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ThreeThree-Step Writing Process
Step 1 Planning Step 2 Writing Step 3 Completing
Analyze Situation Gather Information Select Medium Get Organized
Analyze Audience Adapt to Audience Control Style Draft Message
Revise Produce Proofread Distribute
After defining your ideas Outlining the structure of your message Decide on the organization: (I)Direct Approach (deductive/Goodnews)
(II)Indirect Approach (inductive)
E g r I te s d P a e ae re te le s d
Nu l D p a e n te s d Uw g e tra is le s dUin re te n illin
D cA r ah ire t c
I d c A r ah ire t c
dated when desirable (c) Appreciation (2) (3) . question (b) Reason if desirable Explanation: (a) All necessary and desirable details and data (b) Number Questions if helpful (c) Easy reading devices Courteous close with motivation to action: (a) Clear statement of action desired (b) Easy action.Direct (Deductive) Organizational Plan Direct-Request Plan: (1) Main idea: (a) Request. main statement assertion. recommendation.
Good News Plan: (1) Best news or main idea (2) Explanation (a) All necessary and desirable detail and data (b) Resale material (about product that reader has bought) (c) Education material (d) Sales promotion material (seller¶s suggestions for additional products) Positive Friendly close including if appropriate: (a) Appreciation (b) Clear statement of action (e) Easy action (d) Offer of further help (e) Reader benefits. .
data when desirable ± Willingness to help further ± Reader¶s benefit and goodwill. tactfully stated ± Relevant favourable then unfavourble acts ± Reader¶s benefit reasons Decision (implied or expressed along with offer of additional help or suggestion Positive. Bad News Plan: Buffer: (pleasant or neutral) Statement. . reader-oriented) Explanation: ± Necessary data. Friendly close ± Appreciation ± Invitation to future action desired ± Easy action.
Persuasive Message The Indirect-approach is also useful when you know your reader will resist your messages or be unwilling to comply without extra coaxing. . Following are features of AIDA plan. In such situations we use a persuasive plan called AIDA to persuade our reader to comply with our request. You might find you reader¶s resistance to a sales letter. an unsolicited job application or request for a favour.
an unsolicited job application or request for a favour.interest -theme ± Interest Description detail and data Psychological appeal Reader benefits . In such situations we use a persuasive plan called AIDA to persuade our reader to comply with our request. Persuasive Request Plan: ± Attention Reader. Following are features of AIDA plan.benefit Reader. You might find you reader¶s resistance to a sales letter. Persuasive Message The Indirect-approach is also useful when you know your reader will resist your messages or be unwilling to comply without extra coaxing.
Desire Statement of request Supporting data to help create readers desire to grant request Action Clear statement of action Easy action dated when desirable Special offer Reader benefit .
to a publisher asking for reprints of an article or to be listed as a subscriber. . to a hotel asking that a conference room be reserved for a meeting or to make reservation. Such letters are written to suppliers asking for a price list or a catalog. to another executive asking for an appointment and requesting references or recommendation and so on. These are the letters that ask for something the reader is eager to give. Many routine requests are written in every business.
Like all routine messages. Always think of your purpose and ask yourself what you want your reader to do or understand when he reads your message. routine requests also have three parts: an opening. a body and a close. you use the middle to give details and justify your request and you close by requesting specific action. Keep in mind that despite their simple organization they can still cause problem through confused wording or a discourteous tone. Using direct approach you place your main idea in the opening. .
Assume your reader will comply Don¶t demand. Rather assume that your reader will comply with your request. Rather soften it with words such as µplease and I would appreciate¶. . (i) Start with your main idea. do consider the following: Pay attention to tone Don¶t say µSend me your catalog no 1¶. Besides. But keep your direct approach from being abrupt or tactless. Always place your request upfront where it stands out and gets the most attention.
Avoid beginning with personal introduction Don¶t be tempted to begin your request with a personal introduction such as µI am the general Manger«¶. Punctuate Questions and polite request differently A polite request in question form requires no question mark: ³Would you please send us the information before June 10´. A direct question whereas requires a question marks: µDo you also deal in computer hardware?¶ .
Be sure to break down multiple requests. Ask only relevant question. (ii) Explain and justify your request In the middle section of the request give the detail of your request. Use 5 Ws and one H properly for being specific in you requests. Deal with only one topic per question. . Be Specific Start precisely what you want and when you want. When using a series of question just keep a few basic things in mind: Ask the most important question first. Make the explanation smooth and logical. number them and list them in logical order or in descending order of importance. When requesting several items or answers.
Request specific action in a courteous close Close your message with three important elements: a specific request. information about how you can be reached. Conclude your message by sincerely expressing your goodwill and appreciation. Study a few model requests: (iii) . an expression of appreciation or goodwill. However. don¶t thank the reader in advance (thanking you in anticipation) for cooperation.
Requests: (1) Requesting literature. I certainly appreciate your distributing this valuable publication. Hassan. information: Dear Mr. I have learned a great deal about your products and would like to buy a few for my garden. Sincerely your. Please send me the catalogue of your home garden products. .
Ali. I would appreciate your confirming the reservation. Please reserve a room facing sea.M on March 10. Sincerely yours. Sale Executive of our company for March 12 and 14. . Ali will arrive around 8:30 P. Mr.(2) Making Reservation: Ladies and Gentlemen: Please reserve a single room for Mr. So please hold the reservation for late arrival.
(3) Asking for appointment: Gentlemen: May I visit your book house in which books on all topics especially English language are displayed? My schedule is very flexible and I can come any time that is most convenient for you. . Yours very truly.
I am pleased to recommend Mr. Hassan will not hesitate to contribute ideas when invited to do so.(4) Recommending someone: Dear Mr. Hassan please call me at (042)111 Sincerely. In addition. Hassan for marketing position. Mr. because he learns quickly. introspective young man. Mr. He has always been willing to work odd hours including weekends. As the branch manager. Although a quiet. . Hassan will learn your company¶s routine with ease. I have found him a young man with outstanding abilities. Naeem. Mr. If you would like to further discuss about Mr. Hassan has worked with us as an intern for the past three months while working towards his bachelor degree in commerce. I am sure he will make an excellent addition to your staff.
´ I would appreciate«««¶¶ Please send me /us«««´ . They show courtesy and tact: May I Please««?´ I will be grateful if you would send««´ Will you please«««.Some useful expressions for writing Request messages Hare are some expressions which you can use while making requests.
I hope that we can count on your corporation«´ I would appreciate your help«.´ We will be grateful for this special help«.´ Your suggestions would be highly appreciated«.´ .Expressions like the following help us close request anticipating a favourable response.
Positive Messages sking for recommendations l ays ask for permission before using someone as a reference .
Keeping existing customers is almost always less expensive than acquiring new customers. Explain precisely how you have resolved or plan to resolve the situation. Customers don¶t want their complaints to fall into bureaucratic black hole. so look for ways to go beyond simply granting the claim or fixing the problem. be sure to communicate that. If you can¶t explain why. Granting claims and requests for adjustment: Acknowledge receipt of the customer. If you can respond exactly as the customer requested. claim or complaint. Follow up to verify your response was correct. Even if you cannot solve the problem immediately. Follow up not only helps improve customer service but also give you another opportunity to show how much you care about your customer. . Letting the customer see that you¶re on his or her side helps defuse the emotional element of the situation. at least let the other party knows that somebody is listening. such as offering coupons to encourage future business. Take steps to repair relationship. Sympathize with the customer¶s inconvenience or frustration. Take (or assign) personal responsibility for setting matter straight.
An adjustment letter is the reply to a complaint (called a claim letter). Most persons are honest in their claims. and it is usually better to make the desired adjustment than to risk losing a customer. . the best attitude is to give the customer the benefit of the doubt. In general.
When the third party is at fault. 3. There Can be Three types of adjustment letters. When the seller is at fault When the buyer is at fault. .
Initial Statement of the Good News or Main Idea State immediately your willingness to honour the reader¶s claim. . Thank the reader for taking the time to write. Accept your reader¶s account as entirely accurate unless good business reasons demand a different interpretation of some points. avoid being defensive.Adjustment A. Adopt a tone of consideration and courtesy.
d. Avoid making unrealistic promises about the future. if possible. a.´ ³May we ask. Middle. b. then do so crisply and without an overly apologetic tone.´ Apologize only under extreme circumstances. c. .B.´ and ³We are glad to work with you. Maintain a supportive tone through such phrases as ³Thank you for.´ ³Please let us know. Informational Section Minimize or. Avoid blaming any particular person or office. omit any disagreements with your reader¶s interpretation of events. Admit your firm¶s faults carefully. Remind the reader of your firm¶s quality controls. Avoid implying general company inefficiency. Informational Section Middle. .
Warm. . Encourage the customer to continue buying other goods from you (sales promotion).Adjustment C. Courteous Close Clarify any necessary actions that your reader must take. Avoid negative information. Remind the reader of how you have honoured the claim. but avoid seeming greedy. Encourage the customer to look favourably on your company and/or the product in question (resale information).
Adjustment Dear Mr. Because a mended umbrella might not be water-resistant. you will find everything from small tables to foundations in our latest catalog. Thank you for returning the torn one. which has proved superior to the polyester and cotton one you bought last year. we are sending you a new one. Your new lawn umbrella is being shipped prepaid today It should arrive in a few days. so that you can keep your new lawn table protected. You will notice that the new umbrella is made of vinyl-coated nylon. .´ Yours sincerely. You can rely on our guarantee of high quality and ³satisfaction or your money back. When you need lawn furniture and accessories. Ali.
An established customer for. -The last installment of a special-account purchase. Writing Thank-You Letters Just as you can find many occasions for writing personal thank-you messages. you will also find many opportunities for writing thank-you letters to build goodwill of your organization. -The payment of an overdue bill. . -a particularly large order. Letters of appreciation are often sent to: A new customer for a first order. An individual or an organization that responds to a special appeal or completes a good job.
Employees who continually do their work well. Consider the following example. Other opportunities for sending thank-you messages include special occasions. Individuals and organizations who cooperate on everyday jobs but get little attention. it is a thank ± you letter to a guest speaker . Occasionally (it should happen much more often!) such letters are also sent to: Customers who order regularly and pay their bills on time. and extra responsibilities. special services.Someone in your own organization who makes a suggestion that proves worthwhile or who does something extra.
Dear Raheel. and your professional approach was exemplary. . You handled the topic very well. I appreciate your willingness to make this public appearance as a representative of IBA of Community College. Thank you for the time and effort you put into your presentation for the Association of Charted Accountants meeting yesterday. I felt your talk was very well received by the members of the association.
We can then offer you the variety of household items in the city. The expansion of our store will be completed in a few weeks. Rehman Ali . A thank-you letter to the old customers. Dear Customers. Rehman stores thanks you for your friendship and for the business you have given us during the past year. We hope that the new year will be a happy and successful year for you. As the new year begins. During the coming year we will do our best to serve you in every way. Cordially.
marriages. graduations. For instance. In the same way. business people use congratulatory letters on such occasions as anniversaries. promotions. elections. births. new businesses or homes. this brief congratulatory note was sent to an executive who recently became president of the company: . retirements. you want to congratulate them. Writing Letters of Congratulation A message of congratulation or commendation is much like a message of appreciation: Each recognizes and expresses interest in a worthwhile achievement. A letter of appreciation says µthank you´ and implies ³well done. and various awards and rewards. These letters convey a pleasant message and keep a favourable image of you and your organization in the recipient¶s mind.´ When your friends celebrate special events or receive honours.
Yours sincerely. . I am sure that the business will grow and prosper under your capable leadership. Dear Shahid. It is well deserved. Congratulations on your recent promotion to president of Community Bank.
I was very pleased to read that you have been chosen as one of the ten executives for this task force. Dear Mrs. Congratulations on being named to the Governor¶s task Force to Study Equal Opportunities in Business. . please let me know. Rafi. If anyone at Sahar Textile can help you and the other members of the task force. Industry. We will be delighted to be of service. and Government.
A bank announces a new direct deposit plan in this example: . Announcements and Invitations Goodwill announcements and invitations include: Announcements of a new business. a new location. when a store announces that it will be open an extra evening each week. Announcements of a new service or policy. often inviting the reader to use it. These usually include an invitation to visit. for instance. or an expansion or reorganization of facilities. Announcements of the appointment of a new official or a new representative of the organization.
For your convenience. That¶s it. You¶ll still receive your paycheck stubs. you can now have your paycheque deposited into your account automatically. Of course. Yours sincerely. Arrangements have been made with your College and First National Bank to set up a direct deposit plan. To make your paycheque deposits automatic. because it deposits your paycheque directly into your checking account every payday²even when you¶re away from college or out of town. Gentlemen. . We¶ll see that the college business office gets the card. simply complete and sign the authorization card and return it in the enclosed reply envelope. The plan is confidential and very convenient.
but they avoid specific sales promotion. These messages discuss organization services and products and invite readers to call or visit. New dealers. as: New members of a club.Welcome Letters Welcome Letters Welcoming letters are written for many occasions. These messages may be morale builders. Usually they have a definite sales flavour. New customers. New subscribers. New charge account customers. Notice the friendly tone and service attitude of this letter from a bank president to new customer: .
as expressed in the opening of your account. We sincerely appreciate your confidence. Dear Mr. Malik. . Cordially yours. I was pleased to learn this morning that you have opened an account at the National Bank. In extending to you my warm personal welcome. I wish to emphasize that all of our personnel are ready to make it easy for you to use our many services. and we will do our best to make your association with us both pleasant and profitable for you.
I wish you a speedy recovery and quick return to the office. Naeem. if there¶s anything I can do for you. Meanwhile. Dear Mr. just give me a call. . Sincerely yours. I am sorry to hear that you¶re in the hospital and hope that with rest and care you¶ll be up and about again soon.
New dealers. These messages may be morale builders. New customers.Welcome Letters Welcome Letters Welcoming letters are written for many occasions. New charge account customers. New subscribers. but they avoid specific sales promotion. as: New members of a club. These messages discuss organization services and products and invite readers to call or visit. Notice the friendly tone and service attitude of this letter from a bank president to new customer: . Usually they have a definite sales flavour.
(4) A helpful. use the indirect plan to ease your reader? Use a buffer to bring your reader into a friendly state of mind. The indirect plan consists of four parts: (1) Buffer. (2) Explanation supporting the negative decision. which could keep your audience from reading or listening to your reasons. Instead of beginning a business message with a blunt µno¶. (3) A clear. friendly. . diplomatic statement of the negative decision. and positive close.The indirect plan is actually a familiar approach. You use it to say something that might upset another person otherwise.
Understanding: Show your understand to the reader¶s problem. Assurance: Show reader your careful consideration. Following are few examples of buffer: Agreement: Agreeing with your reader on something. Appreciation: Appreciate the reader for a request etc. . Compliment: Compliment the reader on something good about his past.