Farica Zgambo Cutas

A preposition links nouns, pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence
A preposition usually indicates the temporal, spatial or logical relationship of its object to the rest of the sentence as in the following examples: The book is on the table. The book is beneath the table. The book is leaning against the table. The book is beside the table. She held the book over the table. She read the book during class. In each of the preceding sentences, a preposition locates the noun "book" in space or in time.
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How to use prepositions?
1. The prepositions usually comes before the noun. 2. Prepositions can be used with all forms of nouns (e.g. collective nouns, pronouns etc). 3. Prepositions can't come after a verb, but can be used before a gerund or verb in noun form. 4. The rules above do not change and there are no exceptions to the rules.

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years.Prepositions of Time At a specific time at 2:00 at lunchtime at 4:00 AM On days and dates on my birthday on the first day of the school year on 11/10/90 In period of time . seasons in a few days in a couple of months in the summer IMPORTANT: In English we say: ‡in the morning -because it is considered a period of time ‡in the afternoon ‡in the evening ‡at night Note: We say in the morning. At. months. or in the evening BUT we say 'at night' 4 .In. On. in the afternoon.

Prepositions of Place In .Is usually used to state someone or something is on top of a surface. On . At On In a specific a place that is a place that is place physically on top of enclosed or within a place boundaries at the mall at the table at work on the table on the floor on the wall in the city in the box in the park 5 . On. At . At.Is usually used to state that someone or something is in a (the boundaries can be physical or virtual place.In.Is usually used to state something or someone is at a specific place.

In. On. . At.Prepositions of Place IMPORTANT: In English we say: at the office on the island in the city/country side in the mountains .except when you mean that something or someone is physically on the mountain.

Common Mistakes on the use of prepositions 1. Wrong: The lawyer was absorbed at his work. Right: The lawyer was absorbed in his work. 2. Right: She accused the man of sexual harassment. Wrong: She accused the man for sexual harassment. Note: But charge takes with : as The man was charged with arson. not for. 7 . Absorbed (very much interested) in. not at. Accused of.

Accustomed to. 4. not from.3. Right: I am accustomed to hard work. not with. 8 . Wrong: I am accustomed with hard work. Right: The snatcher is afraid of the policeman. Wrong: The snatcher is afraid from the policeman. Afraid of.

not against. not on or against. Example: He shot a criminal. Aim at. 6. Angry with. For example: throw at. But shoot (without the at) means to kill. shout at. Wrong: The judge was angry against the prisoner.5. Wrong: He aimed on (or against) the wild boar. Note: We get angry with a person but at a thing. Right: He aimed at the wild boar. Note: The preposition at is often used to denote direction. Right: The judge was angry with the prisoner. .

10 . Right: We arrived at the municipality at night. Example: The Secretary is anxious for the success of the project. not to. Note: Arrive in is used of countries and large cities. Arrive at. Note: But anxious meaning wishing very much takes for. Example: My aunt arrived in Canada on time. not for.7. Right: The mother is anxious about the homicide case of her son. Wrong: We arrived to the municipality at night. 8. Anxious (troubled) about. Wrong: The mother is anxious for the homicide case of her son.

Note: It is not proper to use ³ashamed of´ in the meaning of ³shy. Wrong: He is now ashamed from his conviction.Ashamed of. not to. Right: Filipinos believe in Jesus Christ.´ 10.´ you should say. while ³to believe´ (without the in) means to regard as true. Note: ³To believe in´ means to have faith in. Right: He is now ashamed of his conviction. not from. 9. ³I am shy of my professor. Example: The city prosecutor quite believes what he says. 11 . Believe in. Wrong: Filipinos believe to Jesus Christ.´ Thus. instead of ³I am ashamed of my professor.

Boast of or about. Benefit by. Right: She has benefited by the change of government. 12 . Note: But a person gets or derives benefit from. 12. Wrong: She has benefited from the change of government.11. not for. Example: She got (or derived) much benefit from the change of government. not from. Wrong: He boasted for his high grades in criminal law. Right: He boasted of (or about) his high grades in criminal law.

Right: He is very careful of his examination in labor law.´ Example: ³Please take care of your brother. Note: Also. Careful of. Wrong: Many people complain for the horrendous traffic. Wrong: He is very careful for his examination in labor law. not for. Complain of. ³take care of. not for.13. Right: Many people complain of the horrendous traffic.´ 14. 13 .

Wrong: The Legal Ethics class is composed from forty men. 14 . Composed of. Right: I have great confidence in God.15. Example: Let me tell you something in confidence (as a secret). Note: Also in confidence. not from. not to. 16. Wrong: I have great confidence to God. Right: The Legal Ethics class is composed of forty men. Confidence in.

Congratulate on. Right: We must conform to the Rules of Court. Note: But ³comply´ takes ³with. not with. not for. Wrong: We must conform with the Rules of Court. Wrong: I congratulate you for your success.17. 18.´ Example: We will comply with the court order. Right: I congratulate you on your success. 15 . Conform to.

20. Wrong: The corpse was covered by newspaper. not from. Right: A month consists of thirty days. Right: The corpse was covered with newspaper. Consist of. 16 . Note: Great care must be taken never to use consists in the passive voice. Covered with.19. not by. Wrong: A month consists from thirty days.

1917) Wrong: This is designed to import products. (Cf.R. U. Estapia. Cure of. not from. Wrong: The prosecutor was cured from his cancer.21. intended for or used for. 17 . October 19. Note: But the noun cure take for. Designed for. 22. 12399. Right: The prosecutor was cured of his cancer. Example: There is no cure for cancer. No. Right: This is designed for import products. v. G. not to.S.

Depend on or upon. Example: I cannot rely on (or upon) the stenographer. 24. Wrong: The answer depends from the situation. Deprived of. not from. Wrong: He was deprived from his freedom of the press. not from.23. 18 . Note: In the same token. rely on or upon must be used. Right: He was deprived of his freedom of the press. Right: The answer depends on (or upon) the situation.

of or from wounds. in battle. Right: My firearm is different from yours. Right: Many lawyers have died of stress and fatigue. Different from. in poverty. 26. 19 . of thirst. Note: Also use. of hunger. by pestilence . on the scaffold. by violence. Die of an illness. not from an illness. Wrong: Many lawyers have died from stress and fatigue. by the sword. for their country. for a cause . Lawyers die of illness.25. from overwork . through neglect. not than. Wrong: My firearm is different than yours.

not from. Example: He divided the guava in half (or in two). Wrong: I was disappointed from her speech of the nation address. not in parts. Disappointed in. Divide into parts. Right: I divided the attorney s fees into three parts.27. 28. Wrong: I divided the attorney s fees in three parts. 20 . Right: I was disappointed in her speech of the nation address. Note: But a thing may be divided in half or in two.

Right: The judge was dressed in a black robe. not with. 21 . Note: Also doubtful of. Wrong: The senior partner have no doubt for his ability. Dressed in. Example: I am doubtful of his ability to pass the bar exams. Right: The senior partner have no doubt of (or about) his ability. Wrong: The judge was dressed with a black robe. 29. 30.Doubt (n. not for.) of or about.

Exception to. . Wrong: This is an exception of the rule on admissibility of evidence. Note: But we say with the exception of. 32. Right: This is an exception to the rule on admissibility of evidence. Right: They exchanged gold for titanium. Example: He read all his books with the exception of Statutory Construction. not of. Note: Also in exchanged for. Exchange for.31. Wrong: They exchanged gold by titanium. not by. Example: He gave his antique car in exchange for a brand new BMW motorcycle.

Right: The auditorium was full of law students. Fail in. not with or from.33. Right: He failed in Remedial Law last year. Note: But fill takes with. not from. . Wrong: He failed from Remedial Law last year. Full of. Wrong: The auditorium was full with (or from) law students. Example: He filled the glass with milk. 34.

Wrong: I shall be happy to get rid from the witness. not from. Get rid of. Glad of or about. Right: I shall be happy to get rid of the witness.35. Note: But a person is glad at a result. . Wrong: I am glad from (or with) the good announcement. Right: I am glad of (or about) the good announcement. Example: He is glad at the affirmative decision of the court. not from or with. 36.

Guard against. 38. Note: Also. Right: My junior partner is good at remedial law. clever at. bad at. slow at. not in. Likewise. Wrong: You must guard from haphazard judgment. quick at. 37. Example: He is weak in grammar. He is good in class means that his conduct is good. not from. but weak in. Right: You must guard against haphazard judgment. .Good at. Wrong: My junior partner is good in remedial law.

Wrong: He is independent from his brothers. Independent of. .39. Right: He is independent of his brothers. Guilty of. Note: But we say dependent on. Wrong: He was found guilty for child molestation. Right: He was found guilty of child molestation. not for. Example: A kitten is dependent on its mother. 40. not from.

Right: They are indifferent to politicians. Wrong: They are indifferent for politicians. Right: He always insisted on his views. . 42. Indifferent to.41. Insist on. Wrong: He always insisted to his ideas. not to. not for.

. not for. Leave for a place. Wrong: They are leaving to Bilibid Prisons soon. Right: She is not interested in her law studies.43. 44. Right: They are leaving for Bilibid Prisons soon. not to a place. Wrong: She is not interested for her law studies. Interested in.

look to (meaning be careful of or rely on). Right: Look at this nice frame. not to. . Notes: Also. Wrong: Look to this nice frame. look forward to (meaning expect with pleasure). look out for (meaning expect). look for (meaning try to find). look into (meaning examine closely). (meaning to take care of). look upon (meaning consider). gaze at. look up to (meaning respect). look down upon (meaning have a low opinion of).45. Look at. stare at. look over (meaning examine). but look after.

Opposite to. not with. Wrong: Their farm house is opposite from ours. Right: She was married to an orphan 47. Right: Their farm house is opposite to ours. not from. Wrong: She was married with an orphan. Married to.46. Wrong: Will you pass from the law library? Right: Will you pass by the law library? 48. Pass by a place. not from a place. .

Play for a team. Wrong: Dean Balbastro is popular among his friends. Wrong: He plays regularly with that law debating team. . not with a team. Right: Dean Balbastro is popular with his friends 50. Right: He plays regularly for that law debating team. Popular with.49. not among.

Right: I prefer a black Parker pen to a blue one. not from. Wrong: Who presided in the last law faculty meeting? Right: Who presided at (or over) the last law faculty meeting? 52. Wrong: I prefer a black Parker pen from a blue one. Preside at or over. not in.51. Prefer to. .

Wrong: The club rejoiced for Mark s passing the bar examinations. take (a) pride in. Proud of. Right: The club rejoiced at (or in) Mark s passing the bar examinations. Right: He is very proud of his accomplishment. Wrong: He is very proud for his accomplishment. Example: A lawyer takes a pride in his successful defense of a case. Rejoice at or in. 54. Note: But we say. not for.53. . not for.

. Wrong: Are you related with him in any way? Right: Are you related to him in any way? Note: Also. Wrong: Samuel repented from his criminal acts. Related to.55. relation to. Note: But repentance takes for. Example: Samuel feels repentance for his sin. not with. Example: Has she any relation to you? 56. Right: Samuel repented of his criminal acts. not from. Repent of.

Wrong: Your law book is not similar with mine. . Satisfied with. Similar to.57. Right: Your law book is not similar to mine. not with. not from. Wrong: Are you satisfied from your grades in Public Corporations? Right: Are you satisfied with your grades in Public Corporations? 58.

not on a desk. on a bench. Wrong: I spend a lot of time for my studies in legal writing. etc. Spend on. Right: The professor often sits at his desk. Sit at a desk. Note: Also. 60. on a sofa. But on a chair.. not for. Right: I spend a lot of time on my studies in legal writing.59. in an armchair. But A bird sometimes perches (sits) on a tree. . sit at a table. in a tree or up a tree. Wrong: The professor often sits on his desk.

junior to.61. 62. Wrong: This is superior from (or than) the quality of that plastic. senior to. Superior to. Example: King Philip II succeeded to the throne in 1978. Note: Also use inferior to. Right: I always hope he will succeed in his project. . not at. Succeed in. prior to. Right: This is superior to the quality of that plastic. not from or than. Wrong: I always hope he will succeed at his project. Note: But a person succeeds to a property or a title.

Right: I am sure of the integrity of the President. Surprised at. amazed at. Right: We were surprised at his failure to become a valedictorian. Sure of. shocked at. . not for. alarmed at.63. Note: Also astonished at. puzzled at. not for or of. Wrong: We were surprised for his failure to become a valedictorian. Wrong: I am sure for the integrity of the President. 64.

Note: Also hold by. snatch by. Right: The lawyer took his witness by the hand. 66. Wrong: The lawyer took his witness from the hand. Suspect of. Take by. Example: Lawyers are suspicious of hostile witnesses. Note: Also. not for. Right: I suspect him of stabbing Pedro. seize by. suspicious of. catch by. grasp by. . not from. Wrong: I suspect him for stabbing Pedro.65.

Right: The arresting officer tied the suspect to a tree. not from. Wrong: The arresting officer tied the suspect on a tree. Right: The participants in the law seminar are tired of egg sandwich . Tired of. 68.67. Example: The prisoner was bound to the dungeons. Tie to. Wrong: The participants in the law seminar are tired from egg sandwich. not on. Note: Also bind to.

Note: Also. 70. shake with and shiver with. . Right: The eyewitness was trembling with cold. Wrong: The eyewitness was trembling from cold. not from cold. Right: Please translate this latin phrase into English. etc.. not to. etc. Translate into.69. Tremble with cold. Wrong: Please translate this latin phrase to English. Example: Agustin was shaking with fear when he was arrested by the barangay tanods.

. however. not with ink.71. we use with instead of in. Right: I have written my autobiography in ink. a pencil or a piece of chalk makes. a crayon). Warn (a person) of danger. Example: His professor warned her against wearing miniskirts in class. the instrument is meant by which the writing is done. Wrong: The private complaints were warned about the danger of testifying. not about danger. Example: I write with (a pentel pen. Note: To write in ink. Wrong: I have written my autobiography with ink. Right: The private complaints were warned of the danger of testifying. If. Write in ink. Note: But we warn a person against a fault. 72. in pencil or in chalk means the marks that a pen.

Necessary Prepositions Prepositions should not be omitted when they are needed to make the meaning clear Examples: It is of no use to object to the question. The tree was a foot in diameter. Will you refrain from reading aloud? . Randy will be at home tomorrow.

the movement. On this side of the river is a group of houses.Examples His remark is unworthy of your notice. . An appointment with the lawyer prevented Jimmy from going to the movies. They are going either to Boracay or to Puerto Galera. or hope for. I had no faith in.

Right: Madam witness. please answer my question. when you use the noun answer.Unnecessary Prepositions 2. Example: Your answer to my question is not responsive. it must have a preposition to.2 Approach (come near to) Wrong: Do not approach to that prison cell. Right: Do not approach that prison cell. please answer to my question.1 Answer (reply to) Wrong: Madam witness. However. 2. .

4 Attack (go and fight against) Wrong: The accused attacked against the rival gang members.2. .3 Ask (put a question to) Wrong: I asked to the Clerk of Court about the delay. 2. Right: I asked the Clerk of Court about the delay. Right: The accused attacked the rival gang members.

6 Enter (go into) Wrong: We entered into the prisoner s detention room. Right: The chapter on human relations comprises ten articles. Right: We entered the prisoner s detention room.5 Comprise (consist of) Wrong: The chapter on human relations comprises of ten articles. . 2.2.

2.7 Finish (come to the end of) Wrong: I have finished from my lecture.8 Leave (depart from) Wrong: The seminar participants left from Manila yesterday. Right: The seminary participants left Manila yesterday. Right: I have finished my lecture. 2. .

2. Permit (give permission to) Wrong: The judge permitted to witness to stay in his chamber. 3. Right: Lawyers should obey final and executory decisions.9 Obey (act according to) Wrong: Lawyers should obey to final and executory decisions.0 . Right: The judge permitted the witness to stay in his chamber.

used as an exhibit resemble his gun? 3.1 Reach (arrive at) Wrong: The witnesses reached at the courtroom early. used as an exhibit resemble to his gun? Right: Does this gun.2 . Resemble (be similar to) Wrong: Does this gun. Right: The witnesses reached the courtroom early.3.

3. Right: I told the sheriff to come at once. . 3.4 Behind (at the back of) Wrong: The eyewitness hid behind of the bamboo wall while the shooting incident took place. Right: The eyewitness hid behind the bamboo wall while the shooting incident took place.3 Tell (say to) Wrong: I told to the sheriff to come at once.

5 Inside (on the inner side of) Wrong: The spectators went inside of the courtroom. . Right: The robbers stood outside the door. Right: The spectators went inside the courtroom.6 Outside (out of) Wrong: The robbers stood outside of the door.3. 3.

To and At 1.Prepositions that are often Confused 1.1 To is used to express motion from one place to another. 1. Example: Wrong: The bailiff is standing to the door. Right: The bailiff is standing at the door. . Right: We come to Manila City Hall to attend our hearing every morning. Example: Wrong: We come at Manila City Hall to attend our hearing every morning.2 At is used to denote position or rest.

Right: We jogged to Luneta and back. Example: Wrong: We jogged till Luneta and back.2 Till or until is used with time. 2.To and Till 2. 2.1 To is used with distance. Right: I shall stay here in Ilocos Norte till next week. . Example: Wrong: I shall stay here in Ilocos Norte to next week.

3. Right: My family spent its summer holidays at Sagada. At and In 3. Example: Wrong: She lives at Singapore or at Hongkong. Right: She lives in Singapore or in Hongkong. Example: Wrong: My family spent its summer holidays in Sagada.1 At is used before the names of small municipalities or in speaking of a distant place.2 In is generally used before the names of countries and large cities or before the name of the place in which one is at the time of speaking.3. .

. Example: Wrong: The judge spent all the day into his chamber writing decisions. In and Into 4. Right: The judge spent all the day in his chamber writing decisions.1 In denotes position or rest inside something.4. Right: The accused came into the courtroom and testified.2 Into denotes motion or direction towards the inside of something. Example: Wrong: The accused came in the courtroom and testified. 4.

Example: Wrong: The prosecutor takes a nap at the afternoon. Example: Wrong: Court hearings normally start on nine o clock in the morning.2 At is used with the exact time. . Right: The prosecutor takes a nap in the afternoon. Right: Court hearings normally start at nine o clock in the morning.5.3 In is used with a period of time. In (Time) 5. On. 5. At. Right: The subpoena will be sent on Monday. 5. Example: Wrong: The subpoena will be sent at Monday.1 On is used with the days of the week or month.

6. For and At 6.1 For is used if the actual sum is mentioned. Example: Wrong: I bought a transcript of stenographic notes at five pesos per page. Right: I bought a transcript of stenographic notes for five pesos per page. 6.2 At is used if the actual sum is not given. Example: Wrong: I cannot afford to buy that gun for such a price. Right: I cannot afford to buy that gun at such a price.

Uses of Prepositions in Law
1. A prepositions can be used as an aid to interpret a law. (See U.S. v. Dulfo, G.R. No. 4133,August 10, 1908; Leceste v. Santos, G.R. No. 36886, February 1, 1932; Republic v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 96073, January 23, 1995) 2. A preposition can also be used to interpret a decision. (San Diego v. Montesa, et al., G.R. No. L-17985, September 29, 1962)

U.S. v. Dulfo, G.R. No. 4133,August 10, 1908
It is an essential element of the offense under consideration, as defined and penalized in the Penal Code, that the entry must have been made without the consent or, more accurately speaking, against the will of the occupant of the dwelling house, and it is therefore the duty of the prosecution to affirmatively established this fact before a conviction can be had upon a complaint charging its commission. We held in the case of the United|States vs. Arceo (3 Phil. 381), that to establish this fact the entry was without the consent of the occupant may be presumed from circumstances, as where one enters violently with force or intimidation. But the doctrine laid down in these cases in no wise relieves the prosecution of the burden of affirmatively establishing that entry was made against the prohibition of the occupant, either express or implied.

abusos deshonestos y violacion. so that it reads "a la pena que yase le hubiere impuesto. (We have italicized the a).R. G. rapto. accomplices and accesories after the fact of the above-mentioned crimes. The provisions of this paragraph shall also be applicable to the coprincipals. acts of lasciviousness and rape." instead of "o la pena que ya se le hubiere impuesto. Santos. the marriage of the offender with the offended party shall extinguish the criminal action or remit the penalty already imposed upon him. 1932 In cases of seduction. for the Spanish version contains a clerical error: the preposition a is used instead of the disjunctive conjunction o in the third line. el matrimonio del ofensor con la ofendida extinguira la accion penal. . En los casos de estupro. Lo dispuesto en este parrafo alcanza lo mismo a los coautores que a los complices y encubridores de los delitos ya mencionados. in order to show the real meaning of the provision. abduction. No. a la pena que ya se le hubiere impuest. February 1.Leceste v. 36886. We have quoted both the English and the spanish text.

and should have as objective. in respect of.. Sandiganbayan. or of the ostensible owners of property suspected to be ill-gotten. freezing or takeover was issued. or provisional 51 What is apparently contemplated is that the action or proceeding concern of takeover. No.R. Stated otherwise. or in connection with. with regard or in relation to. the action or proceeding contemplated is one for the final substantiation or proof of the prima facie showing on the basis of which a particular order of sequestration. The only modifying or qualifying requirement in the constitution is that the action or proceeding be filed "for i. or concerning orders of sequestration. 1995 There is no particular description or specification of the kind and character of the "judicial action or proceeding" contemplated. G.Republic v.e. the demonstration by competent evidence that the property thus sequestered. involve the matter of sequestration. corporeal or incorporeal. personal or real. January 23. 96073. frozen or taken over is indeed "ill-gotten wealth" over which the government has a legitimate claim for recovery and other relief. freezing or provisional takeover of specific property. much less an explicit requirement for the impleading of the of the corporations sequestered. . freezing.

and second.00 within 30 days after this decision becomes final. L-17985. the landowner has the option to either appropriate the improvement or to sell the land to the possessor. p.with the connecting preposition "upon" unmistakably denoting that the second (payment of indemnity) is a condition precedent to the first (vacation of the premises).. that the plaintiffs pay P3. 1962) Petitioners' argument is that the pertinent part of the dispositive portion of the decision ordains.00. that they vacate the land. 5) They hold the view that the respondents should pay them first before they vacate. first. Normally.San Diego v. (Memorandum for petitioners. et al.R. of course.500. and that they are entitled now to insist on the payment through a writ of execution AWpAL. and not vice-versa. No. G. . Montesa.500. September 29. This option is no longer open to the respondent landowners because the decision in the former suit limits them to the first alternative by requiring the petitioner's to vacate the land (and surrender the improved comments) upon payment of P3.

Coordinating conjunctions join words or group of words of equal rank and. unless 2. although. as. either. Subordinating conjunctions join dependent clauses to main clauses if. yet . so that. Two Kinds of Conjunctions: 1.Conjunctions A conjunction is a linking word used to connect words. for. or. neither. or groups of words in a sentence. but. because. phrases. nor. since. while.

Leyte. but also Cebu. Not: They have neither read the book nor the magazine. The most common correlatives are either-or. conjunctions used in pairs. These words or expressions should be in parallel construction.Rules and Examples of Coordinating or Correlative Conjunctions 1. neither-nor. whereas-therefore. bothand. . Correlative conjunctions. Not: We not only visited Bohol. not only-but also. and Samar. Not: Litigation work both gave me pleasure and experience. We visited not only Bohol. and Samar. Leyte. but also Cebu. Litigation work gave me both pleasure and experience. whether-or. Examples: They have read neither the book nor the magazine. should be placed next to the words they connect. that is.

Examples: He was strong in body and in mind.With coordinate conjunctions such as and and but. . Or: He was strong physically and mentally. Not: He was strong in body and also mentally. ideas must be expressed in similar construction.

a subordinate conjunction is used to connect the dependent with the main thought. because.since although. rather than. unless as. incase. When one idea in a sentence is dependent upon another. if only. more than.Rule and Examples of Subordinating Conjunctions 2. provided that. if. except that. as if. though but that. Choose the appropriate conjunction to show the relationship between the clauses. now that. even if. that . To show cause: To indicate concession: To express a condition: To make a comparison: as. inasmuch as.

just as. whereupon. eversince. as if where. as often as. now that. such that after.To show manner: To explain place: To indicate purpose: To express result: To fix a time: as. as. so that. so as. since. till. before. so that. whenever. when. that so that. wherever in order that. as long as. until. while .

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