PRESENTED BY LAXMI SHOVA HAKU DUWAL Bsc MLT 3rd SEMESTER SINAMANGAL, KHATMANDU

Contents
‡ Organs of respiratory system
² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² Nose and nasal cavity Pharynx Larynx Trachea Two bronchi Bronchioles and small air passages Two lungs and their coverings, the pleura Pulmonary ventilation Diffusion of O2 and CO2 Transport of O2 and CO2 Regulation of ventilation

‡ Physiology of respiratory system

‡ References

Organs of the respiratory system
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Nose and nasal cavity Pharynx Larynx Trachea Two bronchi Bronchioles and small air passages Two lungs and their coverings, the pleura

frontal bone and nasal bones. it consists of hyaline cartilage ‡ Roof is formed by the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone and the sphenoid bone. ‡ Posterior bony part of the septum is formed by the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone & the vomer.Nose and nasal cavity ‡ Nasal cavity is the main route of air entry and consists of a large irregular cavity divided into two equal passages by a septum. ‡ Anteriorly. .

Nose and nasal cavity ‡ Floor is formed by the roof of the mouth and consists of the hard palate infront and soft palate behind ‡ Medial wall is formed by the septum ‡ Lateral walls are formed by the maxilla. ‡ Organ of the sense of smell . moistened & cleaned. ethmoid bone and the inferior conchae ‡ Lined with very vascular ciliated columnar epithelium which contains mucus secreting goblet cells FUNCTIONS ‡ Act as air conditioner where inspired air is warmed.

Fig: Nasal cavity .

PHARYNX ‡ A tube of 12 to 14cm long & extends from the base of the skull to the level of 6th cervical vertebra ‡ Lies behind the nose. mouth & larynx Nasopharynx ‡ Nasal part of the pharynx lies behind the nose above the level of soft palate Oropharynx ‡ Extends from below the level of soft palate to upper part of body of 3rd cervical vertebrae Laryngopharynx ‡ Extend from 3rd cervical vertebrae to 6th cervical vertebrae .

Structures ‡ Composed of 3 layers of tissue A)Mucus memebrane ‡ Nasopharynx-columnar ciliated epithelium ‡ Oropharynx & Laryngo pharynx-stratified squamous epithelium B)Fibrous tissue-intermediate layer C)Muscle tissue-consists of several involuntary constrictor muscles .

protection & speech .Blood supply ‡ Artery -branch of facial artery ‡ Vein -into facial and internal jugular vein ‡ Nerve -parasympathetic supply by the vagus & glossopharyngeal nerve -sympathetic supply by nerves from the superior cervical ganglia Functions ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Passageway for food and air Warm & moistened the air Sensation of taste Hearing.

4th.LARYNX ‡ Larynx or voice box extend from root of tongue & the hyoid bone to trachea ‡ Lies in front of the laryngopharynx at the level of 3rd.5th and 6th cervical vertebrae. there is little differences in the size of the larynx between the sexes. . ‡ Until puberty.

Cricoid. cuneiform.Arytenoid.Structure ‡ Composed of several cartilages which are attached to each other by ligament & membrane & moved by muscles. The main cartilages are Unpaired-Thyroid. Epiglottis Paired . corniculate ‡ Cavity of larynx is covered with mucus membrane ‡ Vocal fold-lined by stratified squamous epithelium ‡ Rest-ciliated columnar epithelium .

Fig: structure of larynx(front view) Fig: structure of larynx(behind view) .

warm.Blood supply ‡ Artery.superior & inferior laryngeal artery ‡ Vein -drain by thyroid rein which join inter jugular vein ‡ Nerve -parasympathetic nerve supply from superior laryngeal & deep laryngeal nerve which are branch of vagus nerve -sympathetic supply from superior cervical ganglia Function ‡ Provide sphincter at inlet of air passage ‡ Voice production ‡ Passage of air ‡ Humidify. clean air .

TRACHEA ‡ Tube formed of cartilage and fibromuscular membrane. lined internally by mucosa ‡ Length:10-15cm ‡ Begins at continuation of larynx to lower cricoid cartilage C6 terminate at carina T4 ‡ Divides into left & right bronchi at the level of sterna angle .

‡ Submucosa contain seromucous gland ‡ Deep to sumucosa is ¶C·. covered by perichondrium ‡ Gap in the rings are at the back. where there is smooth muscle trachialis muscle.Structure ‡ Lining mucosa consists of psedostratified ciliated columnar epithelium.shaped ring of hyaline cartilage called tracheal ring(16-20 number). Fig: trachea .

humidifying and filtering Cough reflex .Blood supply ‡ ‡ ‡ Artery-Inferior thyroid arteries -Bronchial artery Vein -drain to inferior thyroid venous plexus Nerve -parasympathetic nerve supply by the recurrent laryngeal nerve and other branches of the vagi -sympathetic supply by nerves from the sympathetic ganglia Functions ‡ ‡ Warming.

costal surface and medial surface Right lung is 700gm wt. middle & inferior) -brochopulmonary segment-10 . 50-100gm heavier than left lung Right lung-2 Fissure(hoizontal and oblique) -3 lobes(superior.LUNGS ‡ ‡ ‡ Cone shaped have an apex. a base.

LUNGS ‡ Left lung-1 fissure(horizontal) -2 lobes(superior and inferior) -bronchopulmonary segment-10 ‡ There are 2 lungs. one lying on each side of the midline in the thoracic cavity .

Visceral pleura-closely adhere to lung .Pleura and pleural cavity ‡ Consists of a closed sac of serous membrane (one for each lung) which contains a small amount of serous fluid called pleural cavity ‡ The lung is invaginated (pushed into) into this sac so that it forms two layers a. Parietal pleura-covers thoracic wall b.

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Blood supply ‡ ‡ Artery -Pulmonary artery(supply alveoli) Vein -drain oxygenated blood into left atrium of heart .

supply specific of lungs called bronchopulmonary segment .BRONCHI AND BRONCHIOLES ‡ Trachea bifurcate at level of sterna angle into 2 principle bronchi.supplied lobe of lungs ‡ Each lobar bronchi divides into tertiary bronchi or segmental bronchi . shorter & more vertical than left ‡ Each principle bronchus divide into secondary bronchi or lobar bronchi(2 on left.3 on right). one to each lung ‡ Right bronchus is wider.

lined by psedostratified columnar ciliated epithelium ‡ By successive division.Structure ‡ Have smooth muscles & hyaline cartilage in their wall. they become smaller & smaller. cartilage disappears and bronchi becomes bronchioles Blood supply ‡ Artery-Bronchial arteries ‡ Vein -drain to bronchial veins -sympathetic from T6-L6 ‡ Nerve -parasympathetic from vagus .

Functions ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Control of air entry Warming and humidifying Removal of particulate matter Cough reflex .

RESPIRATORY BRONCHIOLES AND ALVEOLI ‡ 1mm or less in diameter. no cartilage in their wall ‡ Lining epithelium varies from ciliated columnar & goblet cells(in primary bronchioles)to ciliated cuboidal and secretary clara cells (in terminal and respiratory bronchioles) ‡ Alveolar duct -cilia free simple cuboidal cell ‡ Alveolar sac -are expanded irregular space at the distal end of an alveolar duct .

Nerve supply ‡ Parasympathetic fibers from the vagus nerve cause broncho constriction ‡ Sympathetic stimulation relaxes bronchiolar smooth muscle Functions ‡ External respiration ‡ Defense against microbes ‡ Warming and humidifying .

Fig: RESPIRATORY BRONCHIOLES AND ALVEOLI .

PHYSIOLOGY OF RESPIRATION Goals of respiration are to provide oxygen to tissue and to remove carbon dioxide 4 major functional events 1)Pulmonary ventilation 2)Diffusion of O2 and CO2 between the atmosphere and the lung alveoli 3)Transport of O2 and CO2 in the blood and tissue fluid to and from the cells 4)Regulation of ventilation .

1 Pulmonary ventilation ‡ ‡ ² Means inflow and outflow of air between the atmosphere and the lung alveoli Lung can be expanded and contracted in two ways By downward and upward movement of the diaphragm to lengthen or shortened the chest cavity By elevation or depression of the ribcage to increase or decrease the anteroposterior diameter of the chest cavity ² .

air goes out . lower parts of the lungs move downward ‡ During expiration. elastic recoil of the lung. chest wall and abdominal structure compresses the lungs.Normal quiet breathing ‡ During inspiration. contraction of the diaphragm. relaxation of the diaphragm.

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there by compressing the lungs. .Heavy breathing ‡ The elastic forces are not powerful enough to cause the necessary rapid expiration. so that extra force is achieved mainly by contraction of the abdominal muscles. which pushes the abdominal contents upward against the bottom of the diaphragm.

sternum falls backward towards vertebral column During maximum inspiration ² Rib cage is elevated.Natural resting position ² Ribs slant downward. the ribs project almost directly forward. so that the sternum also moves forward .

Inspiratory reserve volume ‡ Is maximum extra volume of air that can be inspired over and above the normal tidal volume IRV=3000ml .Pulmonary volumes and capacities Pulmonary volumes 1. Tidal volume ‡ Volume of air inspired or expired with each normal breath TV=5ooml 2.

Expiratory reserve volume ‡ Extra volume of air that can be expired by forceful expiration after end of normal tidal expiration ERV=1100ml 4.3. Residual volume ‡ Volume of air remain in lung after must forceful expiration RV=1200ml .

Functional residual capacity FRC=ERV +RV =(1100 + 1200)ml=2300ml 3.Pulmonary capacities 1. Inspiratory capacity IC=IV+IRV =500ml + 3000ml=3500ml 2. Total lung capacity TLC=VC + RV =(4600 + 1200)=5800ml . Vital capacity VC=IRV + ERV +TV =(4600 + 1200)=5800ml 4.

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2. Diffusion of O2 and C02 between the alveoli and blood ‡ Gas exchange between the alveolar air and pulmonary blood occurs through respiratory membrane through diffusion ‡ Diffusion :movement of gases from higher concentration to lower concentration .

.5% ‡ But if a person breathes oxygen at a very high alveolar PO2 levels.29 milliliters of oxygen is dissolved in every 100 milliliters of water in the blood ‡ During strenuous exercise. about 0.3. the relative quantity of oxygen transported in the dissolved state falls to as little as 1. the amount transported in the dissolved state can become much greater and ´oxygen poisoningµ occurs. when hemoglobin release of oxygen to the tissue increases. Transport of O2 and CO2 in the blood and tissue fluid to and from the cells O2 is transported from blood to tissue in 2 forms 1)Dissolved state(3%) ‡ At the normal arterial PO2 of 95mm of Hg.

O2 is release from hemoglobin .2) Combined state(97%) ‡ O2 molecules combines loosely & reversibly with heme positioned of hemoglobin ‡ When O2 is high(e. when PO2 is low (in tissue). O2 binds with Hb.g. Pulmonary capillaries).

Co2 is transported from tissue to lung in 3 forms 1)Bicarbonate (70%) 2)Bound to Hb(23%) 3)Dissolved state(7%) 1)Dissolved state ‡ Small portion of CO2 is transported in dissolved state ‡ Only 0.3ml of CO2 is transported in the form of dissolved CO2 in 100ml of blood .

so that CO2 is easily released into the alveoli. where the PCO2 is lower than in the pulmonary capillaries .2)Bound to Hb ‡ CO2 reacts directly with amine radicals of the hemoglobin molecules to form the compound carbaminohemoglobin (CO2Hgb) ‡ This combination of CO2 & hemoglobin is a reversible reaction that occurs with a loose bond.

recombines with H+ to form H2CO3 . HCO3.decomposes into CO2 and H2O . . HCO3.Thus CO2 generally generate in tissue is expired.3)Bicarbonate ion ‡ In lungs.enters in RBC in exchange for chloride.

Regulation of respiration ‡ Respiratory centre is composed of several groups of neurons. Dorsal respiratory group ‡ ‡ ‡ .4. located bilaterally in medulla oblongata and pons of the brain stem Located in dorsal part of medulla(nucleus of tractus solitarus) Mainly cause inspiration Nucleus of solitarus is sensory termination of vagus and glossopharyngeal nerve which transmit sensory signal into respiratory center from peripheral receptor in lung A.

Ventral respiratory group ‡ Located in ventrolateral part of medulla(nucleus ambigus) ‡ Causes both inspiration and expiration ‡ Pneumatic center ‡ Located dorsally in superior portion of pons ‡ Control rate and depth of breathing .B.

Fig .Regulation of respiration .

A. 11th edition (2007) ‡ Waugh.References ‡ Guyton .Hall.E: Text book of medical physiology.C. Grant. ninth edition(2001) .A. Ross and Wilson anatomy and physiology in health and illness. J.