Lecture 2

Definition of Workforce Planning
Making sure individuals with the right skills sets are where they need to be at the right time to meet current and future needs

Importance of Workforce Planning 

Competitive Advantage
right number of employees  right skill sets 

Excess staff and requirements creates inefficiency of financial resources  Company¶s effectiveness directly affected by quality of workforce planning decisions 

Demand, Supply, Shortage, Surplus 

Labor demand²number and types of demand² employees the company needs  Labor supply²current or potential employees supply² to perform jobs  Labor shortage²when demand for labor shortage² exceeds available supply  Labor surplus²when supply of labor is surplus² greater than

Publishing as Prentice Hall .Framework for Workforce Planning Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc.

Job Design and Job Analysis .

Explain the importance of job design and analysis and identify how to analyze jobs in the hospitality industry Describe how the results of job analysis are used in job descriptions and job specifications Explain the function of job design. and describe how managers apply techniques of job design Describe how managers use efficiency and motivational approaches to design jobs Explain the trade-offs between the efficiency and trademotivational job design approaches 2. . 3. 5.Learning Objectives 1. 4.

JOB DESIGN .

Job Design Determining the tasks and responsibilities that employees in a particular job are expected to perform as well as how they need to interact with their coworkers to realize those contributions .

Job Design Determine job tasks and responsibilities  Must consider: consider:   Which tasks should be emphasized  How simple or complex are these tasks  How many tasks can employees perform  How much flexibility is given to employees .

skills and abilities (KSAs) required to be successful in the job .Job Analysis systematically identifying tasks. duties and responsibilities expected to be performed in a job and the knowledge.

and working conditions of a job and include a list of the job specification Job Specifications  competencies required by a jobholder to be able to perform the job successfully . responsibilities.Job Analysis   Information from the Job Analysis is then used to write Job Description   written summaries of the specific tasks.

Job Design  Goal  Enhance company performance  Challenge  What tasks and responsibilities need to be performed in each job to maximize the company¶s success .

Efficiency Approaches to Job Design  Time and Motion Job Specialization Job Simplification   .

Efficiency Approach ± Time and Motion  Scientific management pioneered by Frederick Taylor in 1911 sought to maximize efficiency Emphasized standardization of production processes Time and motion studies conducted   .

Efficiency Approach ± Job Specialization  Job specialization focused on breaking jobs down into core elements increased skill and speed  Repetition .

and diminished satisfaction .Efficiency Approach ± Job Simplification    Job simplification removed decision-making decisionauthority from employees and placed it with a supervisor Training requirements were reduced Lack of complexity and variety in jobs led to boredom. fatigue.

Motivational Approaches to Job Design  Maximized employee¶s drive to work as hard as possible Focused on making jobs more interesting. challenging and complex   Job Characteristics Model .

a need to develop their skills beyond where they currently are and a strong need for accomplishment .Motivational Approach to Job Characteristics Model  Job Characteristics Model²identified 5 job Model² dimensions and 3 psychological states that affect motivation and satisfaction (page 90)  Growth Need Strength²extent to which individuals Strength² feel the need to learn and be challenged.

Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall .Job Characteristics Model Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

Motivation and Satisfaction Methods through Job Design  1/Change the tasks that employees perform 2/Provide employees with more responsibilities or authority regarding the performance of their jobs 3/Restructure the work environment to include teams   .

provides opportunities to learn about company and learn different tasks .Job Design ± Motivation and Satisfaction Techniques  1/Change job tasks  Job enlargement  Assignment of additional tasks (similar level of difficulty and responsibility) increased volume or variety  Job rotation  Moving workers from one job to another. changes the tasks.

decisions ± communication channels for concerns and complaints .Job Design ± Motivation and Satisfaction Techniques  2/ Increase responsibility  Job enrichment (empowerment & delegation)  Increase level of responsibility or control employees have in performing the tasks of a job  Participation  Voice .

stable.Job Design ± Motivation and Satisfaction Techniques  3/ Restructure . and full-time members working fullunder the direction of a supervisor functional group to address problem or issue (members retain their formal positions as well) time.Create Employee Teams  Work  Sell defined. accomplish a particular objective  Parallel  cross  Project  Limited  SelfSelf-managed  Based on principle of empowerment .

responsibilities. behaviors & responsibilities  Job  specification section Requirements for job success ± what is required (KSA) .Job Description  Written summary of the specific tasks. and working conditions of a job  Format title  Job identification section  Essential duties and responsibilities  Job  Tasks.

Job Specification  Part of Job Description  Description of the competencies ± the knowledge. skills and abilities or other talents ± that a jobholder must have in order to perform the job successfully .

Uses of the Job Description  Recruiting  Selection  Orientation  Training  Employee evaluations and transfers  Promotions .

Job Analysis Systematic study of the tasks. and responsibilities that are expected to be performed in a single job  Goal ± attain a clear understanding of what is expected to be performed in each job (Job Description) and the specific competencies that are necessary for successful performance of the job (Job Specification)  . duties.

Steps in Job Analysis       Select job for analysis Determine what information to collect Determine how to collect the information Determine who collects the information Process the information Write job description and job specification .

equipment. and other necessary work aids Job context Personal characteristics Behavior requirements Performance standards     .Information Collected for Job Analysis   Actual work activities Tools.

Collecting Job Analysis Information         Observation Perform the job Interviews Questionnaires and checklists Critical incidents Performance evaluations Diaries Variety of methods .

Performing a Job Analysis  Observation: job analyst observes and documents activities performed while employee works (helps reduce bias but difficult to capture all aspects of job) Diary: employee keeps log of tasks and activities (may only log tasks they tend to emphasize and leave out others)  .

Job Analysis (cont¶d)  Interview: job analyst conducts structured interviews of jobholder and supervisor (time(timeconsuming and may be inaccurate) Questionnaire: standard questionnaire administered to large number of employees performing the job (requires considerable time upupfront. doesn¶t offer opportunity for follow-up follow-  .

org  Free source of job information  Information for more than 800 occupations including summary of tasks and job specifications  .online.onetcenter.O*NET Occupational Information Network located at www.

and things Use Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) which is a standardized survey measuring work related behaviors needed to perform job .Job Analysis Techniques Standardized approach:    Use a single instrument (questionnaire or O*NET) to collect data Use Functional Job Analysis (FJA) to (FJA) compare tasks related to data. people.

Job Analysis Techniques Customized approach:    Critical incidents approach focuses on specific descriptions of work activities that distinguish good from poor performance Task inventory approach focuses on collecting information to identify tasks needed to successfully perform the job Job element approach focuses on analyzing employee competencies rather than on tasks to be performed .

Company Characteristics and Job Design Smaller companies:   Have a more fluid. open-ended approach to job opendesign Need employees to perform multiple tasks and wider array of tasks Have more bureaucracy and specialization Need more rules and regulations on how work is done Larger companies:   .

Employee Impact Employee stress may result from unclearly defined roles  Role overload²too many expectations or overload² demands placed on employees  Role underload²having too few underload² expectations or demands  Role ambiguity²uncertainty about daily ambiguity² tasks expected and how to perform them  Role Conflict²tension caused by Conflict² incompatible or contradictory demands .

Flexible Work Arrangements Flextime² Flextime²employees choose starting and/or ending time  Compressed workweek²reduce number workweek² of days worked (four 10-hour days) 10 Job sharing²two employees work part sharing² time to complete a single job responsibilities May be effective in attracting and retaining workers and facilitate work/family balance  .

routine work with little meaning or uncertain expectations. teachers and social workers had most stress 40% of employees claim jobs are ³extremely stressful´ Reasons included heavy workload.Job Design and Stress    Survey of most stressful jobs found paramedics. long hours. lack of control . infrequent breaks.

jobs.Solutions to Address Job Stress Ergonomics² Ergonomics²design of tasks. abilities and limitations of people  Job rotation²employees alternate rotation² between tasks that require high and low physical exertion  . environments to make them compatible with needs.

Developing a Staffing Guide  Set productivity standards  Determine  Determine total anticipated sales and guest volume number of employees total labor hours required  Determine  Estimate labor expenses .

Forecasting Records  Economic indicators  More???  .

Summary .