INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY

BY AHSAN NAZIR

work incentives. ‡ Group Dynamics. modern approaches & work efficiency. ‡ Job satisfaction. personality & society. . vocation. work methods. ‡ Working environment.IN THIS CHAPTER WE SHALL STUDY ‡ Nature of the work situation. ‡ Work .

‡ 3)Working environment.INCREASE IN PRODUCTION ‡ A loss in work efficiency and production can be managed by following steps. ‡ 5)Miscellaneous factors. . ‡ 2)Incentives. ‡ 1)Motivational factors. ‡ 4)Emotional factors.

‡ For the motivation of workers following steps can be helpful. ‡ Individual incompetence or environmental variables may be instrumental for the situation until the problem is not sorted out.1)Motivational Factors ‡ The unrest and dissatisfaction in the workers result in a decrease in efficiency and production. .

Functional problems. environment.Motivational Factors cont. worker. Structural problems analyzed i. union politics confidence ‡ Covert intervention etc. machinery. ‡ Submit proposals. work morale.employer relation. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ a) Expert approach: Individual expert review the situation.e. .

Motivational Factors cont ‡ b) Industrial espionage: ‡ Administration hire the services of some spy to identify worker¶s problems. ‡ d) Employee centered approach: . ‡ c) Counselling method: Industrial psychologist gives the guidance to the employee as well as administration.

‡ Bonus . ‡ 1) Critical factors: The factors which deal with promoting the inherent capabilities of workers are known as critical factors which are follows. ‡ a) opportunity for identifiable achievement.2)INCENTIVES ‡ Any motive expressed quantitatively is termed as an incentive. ‡ Reason being that the incentives are directly proportional to workers socio-economic status. promotion. . ‡ b) Constructive & diversified assignment. rewards etc are incentives used to motivate the workers which in turn affect the production.

( examples & role models) 2) Marginal factors. loss etc ) ‡ b) organizational growth ‡ c) developing a participatory attitude among workers . d) suggestion & imitation.2)INCENTIVES cont. ( target + reward ). ‡ a) compensation (over time payment . ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ c) Incentive of increased production. factors which contribute but not visible and if an insight of their status is clearly presented they may augment the production & efficiency.

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ 3) Neutral Factors: a) Job security. d) Increase in wages. b) Promotion opportunities. e) Rewards and over time.2)INCENTIVES cont. c) Bonuses. .

‡ a) Job security ‡ b) Working conditions ‡ c) Working hours & rest ‡ d) Freedom from boredom ‡ e) Reduction in noise ‡ f) Illumination ‡ g) Atmospheric effect ‡ h) Music .3)THE WORK ENVIRONMENT ‡ Improving the work environment substantiate the morale of workers. increase out put and reduce the accidents and strikes.

4)EMOTIONAL FACTORS ‡ Morale . ‡ c) Misunderstanding.industrial growth. ‡ b) Discouragement. . ‡ a) Favouritism. accidents and strikes are also affected by the emotional factors.

b) Special training of complex skills c) Technical knowledge of machines d) Risk acceptance e) Simultaneous attention f) Equipment designer g) Covering the communication lag .5)MISCELLANEOUS FACTORS ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ a) Audio visual aids.

permanent or temporary to the machinery or worker. .2)ACCSIDENTS & PREVENTIVE MEASURES ‡ An unexpected event which may cause a loss to life or property. In an industrial set up an event without a known cause which may result in a damage. structural problems in the machinery and lack of the preventive measures. ‡ Accidents may result from an individual negligence.

RESULTS OF AN ACCIDENTS ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ 1)Loss in labour force 2)Loss to the organization 3)Time factor 4)Diseases 5)Environmental hazards .

CAUSES OF INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ 10 % physical causes 90 % psychological causes Physical causes: 1) Building structure 2) Lay out plan or installation 3) External elements i.e. earth quacks etc. 4) Light 5) Temperature 6) Nature of task .

CAUSES Cont. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Psychological causes: 1) Accidents prone workers 2) Age 3) Experience 4) Training 5) Vision 6) Emotional elements 7) Employee-employer relationship 8) Fatigue 9) Dissatisfaction 10) Organization & admin 11) Physical health 12)Apathy of state 13)Nature .

PREVENTION OF ACCIDENTS ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ A) Maintenance of physical conditions: 1) Structure of building 2) Proper installation 3) Work condition & management 4) Illumination 5) Insulation of wires 6) Noise & temperature control .

‡ B) Psychological control: ‡ 1)Recruitment procedure & psychological testing.PREVENTION OF ACCIDENTS cont. ‡ 2) Training facilities ‡ 3) Personal security ‡ 4) Health care & first aid ‡ 5) Employee welfare plane .