Definition: Public administration is the formulation, implementation, evaluation and modification of public policies
Various definitions:

The management of public programs  The translation of politics into the reality that citizens see every day  The study of government decision making  The analysis of the policies themselves  The various inputs that have produced policies  The inputs necessary to produce alternative policies



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Pharaohs, kings & emperors have acquired treasurers & tax collectors to administer the practical business of government Public administration was rife with nepotism, favoritism & political patronage (spoils system) Public administrators, eyes & ears of rulers Expert civil servants necessitated legal record-keeping, paying & feeding armies & levying taxes

Why the need for a sophisticated public administration grew? Lorenz von Stein, an 1855, German professor from Vienna is considered the founder of PADMINI ` He taught that PAdmin relies on sociology, political science, administrative law & public finance ` He stated PAdmin is about theory & practice

Woodrow Wilson is considered father of PAdmin He wrote that: ` Administrative study to discover what government can properly & successfully do ` Do with possible efficiency & least possible cost ` Wilson was more influential than Von Stein due to an article he wrote in 1887 advocating four concepts: ` ` ` ` Separation of politics & administration Comparative analysis of political & private organization Improving efficiency with business-like practices Training of civil servants & merit based assessment .

The scientific method ` 2. Professionalism ` 4. Coordinating ` vi. Staffing ` iv. Directing ` v. Planning ` ii. Budgeting . And executive Gulick summarized the duties of administrators with an acronym POSDCORB which stands for: ` i.USA IN THE 1940s ` Luther Gulick & Lyndall Urwick are two second generation scholars Gulick developed a generic theory of organization that emphasized: ` 1. Efficiency ` 3. Organizing ` iii. Reporting ` vii. Structural reform ` 5.

POST-WORLD WAR 11 TO THE 1970s ` The politics-administration dichotomy remained the center of criticism In the 1960s & 1970s government itself came under fire as ineffective. inefficient & largely a wasted effort: a) The American intervention in Vietnam b) Citizens called for efficient administration to replace ineffective. wasteful bureaucracy c) Public administration distanced itself from politics to remain effective 1980s TO 1990s ` David Osborne & Ted Garbler proposed a new theory called New Public Management in their book Reinventing Government The NPM advocated the use of: a) Private sector style models b) Organization ideas & values to improve the efficiency & service-orientation of the public sector .

NPM treats individuals as customers or clients. rather than as citizens LATE 1990s TO 2000s: Janet & Robert Denhardt proposed a new public service model called Digital Era Governance Digital Era Governance focuses on themes such as: 1. performance pay for executives & user pay models v. Smaller & more fragmented agencies II. Encouraging competition between public agencies & private firms IV. Encouraging competition between different public agencies III. Digitalization ± fully exploiting the potential of digital storage & internet communications to transform governance . Needs ± based holism ± reorganizing government around distinct client groups 3. like US airport security after 9/11 2. Reintegration ± brining issues back into government control e.g.g. Using economic incentives lines e.NPM is splitting large bureaucracies into: I.

SESSION TWO PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION IN PERSPECTIVE Administration deals with gathering. ` Politicians formulate policies through the legislative process ` Public administrators are messengers of policy decisions ` Public administration putts personnel systems to carry out government activities ` Public administrators evaluates policies to determine successes. the courts & the public ` Needs to manage government personnel. & goodness of public policies From the above analysis public administration: ` Has a society service orientation ` Is orientated towards policy execution ` Has to be answerable to the executive. & communicating information. programs & projects to benefit society ` Should have concern for public rather individual self-interest ` To be concerned for socio-economic & political well being of citizens . the legislature. processing. failures.

Determining work methods & procedures and ` 6.Is concerned with the maintenance of law & order in line with constitutional provisions ` Is concerned with national development & social progress The Scope of Public Administration ` Public administration as a field of practice & as a field of study As a field of practice. Financing ` 4. Controlling ` . Staffing ` 5. Organizing ` 3. public administration focuses on six fundamental functions: ` 1. Public Admin policy-making ` 2.

and ` e) Economics .Public admin derives its academic content & theoretical framework from: ` a) Political science ` b) Management science ` c) Law ` d) Sociology.

What do we focus on when we study public admin? A. Evolutionary process help us understand: ` How it has changed with different regimes ` How it energizes itself to remain part of the government system ` How it responds to threats from the political . A focus on its evolution as a field of practice.

` ` ` ` ` ` How the bureaucracy is appointed How is it compensated How it organizes itself How it is given tasks. executes or effectuates these tasks How its controlled & disciplined How it relates to the governmental system & society its expected to serve .

` ` ` ` ` Help governments to adjust their public admin systems Helps rescue governments from operational confusion Provides the public admin academic or practitioner with knowledge Helps generalizing problems within administration Discern public admin¶s relationship with policy & politics in different regimes ` See how regimes adapt elements or functions of public admin to their systems .

staff & resource utilization & control ` Administrators use of delegated regulatory powers ` Accountability for the faithful execution of the laws of the land ` Responsiveness to the people . A focus on its intellectual heritage & theoretical underpinnings These paradigms are: ` The Politics/Admin Dichotomy ` The principle of admin ` The challenge to orthodox theories of public admin ` Reactions to this challenge ` Public admin as political science ` Public admin as management ` Public admin as public admin Public admin organizational focus on: ` Structural configuration of public organizations ` People in organizations & their behaviours ` Decision processes of administrative organizations ` Processes of policy execution.B.

. A focus on the external forces that impinge upon public admin: C ` ` ` ` ` ` Constitutional & legislative controls The role of the judiciary in controlling the exercise of the power of public admin Public admin interactive process with private admin Relationship between political & administrative bureaucracy Socio-economic & political factors International forces .

Recruiting & organizing the staff ` 4. Positions standardization & establish quality performance . aims. Structuring organizations ` 3.The role of the public administrator The following responsibilities can be enumerated: ` 1. Seeing that delegated activities are carried out ` 6. & objectives of the organization ` 2. Delegation & allocation of authority & responsibility ` 5. Setting for the purposes.

` ` ` ` ` ` To understand administrative operations & the behavior of administrators Gather information & public opinion on administrators conduct & bureaucratic excesses To understand administrative environments for improving occupational skills in the field To link public administration to other disciplines & show connections between them To understand the theoretical framework of public administration Improve participation in public affairs .

Explaining it ` v. Making propositions ` ii. based on theorems. Describing a situation ` iii. Drawing conclusions & generalizations to justify or reject initial propositions .PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION: Art or science? ` Public administration is both a science and an art ` Public admin requires scientific analysis to arrive at certain conclusions ` A science is a corpus of verified knowledge. Observing its manifestations ` iv. paradigms & axioms This Knowledge is obtained through scientific method that involves: ` i.

Obtaining preliminary information on the problem ` 3.Scientific method involves the following steps: ` 1. Stating a tentative answer to the problem ` 7. Classifying the information ` 6. Testing the answer . Investigating the problem area ` 5. Posing a tentative solution to the problem ` 4. Identifying a problem ` 2.

Problems in the study of public administration ` ` ` ` Efficiency Public context Political context Government powers The Problem associated with whole governmental context ` ` ` ` Reconciling liberty & the duty to govern Striking a balance between achieving the common good & demands from multiplicity of interest groups Balancing present actions with long term plans Balancing traditional attitudes with current scientific findings that can describe governmental action .

Administrative skills ` d. Globalization ` b. Economic ` d. Decision making skills ` .Administrative problems Macro-administrative problems ` a. Management styles ` c. Political ` c. Social factors Micro-administrative problems ` a. Interpersonal relationships ` b. Dedication to duty within organizations ` e.

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