‡ Personality is a concept that we use continuously in our day- to- day routine when dealing with people . ‡ We talk about people as having a good personality or a bad personality or arrogant and aggressive personality .

Personality refers to a set of unique characteristics that make an individual different from others.

‡ Personality can be defined as a dynamic and organized set of characteristics possessed by a person that uniquely influences his or her cognitions, motivations, and behaviors in various situations.

which are relatively stable and which make the individual different from others. .PERSONALITY ‡ Personality refers to the sum total of the internal and external traits (Qualities) of an individual. ‡ Personality can be defined as those psychological characteristics that both determine and reflect how a person responds to his/her environment.

and The internal are the thoughts and the values.Nature of Personality ‡ Personality has both internal and external elements. . ‡ ‡ The externals are the observable behavior like sociability. ‡ Personality is inherited as well as shaped by environment. It only changes after a long time due to traumatic events. ‡ An individual's personality is relatively stable.

personality will mean how people affect others and how they understand and view themselves . as well as their pattern of inner and outer measurable traits and person-situation interaction.( TALL MAN VS SHORT MAN ) In summary . weight . facial features . color and other physical aspects ) and traits . .Nature of Personality How people affect others depends primarily upon their external appearance (height .

you will do it even if you disagree . Similarly you stop work and go for your lunch if you are hungry . this is a biological pressure. this is a social pressure .PERSONALITY ‡ Ex: If your boss wants you do a job in certain way . .

Determinants of Personality Family Environment Situational Heredity Personality Social .

and values passed from generations to generations.Determinants of Personality €Heredity has impact on such variables as physical stature. . and energy level. €Environment is a broad term and includes cultures attitudes. €Contribution from Family has considerable influence on personality at the early stages.

Determinants of Personality ‡ Socialization is a process that acquires. But it is the situation that can not be ignored. heredity. ‡ Situation environment .age. from the enormously wide range of behavioral potential. . and family no doubt have impact on personality.

What is Personality? Personality The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others. Personality Traits Enduring characteristics that describe an individual s behavior. Personality Determinants ‡ Heredity ‡ Environment ‡ Situation .

or people in the environment ± Big Five Personality Factors related to job performance ‡ Extroversion ‡ Agreeableness ‡ Conscientiousness ‡ Emotional Stability ‡ Openness to Experience .Personality ‡ Set of characteristics that underlie a relatively stable pattern of behavior in response to ideas. objects.

Intellectual. . talkative and assertive. persistent and achievement . cooperative and trusting . ‡ Openness to experience: Imaginative . ‡ Agreeableness: Good ± natured . ‡ Emotional stability: taps a person¶s ability to withstand stress. dependable .THE BIG FIVE PERSONALITY MODEL/TRAITS ‡ Extraversion: Sociable .oriented . ‡ Conscientiousness: Responsible .

such as pay raise or reprimands ( formal expression of disapproval).PERSONALITY ‡    Every person is in certain aspects . Organizationally . Manager must understand that all subordinates are not alike and each subordinates is unique and may or may not respond to the same stimuli . . Like no other person. Like some other people. Like all other people .

.PERSONALITY ‡ If a person s entire personality could change suddenly . then we cannot conclude that his personality is warm and friendly. ‡ Ex: If a person is sometimes warm and friendly and at other times he is cold and hostile (unfriendly) . then we would not be able to predict his personality traits .

secure . ‡ People s self-esteem has to do with their self-perceived competence and self image. Ex: every day experience confirm that employees with high self-esteem feel unique . .CONCEPT ‡ People s attempt to understand themselves are called the self-concept in personality theory. Self efficacy is concerned with self-perception of how well a person can cope with the situation as they arise. competent .The SELF . empowered and connected to the people around them.

Self-Esteem and Self-Monitoring Self-Esteem (SE) Individuals degree of liking or disliking themselves. . situational factors. Self-Monitoring A personality trait that measures an individuals ability to adjust his or her behavior to external.

Risk-Taking Managers ‡ High Risk-taking Managers ± Make quicker decisions ± Use less information to make decisions ± Operate in smaller and more entrepreneurial organizations ‡ Low Risk-taking Managers ± Are slower to make decisions ± Require more information before making decisions ± Exist in larger organizations with stable environments .

takes action. and perseveres until meaningful change occurs. . regardless or even in spite of constraints or obstacles.Personality Types Proactive Personality Identifies opportunities. Creates positive change in the environment. shows initiative.

‡ So. ‡ Employees can change depending on the particular situation they are in interaction with .PERSON SITUATION INTERACTION ‡ Each situation of course is different . personality is the whole person and is concerned with external appearance and traits. self and situational interactions. ‡ Even everyday work experience can change people . .


He believed there is little variability ( a maximum of two or three years ) in four identifiable stable periods Entering the adult world ( age twenty two twenty eight ) Settling down ( age thirty three to forty ) Entering middle adulthood ( age forty five to fifty ) Culmination of middle adulthood ( age fifty five to sixty) This theory is important because it is one of the only ones which suggests that development and growth happens well into the adult years. 2. He believed that . 3.Life structure evolves through a relatively orderly sequence throughout the adult years. .THE DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIALIZATION ‡ ‡ ‡ 1. The work of Daniel Levinson on adult life stages has received attention . 4.


and cooperation with one another in society. and especially . sympathy . . love . ‡ Socialization means the process by which an individual learns to satisfy his needs in socially acceptable way . groups . socialization creates sense of living together .The Socialization process ‡ There is increasing recognition given to the role of other relevant persons . to move within the rules of his society and share in his society values . which greatly influence an individual s personality. ‡ In simple words the socialization is formation and training of human conscious. organizations .

‡ Attitudes determine how people ± Perceive the work environment ± Interact with others ± Behave on the job .Attitudes ‡ An attitude can be defined as a persistent tendency to feel and behave in a particular way toward some object.

The emotional component involves the person s feelings about an object or thing. informational. Ex: training a operator requires mandatory 4 weeks and outcome can be measured ‡ Behavior can be observed.Components of Attitudes ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Attitudes have three components: emotional (feelings). but the feelings and belief which give rise to the behavior cannot be observed. The informational component consists of the belief and information has about the object. . The behavioral component consists of a person s tendencies to behave in a particular way toward an object. and behavioral.

3. 2. The Adjustment function The Ego. Katz has noted that attitudes serve four important functions in the process in OB.FUNCTIONS OF ATTITUDES ‡ 1. 4.Defensive function The Value-expressive function The Knowledge function .

‡ When employees are well treated by the boss .The Adjustment Function ‡ Attitudes often help people adjust to their work environment. ‡ When employees are not fairly treated and given the less salary . they are likely to develop a negative attitude toward supervision and the organization. . they are likely to develop a positive attitude toward supervision and the organization .

The Ego.Defensive Function ‡ Besides helping employees adjust . . attitudes also help them to defend their self images ‡ Ex: an older manager Vs younger subordinate.

.The Value-expressive function ‡ Attitudes provide people with a basis for expressing their values . ‡ Ex: A manager who believes strongly in the work ethic will tend to voice attitudes toward specific individuals or work practices as a means of reflecting this value.

The Knowledge Function ‡ Attitudes help supply standards and frames of reference that allow people to organize and explain the world around them . ‡ Ex: positive or negative attitude of management that to be supported by evidences. .

‡ Ex: if employees believe that their employer does not take care of them .CHANGING ATTITUDES ‡ Employees attitudes can be changed and sometimes it is in the best interest of management to try to do so. . management would like to change this attitude.

ATTITUDE ‡ Attitudes. . being persistent often help employees adapt to their work environment by providing a way of interpreting things or happenings in the environment.

High-Performance Work Attitudes ‡ Two attitudes that might relate to high performance ± Job Satisfaction ± Organizational Commitment Managers of today¶s knowledge workers often rely on job satisfaction to keep motivation and enthusiasm for the organization high .

High-Performance Work Attitudes ‡ Job Satisfaction = positive attitude toward one s job ‡ Organizational Commitment = loyalty to and heavy involvement in one s organization .

and the chance to accept responsibility.Influences on JOB SATISFACTION 1. 2. . Pay : the amount of financial remuneration that is received and the degree to which this is viewed as equitable vis-à-vis that of others in the organization. The work itself : the extent to which the job provides the individual with interesting tasks . opportunities for learning .

4. Supervision : The abilities of the supervisor to provide technical assistance and behavioral support . Coworkers: The degree to which fellow workers are technically proficient and socially supportive. 5. Promotion opportunities : The chances for advancement in the hierarchy. .Influences on JOB SATISFACTION 3.

. Internals Individuals who believe that they control what happens to them.Locus of Control Locus of Control The degree to which people believe they are masters of their own fate. Externals Individuals who believe that what happens to them is controlled by outside forces such as luck or chance.