LOGO

FINAL YEAR DESIGN PROJECT 1

PRODUCTION OF VINYL ACETATE
396,000 tonne/year
1200 tonne/day

8146

10478 Chan Choon Hoong 8142 Hafizah Binti Ahmad Afif 8108 Muhamad Rahimi Bin Ali 8145 Jazli Izzuddin Bin Jamaludin Muhammad Emil Hakim Bin Khudri

SUPERVISED BY: ASSOC PROF DR. HILMI BIN MUKHTAR

Introduction 
This project is designed for students to apply all necessary knowledge acquired throughout the program to conceptually design a new appropriate plant and also to learn to work as a team in order to be a well rounded engineer in the future.  Students may also improve their skills in using the related computer software such as iCON, Sprint, and Microsoft Visio.

Background of Project
Case Study

TO DESIGN THE PRODUCTION PATH OF VAM 

Produce VAM via vapor fixed-bed ethylene/ acetic acid technology  The reaction path for production would be as follows:

1. 2.

C2H4 + CH3COOH + ½O2 C2H4 + 3O2 2CO2 +2H2O

CH2=CHOCOCH3 + H2O

(1) (2) 

Both reactions are parallel in which the first reaction is where the main product is produced (i.e. vinyl acetate).  The second reaction is the undesired reaction producing the undesired product which is carbon dioxide. Both reactions produce same side product which is water.

Product Market Study:
Vinyl Acetate Market in United States 

31% of the world s total capacity is produced in the United States. 
World production capacity is expected to reach about 5.8 million tons per year by 2010 and keep increasing up to 6.4 million tons per year in 2015.  Based from track records, in 2004, world s vinyl acetate consumption was 4.4 million tons.  In North America and Western Europe, it is mainly used in the production of vinyl acetate polyvinyl acetate.  Demand expected is about to reach 5.38 million tons and 6.2 million tons in 2010 and 2015 respectively.

Source: http://www.fjfdi.com

Product Market Study:
Vinyl Acetate Market in Europe 

VAM mainly is used in production of polyvinylacetate, bonding agents, acrylic fibres, and nonwoven fabric.  Total volume of supplies into Europe is estimated at 150 000 tons per year. The main exporter is the USA. The deliveries on a regular basis are also realised from the countries of Asia as well.  In 2008, many manufacturers increase production and capacities at plant as shown in table in the next slide
Source: http://business.export.by

Capacities of Basic Vinyl Acetate Producers in 2008 (Source: ICIS) Company Acetex Chimse (France) Achema (Lithuania) Celenese (Bay City. USA) Celenese (Clear Lake. USA) Celenese Germany) Celenese (Mexico) Celenese (Spain) Companhia Alccoiquimica Nacional (Brazil) Doljchim (Romania) Dom Chemical (USA) Duront (USA) INEOS (Great Britain) LyondellBasell (USA) Stavrlen (Russia) SSME Azot Association (Ukraine) Wacker Chemie (Germany) Capacities (K tons) 165 20 300 310 285 115 200 80 20 365 335 250 380 60 30 200 3115 K tons of VAM in Europe 2008 .

Location Selection  The factors that should be taken into consideration of selecting a suitable site :        Raw materials availability Market Transportation facilities Utilities Land price and availability Climate Special incentives Waste disposal facilities .

Location Selection  After conducting the feasibility and site survey. Johor ii) Gebeng Industrial Estates. Kuantan. three (3) main locations have been short-listed i) Tanjung Langsat Industrial Estate. Terengganu . Pahang iii)Kerteh Industrial Area.

00 per metre square. .65 38. RM 5. Gebeng Industrial Estate has been chosen as the site for the VAM plant.Location Selection  Based on the matrix comparison made.  Justifications :  Gebeng industrial estate is situates at east coast of peninsular Malaysia and it is only 25 km from Kuantan City and 5 km from Kuantan Port  Low land prices compared to other location.

 Excellent transportation link by railway. road and airport  Good pipeline connection between Kerteh and Gebeng . 85% tax exemption on gross profit  Constant supply of utilities such as cooling water. power supply.Location Selection  East Coast Highway  Peninsular Gas Utilisation (PGU) Project  Attractive incentives given by the Malaysia government and local government which is : Five-year exemption on import duty. steam and waste management. 5 % discount on monthly electrical bills for first 2 years.

Location Selection Proposed plant location for VAM plant .

Conceptual Design Analysis Level 5 : Level 3 : Reactor Design & Network Synthesis Level 4 : Separation System Synthesis Heat Integration Level 2 : Input ± Output Structure Level 1 : Batch or Continuous .

Process operating mode Input-output structure of the flow sheet Reactor design and network synthesis Separation system synthesis Separation of impurities Separation and purification of products 5. 2.Hierarchy of Decisions (Douglas 1988) 1. 4. Heat-exchanger network . 3.

5 lb/annum Continuous process Multiproduct plants Plant is used for Production is based on production of other single product which is product vinyl acetate Has been a continuous Product generated is of demand daily for vinyl seasonal production acetate The production within limited time is Lifespan of the design plant is 20 years Continuous process Seasonal production Continuous process Short product lifetime Continuous process .Level 1: Process Operating Mode Criteria Requirement y Batch if less than 1 X 106 lb/annum y Continuous if greater than 10 x 106 lb/annum Current design Decision Production rate Production capacity 727.

and what economic trade-offs are associated with these variables? .Level 2: Input-Output Structure Decision :  Should we purify the feed stream before they enter the process?  Should we remove or recycle a reversible by-product?  Should we use a gas recycle and purge stream?  Should we not bother to recover and recycle some reactants?  How many product streams will there be?  What are the design variables for the input-output structure.

Level 2: Input-Output Structure .

) .Level 3: Reactor Design and Network Synthesis Reactor Design : Selection criteria       Reaction path Catalyst Size Operating conditions (Temp & Press) Phase Feed conditions (Temp & Conc.

Multi Tubular Fixed Bed Reactor Temperature : 140OC 160OC (148.5OC) Pressure Phase : 8 bar 10 bar : Vapor (8.7 bar) .

Limiting Conditions  Oxygen concentration must not exceed 8 vol % to avoid gas mixtures capable of igniting  Reactor inlet temperature must > 1300C to prevent condensation in the reactor. avoid catalyst ageing  An excess of ethylene over acetic acid (3:1) must be guaranteed  The heat of reaction is removed by generating vapor in the shell section of the tubes. This vapor is used in other part of the process .  The peak reactor temperature along the length of the tube must remain below 2000C.

Catalyst attrition negligible. Continuous operation Fixed-bed device will have to be taken offline to regenerate the catalyst by means of shutting down the plant or using standby reactor.Characteristics Characteristics Energy Transfer Mechanism Conversion Operation Multi tubular Fixed-Bed Reactor Shell and tube heat exchanger configuration with tubes packed with catalyst Plug flow behavior ensures high conversion per unit mass of catalyst. Temperature control with liquid. Not suitable for frequent catalyst regeneration. For catalyst that is deactivated slowly Maintenances Temperature Control Suitability for heterogeneous catalytic gas phase reaction Catalyst Lifetime . gaseous or boiling heat transfer agent in shell side space.

Selection Criteria Selection criteria for catalysts:     High durability High selectivity High production rates per unit volume of catalyst Low cost .

Comparison Between Few Alternative Technologies Phase Catalyst PdCl2 / CuCl2 Pd Features A Liquid Corrosion problem B Gas Highly undesired secondary reaction C Gas Pd / Au Selectivity may reach 94% based on ethylene and 98-99% based on acetic acid .

Mass Balance Around Reactor C2H4 + CH3COOH + ½O2 CH2=CHOCOCH3 + H2O C2H4 + 3O2 2CO2 +2H2O (1) (2) .

1 .Mass Balance Around Reactor n1 kmol/hr C2H4 n2 kmol/hr C2H6 n3 kmol/hr O2 n4 kmol/hr CH3COOH Reaction The MEB around reactor as follows: 1 580.79 kmol/hr CH2=CHOCOCH3 =2 2 = 1+2 2 = n2 kmol/hr C2H6 ± ( 1 + 2) = n2 kmol/hr C2H6 = n3 kmol/hr O2 .79 kmol/hr CH2=CHOCOCH3 n5 kmol/hr CO2 n6 kmol/hr H2O n7 kmol/hr C2H4 n8 kmol/hr C2H6 n9 kmol/hr O2 n10 kmol/hr CH3COOH n5 kmol/hr CO2 n6 kmol/hr H2O n7 kmol/hr C2H4 n8 kmol/hr C2H6 n9 kmol/hr O2 n10 kmol/hr CH3COOH = 580.(0.5 1 + 3 2) = n4 kmol/hr CH3COOH .

86 342.74 147.6 489.Mass Balance Around Reactor Reactor inlet (kmol/hr) 6178.79 34.79 34.64 Component Ethylene Oxygen Acetic acid Vinyl acetate Carbon Dioxide Water .16 1355.97 0 0 0 Reactor outlet (kmol/hr) 5560.85 615.83 1935.64 Reactant consumed (kmol/hr) 617.79 Product produced (kmol/hr) 580.67 580.18 580.85 615.

In other words favor the direct sequence. . In other words. 3. 2. Favor near-equimolar splits between top and bottom products in individual columns. perform the most difficult separation last. Separations in which the relative volatility of the key components is close to unity or which exhibit azeotropic behavior should be performed in the absence of non key components. Distillation Heuristic guidelines (Douglas 1988) 1.Level 4: Separation System Synthesis A. A component composing a large fraction of the feed should be removed first. 4. Sequences that remove the lightest components alone one by one in column overheads should be favored.

Possible Sequence  A: Vinyl Acetate  B: Water  C: Acetic acid .

Phase separation  Liquid-Vapor Separation System  Liquid-Liquid Separation System .Separation B.

Separation .

Carbon Dioxide Removal Unit Amine Treatment Unit Usually used to remove small amount of acid gas. . Take only small amount of spaces which usually used in remote area. Low transportation and maintenance cost. High maintenance and transportation cost since it is remote area. Need large amount of spaces usually area near the sea side. Membrane Technology Usually used to remove bulk quantity of acid gas (more than 30%).

Amine Treatment Unit Amine solution C 2H 6 + C 2H 4 + O 2 C2H6 + C2H4 + O2 + CO2 Amine solution + CO2 .

Process Flow Diagram .

46 1 Manual (kgmol/hr) 489.74 777.84 60.62 -0.63 100.Material Energy Balances Stream Component O2 HAc C2H4 C2H6 VAM H2O CO2 Stream Component O2 HAc C2H4 C2H6 VAM H2O CO2 Simulated (kgmol/hr) 147.00 0.00 Simulated (kgmol/hr) 148.60 580.09 4 Manual (kgmol/hr) 147.17 5763.00 0.00 0.14 30.85 Deviation (%) 0.00 0.60 145.00 100.64 209.00 0.53 -8.00 0.26 16.86 -6.02 100.95 738.00 Deviation (%) 100.64 34.96 594.00 0.14 65.64 34.39 6477.00 100.17 0.67 68.65 3.85 Deviation (%) 0.06 1333.16 0.26 6.60 777.00 100.00 100.00 0.46 732.85 Deviation (%) 0.17 5763.04 107.00 307.00 117.71 100.00 0.00 145.00 .53 -5.09 Simulated (kgmol/hr) 148.46 100.25 738.18 5560.00 0.02 53.85 0.60 580.83 1935.00 5560.00 Deviation (%) 100.19 4.27 16.53 -5.24 738.95 738.22 2 Manual (kgmol/hr) 147.00 100.00 0.88 49.00 0.58 Simulated (kgmol/hr) 616.82 34.00 2.00 0.28 67.84 109.00 100.00 -162.00 100.96 594.74 777.22 7.23 2.61 Simulated (kgmol/hr) 0.60 0.59 -84.79 615.16 1355.61 777.18 5560.97 6178.16 1355.65 3.61 -1.20 307.06 1333.42 1.54 5724.00 100.00 -122.20 5 Manual (kgmol/hr) 0.20 167.20 0.00 100.00 Simulated (kgmol/hr) 0.79 615.84 109.61 -1.22 3 Manual (kgmol/hr) 147.00 Deviation (%) 20.23 2.67 68.24 1.82 0.36 1789.00 100.74 777.01 6 Manual (kgmol/hr) 0.00 0.44 10.

00 2.00 100.00 2.54 Simulated (kgmol/hr) 147.00 -28.00 5560.02 105.28 107.00 34.24 1325.85 10 Manual (kgmol/hr) 0.35 100.00 100.67 10.79 307.36 8 Manual (kgmol/hr) 147.75 Simulated (kgmol/hr) 147.52 42.00 2.35 100.00 0.82 10.45 450.00 100.85 11 Manual (kgmol/hr) 147.00 100.00 34.79 0.00 63.95 9 Manual (kgmol/hr) 147.00 0.29 100.00 100.60 0.26 579.98 731.06 0.11 .00 2.65 1.45 139.88 9.74 777.20 5682.00 34.36 7 Manual (kgmol/hr) 147.00 0.31 100.74 777.00 Deviation (%) 0.00 5560.99 46.85 12 Manual (kgmol/hr) 0.00 0.00 5560.00 67.00 100.18 0.89 45.73 7.19 Deviation (%) 0.00 -2.08 -7.00 0.16 0.Material Energy Balances Stream Component O2 HAc C2H4 C2H6 VAM H2O CO2 Stream Component O2 HAc C2H4 C2H6 VAM H2O CO2 Simulated (kgmol/hr) 0.98 731.98 Simulated (kgmol/hr) 147.21 100.00 100.31 100.00 5560.74 777.21 0.45 139.28 0.00 0.00 0.60 0.14 -7.25 100.32 0.74 777.00 0.85 Deviation (%) 100.93 724.00 67.32 47.00 1355.98 3.15 725.00 0.16 0.00 100.00 580.22 5678.52 42.00 Deviation (%) 0.46 96.00 100.54 Simulated (kgmol/hr) 147.00 0.60 0.00 1828.28 107.82 0.16 0.01 8.84 Deviation (%) 0.75 -6.82 10.00 100.00 Deviation (%) 100.75 -6.00 Simulated (kgmol/hr) 0.00 67.55 5717.45 100.68 19.45 100.55 5717.90 100.00 100.16 0.00 34.60 0.00 0.

00 -2.19 0.21 100.18 0.00 0.00 0.00 20.00 1707.00 75.00 Simulated (kgmol/hr) 0.00 580.18 0.00 0.00 75.52 100.69 18.00 0.89 45.00 .16 100.79 307.65 100.00 100.00 0.00 100.00 100.35 14 Manual (kgmol/hr) 0.00 Deviation (%) 100.00 100.00 0.00 100.73 7.38 698.26 579.64 2354.00 0.00 1355.02 0.00 0.24 16.84 1.00 0.00 16.00 0.00 100.90 100.31 2.00 100.00 Deviation (%) 100.00 100.53 593.00 100.00 698.00 -17.82 0.00 100.00 100.79 307.00 100.90 100.00 0.00 0.00 16 Manual (kgmol/hr) 0.00 0.00 0.88 15 Manual (kgmol/hr) 0.33 55.00 0.00 0.00 100.00 4.00 0.00 0.37 0.45 450.00 Deviation (%) 100.99 46.24 1325.84 13 Manual (kgmol/hr) 0.00 0.00 100.00 17 Manual (kgmol/hr) 0.00 75.03 101.79 0.65 1.00 100.00 580.00 0.00 580.00 Simulated (kgmol/hr) 0.53 3.00 100.00 Deviation (%) Deviation (%) 100.10 12.85 100.00 0.00 100.00 100.00 1355.83 0.39 0.00 18 Manual (kgmol/hr) 0.47 Simulated (kgmol/hr) 0.00 100.01 Deviation (%) 100.00 Simulated (kgmol/hr) 0.00 100.94 0.00 0.Material Energy Balances Stream Component O2 HAc C2H4 C2H6 VAM H2O CO2 Stream Component O2 HAc C2H4 C2H6 VAM H2O CO2 Simulated (kgmol/hr) 0.00 0.40 2337.00 0.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 1.71 76.82 0.59 6.00 0.00 Simulated (kgmol/hr) 0.00 -28.03 26.00 0.00 0.

.Economic Studies  To determine whether a project is feasible and attractive enough for investment.  Acceptable plant design must present a process that is capable of operating under conditions which will yield a profit (Peters M. 1991).D.S and Timmerhaus K. .

Economic Studies  Economic Potential 1  EP1 = Revenue Raw Material  Compare between : Recycle Stream Neglected Recycle Stream Included  Recycle Stream Included gives a positive value of EP1 Sample calculation at the next page .

021.10 1.212.00 7920 TOTAL PRODUCT 1.00 1.95 7920 7920 931.930.269.652 1.574.160 3.203.848.Economic Studies  Recycle Stream NEGLECTED Mass Flow Rate (kg/hr) Price RM/kg Total Running Hours in Year (Hrs) Annual Value of Product RM/year Component RAW MATERIALS Acetic Acid Ethylene 106.272.652 .274.720 4.45 3.880 TOTAL RAW MATERIALS PRODUCT Vinyl Acetate 51.269.212.880.00 211.

991.652 RM 4.848.579.  So.212.269. Therefore.228. before including recycle stream: EP 1 = RM 1.00 (negative value) . it is assumed that no raw material cost is incurred on oxygen feed.Economic Studies  Economic Potential 1 (EP1) calculation  EP1 = Revenue Raw Material  EP1 = (Total VAM produced) (Acetic Acid Cost + Ethylene Cost)  Assumptions: Oxygen is obtained from atmosphere.203.880 = .RM 2.

971.45 3.22 15.212.584.005.579.02 1.10 1.95 7920 7920 113.493.652 1.00 347.Economic Studies  Recycle Stream INCLUDED Mass Flow Rate (kg/hr) Price RM/kg Total Running Hours in Year (Hrs) Annual Value of Product RM/year Component RAW MATERIALS Acetic Acid Ethylene 12.60 234.00 7920 TOTAL PRODUCT 1.269.212.189.268.021.225.269.60 TOTAL RAW MATERIALS PRODUCT Vinyl Acetate 51.652 .

584. it is assumed that no raw material cost is incurred on oxygen feed.Economic Studies  Economic Potential 1 (EP1)  EP1 = Revenue Raw Material EP1 = (Total VAM produced) (Acetic Acid Cost + Ethylene Cost)  Assumptions: Oxygen is obtained from atmosphere.158.685.212.652 .40 (positive value) .RM 347.  So.60 = RM 864. Therefore. by including recycle stream: EP 1 = RM 1.493.269.

Economic Studies  Economic Potential 2  EP2 = [EP1 (Recycle Stream Included) + By Product] (Waste Gas)  By product CO2 can be sold to the fertilizer plant and for oil & gas company which can be used for Enhanced Oil Recovery  Our target to achieve green plant technology  Positive value of EP2 indicates that this project is feasible Sample calculation at the next page .

00 0.20 7920 6.Economic Studies  Waste Gas and By-product Chemical Involve Mass flow rate (kg/hr) Price RM/kg Total Running Hours in Year (Hrs) Annual Value of Product RM/year Waste Gas (Stream 17) Ethylene + Ethane Acetic Acid Oxygen Vinyl Acetate Carbon Dioxide 2474 0 11.456 0 46.50 3.2 7920 7920 7920 7920 7920 TOTAL RM By-products (Sub flow sheet 1_33) Carbon Dioxide 4258 0.274.423 72.95 1.818.085 .744.10 0.84 1423.886 33.672 38.33 126.208.320 200.53 1.

456 + RM 46.745 (positive value) .818.320 + RM 200.886 + RM33.158.423) EP2 = RM 799.744.155.685.672) (RM 38.208.  EP2 = (RM 864. EP2 = EP1 (Recycle Stream Included) + By Product (Waste Gas)  Therefore.40 + RM 6.Economic Studies  Since.

Economic Studies  Economic Potential 3 (EP3)  EP3 = EP2 [(Installation Cost of Recycle Compressor 1 + Installation Cost of Recycle Compressor 2 + Installation Cost of Reactor 1)]  Based from EP3 . the value also indicates positive value which also means that the Vinyl Acetate production can be accepted Sample calculation as per attached In the report .

2 million /year) (RM 828.00/year + RM 22.334.71 million /year) RM 773 million/year .Economic Studies  Installation Costs  Reactor 1 = RM 828. EP3 = (RM 799.00  Compressor 1 = RM 22.5 million/year  Compressor 2 = RM 2.71 million/year  Since. EP3 = EP2 (Installation Cost of Recycle Compressor 1 + Installation Cost of Recycle Compressor 2 + Installation Cost of Reactor 1) So.334.5 million /year + RM 2.

Hence. . utilities and energy costs savings has become one of the major issues in plant design.Heat Integration  PURPOSE OF HEAT INTEGRATION  The cost of the utilities and energy is one of the major costs in a process plant. Heat integration enables the plant to optimize the energy of utilities usage by exchanging heat using process stream instead of utilities or energy.

Pinch Technology Method  The amount of energy can be determined from the process plant by using the Pinch Technology Method. the Problem Table Algorithm is used to calculate the energy recovery due to accuracy in the results as compared to the composite curve method.  The most common method to calculate the amount of energy recovered using the pinch technology are through plotting composite curve or using the problem table algorithm.  For our plant. .

Methodology of Heat Integration .

Stream Data from Sprint .

Composite Curve .

Grand Composite Curve .

Heat Integration .

298 DH: 26.19 H DH: 38308.51 DH: 5288.48 C DH: 33341.174 C DH: 5081.068 DH: 295.37 T: 132.894 DH: 4199.95 C DH: 4984.483 T: 42.19 C CP: 378.037 DH: 186.6 C DH: 34147.51 CP:3.51 CP:216.463 T: 149.8 C DH: 1556.39 T: 147.23 DH: 2529.Design of HEN CP:161.71 .698 T: 42.102 T: 42.

we can design the heat exchanger network.Heat Integration From Grid diagram generated using SPRINT. The table below shows the design of heat exchanger. Cold 2 Cold 1 Cold 1 .

Q & A SESSION THANK YOU .

158B and PTS 20.152G .Plant Layout  referred to PTS 20.