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Chapter 14 Section 1 ± 2

Outline Syntax Semantics .

Bayesian networks A simple. conditional distribution represented as a conditional probability table (CPT) giving the distribution over Xi for each combination of parent values . acyclic graph (link § "directly influences") ± a conditional distribution for each node given its parents: P (Xi | Parents (Xi)) In the simplest case. one per variable ± ± a directed. graphical notation for conditional independence assertions and hence for compact specification of full joint distributions Syntax: ± a set of nodes.

Example Topology of network encodes conditional independence assertions: Weather is independent of the other variables Toothache and Catch are conditionally independent given Cavity .

Earthquake. Alarm. but neighbor Mary doesn't call.Example I'm at work. Is there a burglar? Variables: Burglary. neighbor John calls to say my alarm is ringing. Sometimes it's set off by minor earthquakes. JohnCalls. MaryCalls Network topology reflects "causal" knowledge: ± ± ± ± A burglar can set the alarm off An earthquake can set the alarm off The alarm can cause Mary to call The alarm can cause John to call .

Example contd. .

vs.. the complete network requires O(n · 2k) numbers I. 25-1 = 31) . 1 + 1 + 4 + 2 + 2 = 10 numbers (vs. O(2n) for the full joint distribution For burglary net.e. grows linearly with n.Compactness A CPT for Boolean Xi with k Boolean parents has 2k rows for the combinations of parent values Each row requires one number p for Xi = true (the number for Xi = false is just 1-p) If each variable has no more than k parents.

P(j m a b e) = P (j | a) P (m | a) P (a | b.. e) P (b) P (e) .Xn) = i=1 P (Xi | Parents(Xi)) e.g. « .Semantics The full joint distribution is defined as the product of the local conditional distributions: n P (X1.

Xn) (chain rule) = i =1 P (Xi | X1. « .Xn 2.Constructing Bayesian networks 1.. .. For i = 1 to n ± add Xi to the network ± ± select parents from X1.Xi-1 such that P (Xi | Parents(Xi)) = P (Xi | X1. Choose an ordering of variables X1. Xi-1) n This choice of parents guarantees: n P (X1. « . « . « . Xi-1) (Xi | Parents(Xi)) = (by construction) i =1P .

B. J.Example Suppose we choose the ordering M. A. E P(J | M) = P(J)? .

M) = P(A | J)? P(A | J. E P(J | M) = P(J)? No P(A | J. B. A.Example Suppose we choose the ordering M. J. M) = P(A)? .

M) = P(A)? No P(B | A. A. J. M) = P(A | J)? P(A | J. E P(J | M) = P(J)? No P(A | J.Example Suppose we choose the ordering M. B. J. M) = P(B)? . J. M) = P(B | A)? P(B | A.

M) = P(E | A)? . J. M) = P(B)? No P(E | B. J.J. A . M) = P(B | A)? Yes P(B | A. B. J.Example Suppose we choose the ordering M. A. M) = P(A | J)? P(A | J. E P(J | M) = P(J)? No P(A | J. M) = P(A)? No P(B | A.

J. E P(J | M) = P(J)? No P(A | J. J. A . M) = P(A | J)? P(A | J. M) = P(B)? No P(E | B. M) = P(E | A)? No . M) = P(B | A)? Yes P(B | A.J. A. B. J.Example Suppose we choose the ordering M. M) = P(A)? No P(B | A.

Deciding conditional independence is hard in noncausal directions (Causal models and conditional independence seem hardwired for humans!) Network is less compact: 1 + 2 + 4 + 2 + 4 = 13 numbers needed .Example contd.

Summary Bayesian networks provide a natural representation for (causally induced) conditional independence Topology + CPTs = compact representation of joint distribution Generally easy for domain experts to construct .

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