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All stations transmit data on same frequency, but at different times Needs time synchronization Pros
users can be given different amounts of bandwidth mobiles can use idle times to determine best base station can switch off power when not transmitting

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Cons
synchronization overhead greater problems with multipath interference on wireless links

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` ` Timing problems require a mechanism to synchronize the transmitter and receiver Two solutions exist Asynchronous Synchronous ` ` ` ` Both methods are concerned with timing issues How does the receiver know when the bit period begins and ends? Small timing difference becomes more significant over time if no synchronization takes place between sender and receiver Synchronization occurs on the data link layer .

plus data of 5-8 bits Character may include parity bit ` ` ` ` Timing needed only within each character Resynchronization is accomplished with each start bit Uses simple. cheap technology Wastes 20-30% of bandwidth .` ` ` ` Used in serial communication Data transmitted 1 character at a time Character format is usually 1 start & 1+ stop bits.

` ` ` Used in parallel communication Large blocks of bits transmitted without start/stop codes Synchronized by a clock signal or clocking data ` ` ` ` Data framed by preamble (opening)/ postamble (closing) bit patterns More efficient than asynchronous Overhead typically below 5% Used at higher speeds than asynchronous .

efficiency necessary error-checking more important .` Low-speed terminals and PCs commonly use asynchronous transmission inexpensive ` Large systems and networks commonly use synchronous transmission overhead too expensive.

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` THE ADVANCED COMMUNICATION SYSTEM IS VASTLY USED NOWADAYS UNFORTUNATELY THE COMMUNICATION SYSTEM IS ALSO USED AGAINST THE SOCIETY AND HUMANITY EVEN FOR PERSONAL GAINS ` .

GPS SYSTEM AND RADIO COMMUNICATION ARE NOW WIDELY USED BY TERRORIST GROUPS .` CELL PHONES.

y Voltage-controlled oscillator .Boosts the power of the radio frequency output to high enough levels to jam a signal .Controls the frequency at which the jammer broadcasts its signal by sending a particular voltage to the oscillator y Noise generator .Produces random electronic output in a specified frequency range to jam the cell-phone network signal (part of the tuning circuit) y RF amplification (gain stage) .Generates the radio signal that will interfere with the cell phone signal y Tuning circuit .

import. but legal to own . or offer for sale. Pakistan: legal inside banks. with fines of up to $11.000 and imprisonment of up to one year.` ` ` ` India: government and schools use jammers. often used also in libraries United Kingdom: illegal to use. manufacture. United States: illegal to operate.

JAMMER IS AN ABSTRACT IDEA OF JAMMING ANY LINK.THUS JAMMER CAN BE CATEGORIZE IN A NUMBER OF WAYS WE BRING FORTH A FEW IMPORTANT OF THEM .

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` CELL-PHONE FUNCTIONS IN A WAY THAT THE SIGNAL IS CARRIED FROM BASE STATION TO SATELITE AND BACK DOWN TO THE RECEIVER VIA THE SERVICE TOWERS. CELL PHONE JAMMERS JAM THE DOWN LINK SIGNALS DENYING COMMUNICATION ` .

Hopping of frequency occurs to block frequency band. Call and SMS is barred.It produces the frequency at the cell frequency It causes interference and cancel out signals. Interrupt the communication between base station and mobile. .

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Power Supply IF Section RF Section .

It is used to maintain peace & silence. It is used to interrupt terrorist communication. It is used in security purpose . .` ` ` ` It blocks unwanted signals.

. ` It can be used for tech-war. ` It can be used for self benefit.` It can be used for blocking signal illegaly.