The slope m of the line through the points(x1. going down is -) and y x is also a directed change (going to the right is +. then the number b is called the y-intercept. Intercepts 1. 2. B. is a directed change (going up is +. then we say that the line has no slope or an undefined slope. b). the formula m=y2-y1/x2-x1 . We 2 1 xx= can also define the slope by the formula m = xy = run rise where y the change in y and x is the change in x. going to the left is -).where x1 = x2 If . Slope 1. .y2)is given by the formula. If a line intersects the y-axis at the point (0. 0). Basic Definitions and Theorems A.y1) and (x2. then the number a is called the x-intercept. If a line intersects the x-axis at the point (a.VOCABULARY                 I.

EXAMPLE Example: Consider the line determined by the points (1 . 3).1) and (4. (4.2 -1 -4 -2 -5 2 5 .3) +2 (-1.1) +5 M= 1 .

B. E. m2 then (a) L1||L2 iff . Slope-intercept form: y = mx + b where m is the slope and b is the y-intercept. Horizontal line: y = k (the line has slope 0) D.LINEAR FUNCTION           2. Point-slope form: y-y1=m(x-x1) where m is the slope and the line passes through the point (x1.y1). . and m1=m2 and (b) L1 L2 iff m1= -1/2 where m1 0 and m2 0. II. If the line L1 has slope m1 and line L2 has slope . Equations of a Line A. Vertical line: x = k (the line has undefined slope) C. Standard form: Ax + By = C where A and B are not both equal to 0.

623= yx find the intercepts. let y = 0 63=x x = 2 is the xintercept. To find the y-intercept. let x = 0 62= y is the 3 =y y-intercept.EXAMPLE  Example 1: Given a line with equation     . and sketch the graph. Solution 1: To find the x-intercept. the slope. .

3) = 2 .-3) . Y (2.0) M= 0 .0 3 2 (0.( .

EXAMPLE  Solution 2: Take the equation 3x-2y=6 and solve for y to get equation  in the slope-intercept form y=3/2x-3 m=3/2 and b=y-intercpt  To get the x-intercept. let y = 0 x = 2 is the xintercept. .  graph as above using the intercepts.

1).EXAMPLE  Example 2: Find the equation of the line which is determined  Solution 1: Use the point-slope form. for example. First. find the slope m=4-1 = .3 in by the points (2.4)and (3. use (3. Y-1=-3/5 (x-2) or  Y-1/y-3=-3/5 or 3x+5y=14 or y=-3/5x+14/5 are all correct .1) -2-3 5  Next. use either point.

use either point. Next. 4).EXAMPLE  Solution 2: Use the slope-intercept form. find the slope m=-3/5 as  above. First. for example use (-2. y=mx+b y=-3/5x+b 4=-3/2(2)+b =14/5 y=-3/5x+14/5 is the equation .

LINEAR FUNCTION  Example 3: Find an equation of the line through (3.  5X+3Y=-8 Y=-5/3X-8/3 m-5/3 a line parallel to this line  must have the same slope y-4 =-5/3 (x-3) is an equation of this line . 4) and parallel to the line 5X+3Y=-3.

Linear Functions  A. Consider the two points (60 .LINEAR FUNCTIONS  III. 112 lb). 100 lb) and (65 . . A college female who is 60 tall weighs 100 lb and another college female who is 65 tall weighs 112 lb. A function f is a linear function if f (x)=mx+b where m and b are real numbers and m 0  B. Find an equation which relates the height and weight. and find the equation of the line determined by these points. Application of linear functions Example: Suppose that     the height and weight of college females are linearly related.

 M=112lb-10lb/65 -60 =12lb/5  and use the point (60 . 100 lb) w-100=12/5 (H-60) or 12H -5W=200 or H=5/12w + 55/3 or w =12/5H-44 .