurydice vanishes. During a moment of anxiety. Because of his beautiful music. But his joy is shattered when his bride is killed by a poisonous snake. Apollo pities Orpheus. Orpheus goes down to Hades hoping to bring her life back. is ecstatically happy after his marriage to Eurydice. of sorts.PLOT ‡ Orpheus. however. he is granted this privilege on the condition that he not look back at Eurydice while leading her out of the underworld. Nonetheless. where he can gaze eternally at Eurydice s radiance in the sun and stars. there is a happy ending. son of the God Apollo.

back .


Aeneas still sails away. Aeneas agrees but is desolate at the thought of deserting Dido. A sorceress and two witches see this an opportunity to plot Dido s fall. a north African seaport. Aeneas falls in love with Dido.PLOT ‡ Dido. He sets out on the search with twenty-one ships. while in the port. and Aeneas. queen of Carthage. king of the defeated Trojans. Aeneas has been ordered by the Gods to seek a site for building a new city. A false messenger tells Aeneas that the gods command him to leave Carthage immediately to renew his search. ‡ After the destruction of his native Troy. deeply tragic lament and kills herself. Dido called Aeneas a hypocrite and sing a noble. The opera concludes with the mourning of the chorus BACK . After landing at Carthage.


BACK .CHORALE ‡ Lutheran Church. having one note to a syllable and moving in a steady rhythm ‡ Tunes that has been composed in the sixteenth and seventeenth century or had been adapted from folk songs and Catholic Hymns ‡ The hymn melody was sung in the top part and supported by three lower part. ‡ Chorale Prelude played by the organist that is a short composition based from the hymn that reminded the congregation of the melody. Germany ‡ Or hymn tune sun in German Text ‡ Easy to sing and remember.



25) BACK . 140 Bach s best cantata (parable of the wise and foolish virgins Matt. 195 in still existence ‡ Cantata no.‡ Cantor/music editor had to provide church cantatas for Sunday and holiday ‡ Bach -295 cantatas.


ORATORIO ‡ Large-scale composition for chorus. ‡ Messiah by Handel Most loved oratorio BACK . and orchestra ‡ Narrative-text ‡ No acting. vocal soloist. scenery or costumes ‡ Most oratorios are from biblical stories but they are not intended for religious services ‡ Longer than cantatas ‡ First appeared in Italy in early 17th century ‡ Musical dramatization of biblical stories and performed in prayer halls called oratorios.



CONCERTO GROSSO AND RITORNELLO FORM ‡ Concerto Grosso a small group of soloist is pitted against a large group of players called the tutti ‡ 2-4 soloist against 8 20 or more musicians ‡ Tutti-consist mainly of string instruments and a harpsichord which plays the basso continuo ‡ Several movements that contrast in tempo and character: 1. fast NEXT . fast. 2. slow. 3.

NEXT .‡ The Concerto Grosso form is built on the principle of contrasting two differently sized instrumental groups. and the larger of a string orchestra. The smaller group consists of two violins and a cello. crescendo and diminuendi are unknown. Dynamic markings in all the music of this period were based on the terrace principle. contrasts between forte and piano and between the large and small string groups constituting the dynamic variety of the scores.

solo 4. tutti f ritornello fragment b. tutti f ritornello in home key ‡ In contrast to tutti ritornello. and broken chords. tutti f ritornello fragment b. solo 3. BACK . solo section offers fresh melodic ideas. a. rapid scales. ‡ Based on alteration between tutti and solo section ‡ Ritornello or refrain ‡ A typical concerto grosso movement might be outlined as follows: 1.‡ The first and last movements of concerto grossi are often in ritornello form. a. a. tutti f ritornello in home key b. softer dynamics. solo 2.



‡ Trio sonatas three melodic lines. two high ones and a basso continuo ‡ Played in homes.THE BAROQUE SONATA ‡ A composition in several movements for one to eight instruments. before or after ‡ Sonata da chiesa Church sonata. dance like and intended for court performance NEXT . and even in churches. dignified character and sacred performance ‡ Sonata da camera chamber sonata.

‡ Instrumentation of the trio sonata. with a harpsichord or other chordal instrument to fill out the harmony. possibly for commercial reasons. The trio sonata was the foundation of the concerto grosso . allowed some freedom of choice. Nevertheless the most frequently found arrangement became that for two violins and cello.


NEXT .4 or 5 voices ‡ The subject takes new meanings when shifted to different keys or combined with different melodic and rhythmic ideas.THE FUGUE ‡ A cornerstone in baroque music ‡ Can be written for group of instruments or voices or for a single instrument like the organ or harpsichord ‡ It is a polyphonic composition based from one melody called the subject. ‡ Different melodic lines or voices imitate the subject ‡ 3.

it is based on the tonic notes. NEXT . the first time. a constant companion sometimes it appears with the subject.‡ The subject is represented in two different scales. it is then called the answer. below it or above it. ‡ Countersubject the subject in one voice is constantly accompanied by another voice by a different melodic idea. but when the second voice represent the subject it is in dominant scale five scale step higher than the subject.

usually in the bass. NEXT . one voice tries to catch the other.‡ Episodes a transitional section. ‡ Streeto a subject is imitated before it is completed. it also lends variety to the fugue and make reappearances of the subject sound fresh. ‡ Pedal point/ organ point a single tone. do not present the subject entirely. offers new material or fragments of the subject or countersubjects. is held while the other voices produces a series of changing harmonies against it.

‡ Single mood and a sense of continuos flow. ‡ Can be written in independent works or as a single movements within a larger composition. ‡ Very often an independent fugue is introduce by a short piece called prelude NEXT .

FOUR PRINCIPLES OF FUGUE 1. vice versa. that is. It can be turned upside down. The subject may be presented retrograde. NEXT . by beginning with the last note of the subject and proceeding backward to the first. If the subject moves upward by leap. a procedure known as inversion. 2. each interval in the subject is reversed in direction. the inversion will move downward the same distance.

3. 4. in which the original time values are lengthened. The subject may appear in diminution. The subject may be presented in augmentation. with shortened time values BACK .


‡ Dance inspired movements ‡ Solo, small groups or orchestra ‡ Made up of movements that are written in the same key but differ in tempo, meter and character ‡ Allamande moderately paced (Germany) ‡ Courante fast (France) ‡ Gavotte moderate (France) ‡ Sarabande slow and solemn (Spain) ‡ Gigue fast (England and Ireland) ‡ Usually AABB form; tonic A dominant A balanced by dominant B then ends in tonic B.


BAROQUE COMPOSERS Arcangelo Corelli Francois Couperin Henry Purcell Johann Sebastian Bach Antonio Vivaldi George Friedrich Handel MAIN MENU .

a distinguished musical center ‡ "Founder of Modern Violin Technique ‡ "World's First Great Violinist ‡ "Father of the Concerto Grosso" . Italy.Arcangelo Corelli ‡ Born in Fusignano. in 1653 ‡ studied in Bologna.

in fact. ‡ His music was performed and honored throughout all Europe. his was the most popular instrumental music ‡ compositional output was rather small. composer. and teacher ‡ first person to organize the basic elements of violin technique.‡ His contributions can be divided three ways. as violinist. ‡ Concerti Grossi Opus 6 that Corelli reached his creative peak and climaxed all his musical contributions. .

. it was he who proved the potentialities of the form. it would have been impossible for Vivaldi. and wrote the first great music for it ‡ Through his efforts. it achieved the same preeminent place in the baroque period of musical history that the symphony did in the classical period ‡ Without Corelli's successful models. Handel. and Bach to have given us their Concerto Grosso masterpieces. popularized it.‡ Although Corelli was not the inventor of the Concerto Grosso principle.

Among his many students were included not only Geminiani but the famed Antonio Vivaldi. both through a wide dissemination of works published in his lifetime and through the performance of these works in Rome . His style of composition was much imitated and provided a model. ‡ occupied a leading position in the musical life of Rome for some thirty years. performing as a violinist and directing performances often on occasions of the greatest public importance.‡ Corelli's achievements as a teacher were again outstanding. It was Vivaldi who became Corelli's successor as a composer of the great Concerti Grossi and who greatly influenced the music of Bach.

at Rome in the 59th year of his life. he had taken a place among the immortal musicians of all time. 1713. But long before his death.‡ Corelli died a wealthy man on January 19. and he maintains that exalted position today. .



Purcell worked in Westminster for three different Kings over twenty-five years. a chorister at the Chapel Royal. and the holder of continuing royal appointments until his death. .Henry Purcell ‡ Born in 1659 ‡ finest and most original composer of his day ‡ As the son of a musician at Court.

His anthems were long since accorded their place in the great music of the church. to which Purcell did not contribute with true distinction. his fantasies and sonatas entitle him to honor in the history of chamber music. but he would also write chamber music in the form of harpsichord suites and trio sonatas ‡ There is hardly a department of music. and incidental stage music. his one true opera. there are enough fine orchestral movements in his works for the theatre to establish him in this field. as known in his day. hold their place in the repertory. his keyboard works. .‡ devoted much of his talent to writing operas. or rather musical dramas. if less significant in themselves.

And. Purcell's songs themselves would be sufficient to insure his immortality. His sensitivity to his texts has been matched by few masters in musical history. most especially. he could hardly fail to produce a masterpiece. when he had worthy poetry to set. .‡ Dido and Aeneas. and his other dramatic works (sometimes called operas) are full of musical riches. is an enduring masterpiece.

. according to his own account. ‡ Though ordained a priest in 1703. or a nervous disorder.Antonio Vivaldi ‡ born in Venice on March 4th. within a year of being ordained Vivaldi no longer wished to celebrate mass because of physical complaints ("tightness of the chest") which pointed to angina pectoris. 1678. asthmatic bronchitis.

generally accepted as being the best of the four Ospedali. . The brilliance of some solo writing in his "student exercise" concertos testifies to the extremely high standard attained by "his" ladies.‡ The reputation of baroque Venice as a musical centre was one of the highest in Europe. due largely to its four conservatories of music ‡ Vivaldi was employed for most of his working life by the Ospedale della Pietà. and many of his concerti were indeed exercises which he would play with his many talented pupils.

Vivaldi's appointment was renewed every year and again after 1711 twelve concertos he had written were published in Amsterdam by the music publisher Estienne Roger under the title l'Estro armonico (Harmonic Inspiration).‡ Vivaldi's relationship with the Ospedale began right after his ordination in 1703. Until 1709. Perhaps in this period he was already working for the Teatro Sant' Angelo. He also remained active as a composer . . when he was named as violin teacher there. Between 1709 and 1711 Vivaldi was not attached to the Ospedale. an opera theater.

And if we can believe Vivaldi himself. for example.the serenade La Sena festeggiante (Festival on the Seine). the Pope asked him to come and play the violin for him at a private audience. . This work cannot be dated precisely. who earlier had been the patron of Arcangelo Corelli.‡ Vivaldi also wrote works on commission from foreign rulers. but it was certainly written after 1720. Louis XV . ‡ In Rome Vivaldi found a patron in the person of Cardinal Pietro Ottoboni. a great music lover. such as the French king.

. His stay in Vienna was to be shortlived however.‡ suffering a severe economic downturn. he resigned from the Ospedale in 1740. planning to move to Vienna under the patronage of his admirer Charles VI. for he died on July 28th 1741 "of internal fire" (probably the asthmatic bronchitis from which he suffered all his life) and. like Mozart fifty years later. received a modest burial.

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