# Math 461 Abstract Algebra Part 1

Cumulative Review
Text: Contemporary Abstract Algebra by J. A. Gallian, 6th edition
This presentation by: Jeanine ³Joni´ Pinkney in partial fulfillment of requirements of Master of Arts in Mathematics Education degree Central Washington University Fall 2008

Picture credit: euler totient graph http://www.123exp-math.com/t/01704079357/

Contents:
Chapter 2. Groups Definition and Examples Elementary Properties Chapter 3: Finite Groups; Subgroups Terminology and Notation Subgroup Tests Examples of Subgroups Chapter 4: Cyclic Groups Properties of Cyclic Groups Classifications of Subgroups of Cyclic Groups
Chapter 5: Permutation Groups Definition and Notation Cycle Notation Properties of Permutations Suggested Activities Practice with Cyclic Notation Online Resources provided by text author J.A. Gallian Other Online Resources Acknowledgments

Photo credit:A5, the smallest nonabelian group http://www.math.metu.edu.tr/~berkman/466object.html

Suggested Uses of this Presentation:
Review for final exam for Math 461* Review in preparation for Math 462* Review for challenge exam for course credit for Math 461* Independent Study *or similar course 

math cartoons from http://www.math.kent.edu/~sather/ugcolloq.html

Definition of a Group
A Group G is a collection of elements together with a binary operation* which satisfies the following properties: Closure Associativity Identity Inverses * A binary operation is a function on G which assigns an element of G to each ordered pair of elements in G. For example, multiplication and addition are binary operations.
rubic cube permutation group http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Permutation_group

they may contain a finite number of elements. that is.html .. Also. Isn't that a one followed by a bunch of zeros?´ .anonymous grad student in MAT program symmetry 6 ceiling art http://architecturebuildingconstruction.com/2006_03_01_archive.blogspot. groups may be Commutative or Non-Commutative.. the commutative property may or may not apply to all elements of the group. or an infinite number of elements. ³Abelian. Commutative groups are also called Abelian groups.Classification of Groups Groups may be Finite or Infinite. that is.

The Permutation Groups Sn. defined as Integers less than n and relatively prime to n. under modular multiplication. +) The ³U groups´. the nonsingular nxn matrices under matrix multiplication Finite. Abelian: The Integers under Addition (Z.com/t/01704079357/ .123exp-math. X) Infinite.Examples of Groups Examples of Groups: Infinite. euler totient graph http://www.n). +) The Rational Numbers without 0 under multiplication (Q*. U(n). Abelian: The Integers Mod n under Modular Addition (Zn . the one to one and onto functions from a set to itself under function composition. Non-Abelian: The Dihedral Groups Dn the permutations on a regular n-sided figure under function composition. Finite. Non-Abelian: The General Linear Groups (GL.

Properties of a Group: Closure ³If we combine any two elements in the group under the binary operation. but 3+5 = 8 and 8 is not an odd integer. +) 1 and 2 are elements of Z. The Integers lack inverses under Multiplication.Joni Example: The Integers under Addition. For example. 3 and 5 are odd integers. (Z.) However. 1+2 = 3. the result is always another element in the group. as do the Rational numbers (because of 0.org/wiki/index.´ -.html?curid=12686 870 .Geoff ³Not necessarily another element of the group!´ -. "members only" http://en. we obtain an infinite closed group under multiplication.wikipedia. also an element of Z Non-Examples: The Odd Integers are not closed under Addition. if we remove 0 from the Rational numbers.

also familiar from ordinary arithmetic on real numbers. This may be extended to as many elements as necessary. does not generally apply to all groups! Only Abelian groups are commutative. For example: In Integers. Caution: In Matrix Multiplication.´ at first! associative loop http://en. In function composition. a+(b+c) = (a+b)+c. This may take some ³getting-used-to. (A*B)*C=A*(B*C). states that (ab)c = a(bc).Properties of a Group: Associativity The Associative Property.org/wiki/List_of_algebraic_structures . f*(g*h) = (f*g)*h. This is a property of all groups. The Commutative Property. familiar from ordinary arithmetic on real numbers.wikipedia.

|1 0| = I |0 1| . For example. a+e = e+a = a. This is a property of all groups. for all elements a in G. In Matrix Multiplication.Properties of a Group: Identity The Identity Property. familiar from ordinary arithmetic on real numbers. In (Q*. states that. a*1 = 1*a = a. A*I = I*A = A. X). This property is used in proofs. a+0 = 0+a = a. The Identity is Unique! There is only one identity element in any group. in Integers.

In (Z. In abstract algebra. The uniqueness of inverses is used in proofs. and no two distinct elements have the same inverse. because if n is not prime. the inverse of x is -x. the modular integers. multiplicative inverses do not exist. In Zn. gives the identity. That is.. X). . Inverses are unique.Properties of a Group: Inverses The inverse of an element. In (Zn.+).n) and (SL. the inverse of an element a is usually written a-1. The U(n) groups are finite groups under modular multiplication. +). the inverse of x is n-x. only nonsingular matrices have inverses. This is why (GL.. the group operation is understood to be addition. the inverse of x is 1/x. or are not unique. In (Q*. combined with that element. each element has exactly one inverse. n) do not include singular matrices. For example.

Abelian Groups Abelian Groups are groups which have the Commutative property.wikipedia. Neils Abel postage stamp http://en. a*b=b*a for all a and b in G.edu/~joa/MAT313/hw-VIII---313. that students who are new to Abstract Algebra must be careful not to assume that it applies to the group on hand.sunysb. if we know that the group is Abelian.) This symmetry may be used in constructing a Cayley table. Cayley tables for Z4 and U8 http://www.html . Abelian groups are named after Neils Abel. This is so familiar from ordinary arithmetic on Real numbers.org/wiki/Neils_Abel Abelian groups may be recognized by a diagonal symmetry in their Cayley table (a table showing the group elements and the results of their composition under the group binary operation.math. a Norwegian mathematician.

(Q*. X)  (Zn.math. (Z.+) The Non-Zero Rational Numbers under The Modular Integers under modular addition.  Multiplication.html .edu/faculty/susan/modular/modular. The U-groups. under modular multiplication. http://www. +)  U(n) = {the set of integers less than or equal to n. and relatively prime to n}  All groups of order 4 are Abelian.csusb.Examples of Abelian Groups Some examples of Abelian groups are:  The Integers under Addition. There are only two such groups: Z4 and U(4).

answers.Non-Abelian Groups Some examples of Non-Abelian groups are: Dn. the non-singular square matrices of order n under matrix multiplication (SL.math. the transformations on a regular nsided figure under function composition (GL.html permutation group A4 http://faculty.html reflections of a triangle http://www.edu/ ~morwen/3d_pics/more_ d3.valdostamuseum. the even permutation groups of degree n under function composition D3 knot http://www.html .com/mathhelp/advancedalgebra/22850-normalsubgroup.n).smcm.edu/sgoldstine/origami/displaytext.org/hamsmith/PDS3.n).utk. the permutation groups of degree n under function composition An. the square matrices of order n with determinant = 1under matrix multiplication Sn.mathhelpfor um.html permutation group s5 http://www.com/topic/di hedral-group subgroup lattice for s3 http://www.

H i closed under the operation. A uch that H i al o a group. r it fi it r . r H of a group G i a ub et of G together with the group operation.t ti . e or r of an element. i t e ¡ ll t iti integer uch that . because the group operation is different. (Not : H must use the same group operation as G.html . the integers. hat i .. the integers mod n. r it e or er of   r r of roup. i t roup may be finite or infinite.edu/~sinnott/ ReadingClassics/h omepage. Terminology At t i ti r b r f l fi it i ly t . | |. | |. he or er of an element may li ewi e be finite or infinite. umb r of l ment in t e roup. .o hiostate. o Zn. and includes inverses and identity.Finite Groups and Subgroups. If | |=1 then ote: if | |=2 then .math.) euler portrait http://www. is not a subgroup of Z.

a*b=a*c implies that b=c and c*a=b*a implies that c=b.com/indexfeb206. This is useful in proofs and in solving matrix equations. the order |a| is preserved.htm . To conjugate an element a by x means to multiply thus: xax-1 or x-1ax While conjugating an element may change its value.Cancellation and Conjugation In any group. This is used in proofs. cancellation and conjugation http://keelynet.

shoes and socks in the car http://picasaweb... the positions of the elements reverse. That is. (a*b)-1 = b-1*a-1. in that order.com/mp3873/PAD#5235584405081556594 shoes and socks http://www.³Socks and Shoes´ Property When taking inverses of two or more elements composed together. For more elements..html . This also generalizes to more elements.inkfinger.yz)-1 = z-1y-1. is removing ones shoes and socks.b-1a-1.google.. it is also true that (ab)-1 = a-1b-1 and (ab)n = anbn. In Abelian groups. because the inverse of putting on one's socks and shoes. in that order. This is called the ³socks and shoes property´ as a mnemonic.us/my_weblog/2007/04/index. this generalizes to (ab.

Show that for any two elements a and b in H.b is also in H. Let a and b be even integers. whenever a and b are in H. Example: Show that the even integers are a subgroup of the Integers. Then a = 2j and b = 2k for some integers j and k. then H is a subgroup of G. Conclude that H is a subgroup of G.com/photos/norby/37932 1413/ .b is an even integer Thus the even integers are a subgroup of the integers. whenever a and b are in H. a .Subgroup Tests: The One Step Subgroup Test Suppose G is a group and H is a non-empty subset of G. Or. If. one step at a time by norby http://www. To apply this test: Note that H is a nonempty subset of G. ab-1 is also in H.flickr. a + (-b) = 2j + 2(-k) = 2(j-k) = an even integer Thus a . then H is a subgroup of G. Note that the even integers is not an empty set because 2 is an even integer. a*b-1 is also in H. in additive notation: -1 ab H If.

is a subgroup of Q*. Then a-1=(j-1*3-1). For a. and a-1 is in H whenever a is in H.trekearth. the non-zero rational numbers.Subgroup Tests: The Two Step Subgroup Test Let G be a group and H a nonempty subset of G. Then ab=3i3j=3(3ij). http://www. j are in Q*. the non-zero multiples of 3n where n is an integer. a=3j for j an element in Q*. then H is a subgroup of G. 3Q* is non-empty because 3 is an element of 3Q*. a=3i and b=3j where i. Example: show that 3Q*. an element of 3Q*. Conclude that H is a subgroup of G. If a b is in H whenever a and b are in H. an element of 3Q* (closed) For a in 3Q*. b in 3Q*. To Apply the Two Step Subgroup Test: Note that H is nonempty Show that H is closed with respect to the group operation Show that H is closed with respect to inverses.htm . (inverses) Therefore 3Q* is a subgroup of Q*.com/gallery/Asia/Brunei/photo653317.

math. then H is a subgroup of G. in Dn. the rotations in Dn are a subgroup of Dn.html .edu/~sather/ugcolloq.kent. all we need to do is show that H is closed under the group operation. Note that the composition of two rotations is always a rotation. math cartoons from http://www. Then we may conclude that H is a subgroup of G. To Use the Finite Subgroup Test: If we know that H is finite and non-empty. Example: To Show that. the rotations form a subgroup of Dn: Note that the set of rotations is non-empty because R0 is a rotation.Subgroup Tests: The Finite Subgroup Test Let H be a nonempty finite subset of G. If H is closed under the group operation. Therefore.

where n is an integer}.. In Z8.. the even numbers. <2>={2. subgroup image http://marauder.Or. a0 = 1 is the identity. For example: In R*. in additive notation. while 0a=0 is the identity in additive notation. R240} is a subgroup of D3 Each element generates its own cyclic subgroup. <R120> = {R0.0} is a subgroup of Z8. form a subgroup. R120. form a subgroup of R*. and a an element of G.millersville.edu/~bikenaga/abstractalgebra/subgroup/subgroup19. all powers of a. the powers of 2. In D3. let <a>={na. the integers mod 8. the dihedral group of order 6. In Z. all multiples of a. Note: In multiplicative notation.4. Thus <a> includes the identity. (that is. Also note that the integers less than 0 are included here. <2>.. <2>.) Then <a> is a subgroup of G. Let <a> = {an . (that is..) . where n is an integer}.Examples of Subgroups: cyclic subgroups Let G be a group.6. so <a> includes all inverses.png .

Examples of Subgroups: The Center of a Group Z(G) The Center of a group. then Z(G) may consist only of the identity. If G is Abelian. or it may have other elements as well.wolfram. R180}. Z(D4) = {R0. The Center of a Group is a Subgroup of that group.com/DihedralGroupD3. then Z(G)=G. Subgroup lattice for D3 http://mathworld. written Z(G). If G is non-Abelian. For example. is the subset of elements in G which commute with all elements of G.html .

edu/~bikenaga/abstractalgebra/subgroup/subgroup19. subgroup image http://marauder. C(a) is the entire group. For example. or it may include other elements as well. C(a) may consist only of the identity. while C(R0)=D3 For each element a in a group G. written C(a) is the set of all elements of G which commute with a.png .millersville. In a non-Abelian group. the Centralizer of a. a.Examples of Subgroups: The Centralizer of an element C(a): For any element a in G. R0}. C(f) ={f. The Centralizer of an Element C(a) In an Abelian group. in D3. C(a) = the centralizer of a is a subgroup of G. and a-1.

html . G={an | n is an element of Z} ={a Or.Cyclic Groups A Cyclic Group is a group which can be generated by one of its elements. although it contains an infinite number of cyclic subgroups. U(8) is not a cyclic group. That is. Dn is not a cyclic group although it contains a cyclic subgroup <R(360/n)> http://www. Non-Examples: Q* is not a cyclic group. G={na |n is an element of Z} ={na This element a (which need not be unique) is called a generator of G. in addition notation. is generated by 1 or by any element k in Zn which is relatively prime to n. <a>.math. for some a in G.+) is generated by 1 or -1. the integers mod n under modular addition. we may write G=<a>. Zn.edu/faculty/susan/modular/modular.csusb. Alternatively. Examples: (Z..

.kent. |a|=|<a>| that is.. to get e.math. ia = ja iff i=j mod n. If ak=e then the order of a divides k. 2. ai = aj iff n divides (i-j) (alternatively.edu/~sather/ugcolloq. the order of an element is equal to the order of the cyclic group generated by that element. in additive notation.4.) Or. the order of an element is the smallest positive power you need to raise the element to. to get e. |2|=5 and <2>={2. in Z5. A correct statement is. in Z10.6. Corollaries: 1. if i=j mod n.html i a = j a For example.8.. that the order of an element is the power that you need to raise the element to. 2x4 = 7x4 = 3 because 2=7 mod 5 For example.0} Caution: This is why it is an error to say. math cartoons from http://www.Properties of Cyclic Groups: Criterion for For |a| = n.

24.Dr. it follows that |26|= |2| = gcd(2. this reads as: If the order of a is n. In Z30.4. the order of a to the k power is equal to the order of a divided by the greatest common divisor of k and the order of a. Since Z30 uses modular addition. a26 is the same as 26. (Exercise: Try verbalizing a similar statement for additive notation!) k gcd(n. ³You may have to do something like this in a stressful situation´ ... let a=1. and.30)=2..30) = 30/2 = 15. and gcd(2.26.2. Then |a|=30. in fact.28}. So we see that |<2>|=|<26>| =30/gcd(2. this is {0.6. What is the order of 26? Since gcd (26. Thus we expect that <26>=<2>.Properties of Cyclic Groups For |a|=n.k) In words.k) > For example . Englund .30)=2.30)=15.. Also.8. <a >=<a k|=n/ and |a gcd(n. then the cyclic group generated by a to the k power is the same as the cyclic group generated by a to the power of the greatest common divisor of n and k.

<3>={0. and gcd(2.4. consider a2 and a26.30) = 30/2 = 15.. it follows that <|26|>= <|2|> = gcd(2.2)=2. And in fact. this is {0..6.6..2.30)=2.k) Corollaries.24. <3>=<9>.3. in fact. So we see that |<2>|=|<26>| =30/gcd(2. Corollary 1: When are cyclic subgroups equal to one another? Let |a|=n. let a=1..30)=2. and to tell how these are related... Since gcd (26.8. <a >=<a > and |ak|=n/gcd(n.30)=15.j) This gives us an easy way to specify the generators of a group... and. Thus we expect that <26>=<2>.. Then <ai>=<aj> iff gcd(n.26.k) .i)=gcd(n. In Z30. Again. Do you see why? k gcd(n.28}.3) = 3 while gcd (30.Properties of Cyclic Groups For |a|=n. the generators of its subgroups. <3> <2> because gcd(30. On the other hand. However.24. For example .27} and |<3>|=30/3 = 10.

So the other generators are 3..k) Corollaries. Corollary 3 specifies this for Zn . the generators are ak for each k relatively prime to n. Other generators for Z10 are ak for each k less than 10 and relatively prime to 10. <a >=<a > and |ak|=n/gcd(n. gauss stamp Since any Zn is a cyclic group of order n.. k gcd(n. This gives an easy way to find all of the generators of a cyclic group.. let a=1. Corollary 2: Generators of Cyclic Groups In any cyclic group G=<a> with order n.7.k) For example .Properties of Cyclic Groups For |a|=n.and 9. the integers mod n under modular addition.math.e du/~ajs/courses/322spring its generators would be the positive integers less than n 2004/worksheets/ws5.. http://webpages. so that Z10 = <a>. . In Z10..luc.html and relatively prime to n.

. For each of these divisors we have exactly one subgroup of Z10. that is.4.html . Every subgroup of Z10 is also cyclic. Let a=1.2. 2. 7. 10. Every subgroup of a cyclic group is also cyclic. and the remaining elements: 3. 5. and 9.8} with order 10/2 = 5 <5>={0. there is exactly one subgroup of order k. <a n/k > symmetry 6 ceiling art http://architecture-buildingconstruction. the group itself. 1.5} with order 10/5 = 2 <10>={0} with order 10/10=1 The order of each of these subgroups is a divisor of the order of the group. that is. 2.Properties of Cyclic Groups: The Fundamental Theorem of Cyclic Groups Let G=<a> be a cyclic =<a group of order n.. The order of each subgroup divides the order of the group. <1>. 3. For example consider Z10 = <1> with |1|=10. Then . and 10. with order 10/1=10 <2>={0.6. The divisors of 10 are 1.blogspot.com/2006_03_01_archive. For each divisor k of n. So the generators of Z10 would be 1.

and the remaining elements: 3. 7.2. For example consider Z10 = <1> with |1|=10. Every subgroup of Z10 is also cyclic..Corollary Corollary -Subgroups of Zn: For each positive divisor k of n.6. <1>. These are the only subgroups of Zn. 10. the set <n/k> is the unique subgroup of Zn of order k. The divisors of 10 are 1.5} with order 10/5 = 2 <10>={0} with order 10/10=1 The order of each of these subgroups is a divisor of the order of the group. with order 10/1=10 <2>={0. For each of these divisors we have exactly one subgroup of Z10. 5. and 9. that is. So the generators of Z10 would be 1. Let a=1. and 10.4. 2.8} with order 10/2 = 5 <5>={0. . the group itself.Properties of Cyclic Groups: The Fundamental Theorem of Cyclic Groups .

6.1. the order of the group. The first few values of (d) are: d 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 (d) 1 1 2 2 4 2 6 4 6 4 10 4 In non-cyclic groups. We have 2 elements of order 3 = {4..2.7. then the number of elements of order d is a multiple of (d).11} We have 1 element of order 2 = {6} because (2)=1.5. For example.123exp-math.10} because (6)=2 euler totient graph http://www.9.wikipedia. then the number of elements of order d is (d) where is the Euler Phi function (d) is defined as the number of positive integers less than d and relatively prime to d.10. if d is a positive divisor of n. We have 2 elements of order 4 = {3. if d is a divisor of nongroups.4.8. And 2 elements of order 6 = {2..8} because (3)=2. Then.9} because (4)=2.com/t/01704079357/ euler totient equation http://en.org/wiki/List_of_formulae_involving_%CF%80 .Number of Elements of Each Order in a Cyclic Group Let G be a cyclic group of order n.3. consider Z12 . Z12 = {0.

org/wiki/Permutation_group So in a Permutation on set A. the range and the domain of the function are both the set A.Permutation Groups ± Definition Definitions A Permutation of a set A is a function from A to A which is both one to one and onto Recall from earlier work: A function from set A to set B is a rule which assigns to each element of A (the domain) exactly one element of B (the range) One to one means f(a)=f(b) implies that a=b. Onto means every element of B is the image of least one element of A under f. ubic cube permutation group http://en.wikipedia. r .

So here. and an operation which is associative and closed. the elements are functions from A to A which are both one to one and onto. That is.) This may take some ³getting used to´. Recall from earlier work: A group has elements which include identity and inverses. and the binary operation is function composition. the elements are functions and the operation is function composition. because in most of the groups we have seen so far. the elements are values and the operation is a function.Permutation Groups ± Definitions Definitions: A Permutation Group of a set A is a set of Permutations on A which form a group under function composition. which is always associative (although not usually commutative. .

we expect that a function composed with its inverse will result in the identity function. as indeed it does.Discussion So in a Permutation Group.Permutation Groups -. so we can build closure into the function definitions. we need functions and their inverses. Since functions are group elements. Recall from earlier work that a function has an inverse if and only if it is one to one and onto. . also we need an identity function. At this time we are mainly concerned with permutations on a finite set.

edu/~sather/ugcolloq. by listing an element of the domain along side its corresponding function value. There are two ways this is commonly done: grid notation (due to Euler) and cycle notation (due to Cauchy).Permutation Groups ± Notations Notations In other areas such as algebra and calculus. functions are defined on infinite sets and often written as algebraic formulas.math.kent. in this context we usually define a function explicitly. math cartoons from http://www.html . However.

D4.3.2. in cycle notation we can write: R90 = (1 2 3 4) and Fh= (1 2)(3 4) 3 2 . the symmetry group of a square. Number the four corners of the square: 1. We can represent this group as a permutation group in grid notation as follows. the symmetries of a Square Consider D4. Then we can represent a 90 o counterclockwise rotation as: R90 = 1 2 3 4 2341 and a reflection across the horizontal axis as: Fh= 1 2 3 4 2143 4 1 Or.Permutation Groups ± Notations Example.4 as shown.

In general.html . Recall from previous work that the number of permutations on a set of n elements is n! So the number of elements in S3 is 3! or 6.org/hamsmith/PDS3. This is the same as saying.valdostamuseum. and the order of Sn is n! subgroup lattice for s3 http://www. Sn is the set of all permutations on a set of size n.Permutation Groups ± Definitions and Notation S3 and Sn Let S3 be the group of all one to one functions from the set {1.com/math-help/advanced-algebra/22850-normalsubgroup. all arrangements or permutations of these three elements. 3} to itself. 2.html http://www.mathhelpforum.

. each element of the set appears in at most one cycle. has many advantages over grid notation. that is. the order of the permutation (that is. Also when we write a permutation in this form. the smallest number of times we need to repeat that permutation to obtain the identity permutation) is the least common multiple of the lengths of the cycles. However. we can write any permutation as a cycle or a product of disjoint cycles. Written in this form. the product of cycles does not commute. introduced by Cauchy. disjoint cycles commute. In general.Cauchy Cycle Notation Disjoint Cycles Commute Order of a Permutation Cycle notation.

Joni This oddfellow is still odd even though he¶s decomposed! IOOF tombstone http://farm1. ³I¶m odd and I¶ll always be odd!-. any other decomposition of that permutation is also an even number of two cycles. any other decomposition of that permutation is also an odd number of two cycles. However. if a permutation can be written as an odd number of two-cycles. if a permutation can be written as an even number of two-cycles.Cycle Notation  Decomposition into two-cycles Always even or always odd Identity is always even Any permutation may also be written or ³decomposed´ as a product of two-cycles. and it need not be unique. The identity permutation is always an even number of two-cycles. Similarly.flickr.com/203/485879582_fa65f4e4b1.jpg?v=0 .static. This product would usually not be disjoint.

we say it is an odd permutation. (1234). and 5 is an odd number ± yet (12345) can be written as an even number of two-cycles so it is an even permutation. If a permutation can be written as an even number of two cycles. ³A cycle of odd length is always even ± now that's odd! ³ -.Rus Notice that (12345) is a cycle of length 5.Cycle Notation Definitions. However. a cycle of length 4 is an odd permutation because it can be written as an odd number of two-cycles. we say it is an even permutation. even though 4 is an even number. Examples Even Permutation Odd Permutation Examples of decomposition into 2cycles: (12345) = (15)(14)(13)(12) (1234) = (14)(13)(12) (1234)(247)=(14)(13)(12)(27)(24) If a permutation can be written as an odd number of two cycles. .

the alternating group of degree n. . the composition of even cycles is always even. An is of order n!/2 Permutation group A5 http://www. This group is called An.edu. permutation group A4 http://faculty.An The Alternating Groups of Degree n For any n. When n 1. theoretical.metu. because this set lacks the identity permutation and lacks closure under composition.edu/sgoldstine/origami/display text.html The Alternating groups are very important in historical. This is because the inverse of an even permutation is always even. and applications contexts.html Note that the set of odd permutations do not form a group.math.tr/~berkman/466object. and a subgroup of Sn. the set of even permutations in Sn forms a group.smcm. and the identity can always be written as an even cycle.

by multiplying out each pair of elements and showing that the product is as stated in the table. has many advantages over Euler's grid notation. .Suggested Activities Cycle Notation. more practice Cycle notation. try verifying the Cauchy table for A4 on page 105 of the text. introduced by Cauchy. although some people may require more practice to perform calculations quickly and accurately in this notation. For practice.

com One who has the facts memorized with understanding is comparable to a highly skilled worker who has the proper tools on hand and knows how to use them.com tools and rocks www.d.umn. which is thought to better support higher order thinking. Please see the textbook author Gallian¶s comments this matter. for most people*. on his website http://www. However.edu/~jgallian under the heading ³Advice for students for learning abstract algebra´ *Sylvester notwithstanding. an extensive knowledge base is necessary for mastery of this subject.dkimages.istockphoto. text pg 89 Tools 3 www.Suggested Activities Reinforcement of Knowledge Base Modern educational practices tend to de-emphasize knowledge base in favor of constructivist education theory. rather than having to scrounge around and improvise with a stick or a rock! .

make models. A kinesthetic learner often needs to re-write the lessons. . For example. etc. all learners benefit from kinesthetic learning methods. while an aural learner may need to say lessons out loud or even set them to music. Although kinesthetic methods are more demanding in terms of time and energy. or that knowledge obtained this way does not seem to apply to testing or problem solving situations. a visual learner may get by with simply reading over text or notes. demonstrate the information to others. because these methods produce more robust memory traces in the brain.Suggested Activities: Reinforcement of Knowledge Base according to individual learning style Often students complain that memorizing facts and definitions is excessively difficult. Complaints like this often result from failure to adapt study habits to one's particular learning style.

learning-styleshttp://www.html for a brief quiz and classification into one of three styles.edu/trio/tut/ts/stylestest.com/inventory/ http://www. This site will generate a detailed description of your learning style and a graph showing your style according to six axes. This is a sample Memletics Learning Styles graph produced by the online test at http://www. Both sites have been checked for safety from malware.learning-styles- .learning-styles-online.Suggested Activities: Reinforcement of Knowledge Base according to individual learning style Please visit one or both of these sites to find out or confirm your learning style: http://www.learning-styles-online.learning-styles-online.learning-styleshttp://www. and contain recommendations and resources for the various learning styles. or http://www.com/inventory/ Picture credit http://www.com for a more extensive questionnaire and classification into one of six styles.usd.

from the website.com . This website also contains links to some useful software. The flashcards may be printed out or used in software form.att.htm rock stack from loveringllc.Suggested Activities: Online Resources provided by Text Author J.sourceforge.umn.edu/~jgallian Practice with the true-false questions and flashcards provided on this website may be particularly helpful for building and reinforcing knowledge base. the Group Explorer software.d.net/~numericana/ answer/groups. Gallian http://www.net/ quarternion group from http://home. or one may go directly to: http://groupexplorer. In particular.A. available on the above website by following the link Group Explorer.

org/wiki/Group_theory (a good starting point) http://www.mathstat.php?art_id=26 (a vbasic program (n) for numbers up to 231) http://eldar.org/wiki/Dihedral_group (explains the dihedral groups) http://members.html I (explains Cauchy cycle notation) http://en.ca/dashlock/math3130/pdf/Chapter2b.wikipedia. All of these have been checked for malware and are safe.tripod.com/~dogschool/index.html .com/~dogschool/cyclic.com/article.pdf (another explanation of Cayley cycle notation) http://www.wikipedia.html (an index to another online text) http://en.uoguelph. in Gallian text referenced in connection with U-groups) http://members.org/wiki/Symmetric_group (explanations and applications of symmetric groups) http://www.mathwire.edu/~ec/book/ (a free online book on abstract algebra) http://en.Suggested Activities: Other Online Resources Here are a few other good online resources.wikipedia.miami.tripod.math.wikipedia. http://en.com/seasonal/winter07.t209.org/wiki/Euler%27s_totient_function (Totient function.

Copyright Act. Notes from this study group were then composed into this presentation: Amber Goodrich. Willard.S. who included me in their study group for the final exam. Central Washington University. Mike Prothman. Special thanks to: Two Bears. my brother St.Acknowledgments Dr. Pinkney are reproduced from online sources according to the Fair Use Provisions of the U. Central Washington University. Professor of Mathematics. David Melik. Geoff LaBrandt. Euler St. professor for Mathematics 461 Dr. Russel Hess. . Englund. T. graduate adviser I am grateful for the cooperation of the following fourth year undergraduate Mathematics students at Central Washington University. Cauchy All graphics in this presentation not created by J. T. Brandon Belieu. with the html sources cited in the frame on which they appear. Professor of Mathematics.