# School of Natural and Built Environments CIVE 3008-Lecture 12: Earth pressure and structure (Rankine theory

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Earth pressure and structure (Rankine theory)
Dr. Md Mizanur Rahman

Acknowledge: Dr. D. A. Cameron Previous course coordinator

Earth pressures on retaining structures

School of Natural and Built Environments CIVE 3008-Lecture 12: Earth pressure and structure (Rankine theory)

Earth pressures on retaining structures

School of Natural and Built Environments CIVE 3008-Lecture 12: Earth pressure and structure (Rankine theory)

Earth pressures on retaining structures

School of Natural and Built Environments CIVE 3008-Lecture 12: Earth pressure and structure (Rankine theory)

Earth pressures on retaining structures

School of Natural and Built Environments CIVE 3008-Lecture 12: Earth pressure and structure (Rankine theory)

School of Natural and Built Environments CIVE 3008-Lecture 12: Earth pressure and structure (Rankine theory)

Two Methods
to estimate the earth pressures on structures

1 . Rankine 2 . Coulomb

Plausible stress states

1.

Plausible failure mechanisms

Relative merits of approaches?

School of Natural and Built Environments CIVE 3008-Lecture 12: Earth pressure and structure (Rankine theory)

Rankine earth pressures
A lower bound estimate Effective horizontal stress ,  H = K z
where, K = earth pressure coefficient z = effective vertical stress

School of Natural and Built Environments CIVE 3008-Lecture 12: Earth pressure and structure (Rankine theory)

E a rth p re ssu re sta te s

(retaining walls)

“ At rest ” wall is not moving , so the soil an intermediate state

Acti Passiv ve e Both are failure states

School of Natural and Built Environments CIVE 3008-Lecture 12: Earth pressure and structure (Rankine theory)

Earth pressure at rest
“ AT REST ” PRESSURE The intermediate state K = K o = fn ( soil type, density, OCR)

The soil laterally

is

unable

to

move

- can ’ t expand , OR contract

e.g soil confined in a large body of soil

School of Natural and Built Environments CIVE 3008-Lecture 12: Earth pressure and structure (Rankine theory)

Active state
Shear stress

(stress relaxation)
o envel re failu pe

σ ′
3f

σ ′
3o

σ ′

1
Normal stress

Active state

At rest state

School of Natural and Built Environments CIVE 3008-Lecture 12: Earth pressure and structure (Rankine theory)

Passive state
Shear stress

(stress intensification)
o envel re failu pe

σ ′
3o

σ ′ 1σ ′
3f

σ ′
1f

Normal stress

At rest state

Passive state

School of Natural and Built Environments CIVE 3008-Lecture 12: Earth pressure and structure (Rankine theory)

All three states
Shear stress

At Rest

op envel e ailur f

e

Activ e state σ ′

Passive state

Normal stress

1o Note: Active state: stress relaxation Passive state: stress intensification

The 3 States
retaining wall)

School of Natural and Built Environments CIVE 3008-Lecture 12: Earth pressure and structure (Rankine theory)

(consider a vertical

 H / z KO

Kp

Ka
Wall movement
NB : Passive needs LARGE strains

School of Natural and Built Environments CIVE 3008-Lecture 12: Earth pressure and structure (Rankine theory)

Equations for Rankine States
(Can be derived from Geometry of Mohr’s circles)

For ACTIVE STATE
Case 1A : c  = 0

 H = K a  z and = [K a max  0 . 333 for loose sand ] Ka

School of Natural and Built Environments CIVE 3008-Lecture 12: Earth pressure and structure (Rankine theory)

Active state
Shear stress

F

l ai

u

, re

f

 nf ,

(σ 1 )/2 σ 3

φ (σ 1 + σ 3)/2

Normal stress

NB : Active state = a failure state

School of Natural and Built Environments CIVE 3008-Lecture 12: Earth pressure and structure (Rankine theory)

Active state
From the geometry ,

School of Natural and Built Environments CIVE 3008-Lecture 12: Earth pressure and structure (Rankine theory)

Active state

(with cohesion)

Case 2A : c   0  H = K a  z - 2c  K a Notes : • the 2nd term is a constant! •z = (z) + z i . e . stress due to self weight + extra due to surface load

School of Natural and Built Environments CIVE 3008-Lecture 12: Earth pressure and structure (Rankine theory)

Can soil undergo tension?
 H = K a  z - 2c  K a If  z = 0 , then  H  0 Now if  z =  z , At what depth will  H = 0?
z

This depth is called the depth of cracking, zc, & defines the potential tension zone

School of Natural and Built Environments CIVE 3008-Lecture 12: Earth pressure and structure (Rankine theory)

Depth of Cracking
By definition: At z c ,  H = 0 Therefore,  H = 0 = K a  z c - 2c  K a Therefore, z c = [2c  K a ][ K a  ] Or

z

School of Natural and Built Environments CIVE 3008-Lecture 12: Earth pressure and structure (Rankine theory)

The tension zone
The pulling power of cohesive soil is ignored in calculations of pressures behind retaining walls over the depth zc because:
- tension is unsustainable i . e . short term only !

However, no compressive pressures exist in this zone = a dead zone

School of Natural and Built Environments CIVE 3008-Lecture 12: Earth pressure and structure (Rankine theory)

Evidence of a tension zone
How can unsupported, vertical sided trenches be cut to metres depth in clay soils? What depth is possible? What happens if it rains? Warning : people laying pipes have died in collapsed trenches! OH & S???

School of Natural and Built Environments CIVE 3008-Lecture 12: Earth pressure and structure (Rankine theory)

Summary of active state
• • Stresses relaxed
common retaining wall situation

Ka = (1 – sin)/(1+ sin )
clean sand, Ka  0.33 usually

• Theoretical tension or crack zone from cohesive strength (c)
may be applied to slope stability

School of Natural and Built Environments CIVE 3008-Lecture 12: Earth pressure and structure (Rankine theory)

Passive state
Again, from Geometry of Mohr’s circles Case 1P : c  = 0

 H = K p  z and K p =
[K p min  3 for loose sand ]

School of Natural and Built Environments CIVE 3008-Lecture 12: Earth pressure and structure (Rankine theory)

Passive state

(with cohesion)

Case 2P : c   0  H = K p  z + 2c  K p  Note : 1.the 2nd term provides greater constant passive pressure component

School of Natural and Built Environments CIVE 3008-Lecture 12: Earth pressure and structure (Rankine theory)

Orientation of Failure Planes
From Mohr’s circles
Active state : (45 + /2) to horizontal Passive state : (45 - /2) to horizontal

School of Natural and Built Environments CIVE 3008-Lecture 12: Earth pressure and structure (Rankine theory)

Orientation of Failure Planes
ACTIVE

PASSIV E

Sliding surfaces?

School of Natural and Built Environments CIVE 3008-Lecture 12: Earth pressure and structure (Rankine theory)

2c Ka

ACTIV E z
c
Tension is ignored!

+2c Kp

PASSIV E

Typical Lateral stresses , c   0

School of Natural and Built Environments CIVE 3008-Lecture 12: Earth pressure and structure (Rankine theory)

The Influence of Pore Water
Steady state (and seepage) pressures add to lateral stresses on walls Should Ka be applied to the pore water pressure?
NO WAY ! Hydrostatic means K = 1

School of Natural and Built Environments CIVE 3008-Lecture 12: Earth pressure and structure (Rankine theory)

The Influence of Pore Water
No Water

Water

c = 0

+

c = 0

TOTAL LATERAL STRESS  H =  H = Ka z

 H = K a   z

u =  wz

School of Natural and Built Environments CIVE 3008-Lecture 12: Earth pressure and structure (Rankine theory)

The Influence of Pore Water
In the previous example
uniform soil, no surface load and with or without a Water Table at ground level,

Almost twice the total lateral pressure is experienced with the high Water Table Effective lateral stresses are halved, BUT full pwp is exerted!

Importance of Drainage for Retaining Walls (Drains, Filters & Weep
holes)
Granular zone or geofabric drain

School of Natural and Built Environments CIVE 3008-Lecture 12: Earth pressure and structure (Rankine theory)

Weep holes

School of Natural and Built Environments CIVE 3008-Lecture 12: Earth pressure and structure (Rankine theory)

Examples
From Whitlow - modified Find the total resultant thrust and its point of action behind vertical-backed retaining walls of height, 12 m, resulting from earth and water pressures given the following situations
1.Surface horizontal; no surcharge; single soil layer, c = 0,   = 30 ,  = 18 kN/m3 2.Surface horizontal; uniform surcharge of 10 kPa; single soil layer: c = 0,  = 30,  = 18 kN/m3 3.Surface horizontal; no surcharge; two soil layer: 0-5 m depth, c = 0,  = 30,  = 18 kN/m3 > 5 m depth, c = 0,  = 36,  = 20 kN/m3

School of Natural and Built Environments CIVE 3008-Lecture 12: Earth pressure and structure (Rankine theory)

Examples
Thrus = lateral pressure x area t = average pressure x height over which it
acts, per m length of wall
40 kPa 20 kPa

360 kN

9 m

360 kN

3 m

60 kPa

School of Natural and Built Environments CIVE 3008-Lecture 12: Earth pressure and structure (Rankine theory)

Examples
Resultant, Pa = Σ (α λ λ τ η ρ υ σ τ σ ) Resultant Thrust = Πο ι ν τ ο φ α χ τ ι ο ν φ ο υ ν δ β ψ συ µ µ ι ν γ µ ο µ ε ν τ σ αβ ο υ τ α π ο ι ν τ α ν δ δ ι ϖι δ ι ν γ β ψ Πα 10 kPa

120 kN

12 m

360 kN

4 m

Location of resultant force

X m

60 kPa

School of Natural and Built Environments CIVE 3008-Lecture 12: Earth pressure and structure (Rankine theory)

Examples
Answer Resultant, Pa = (120 + 360) Pa = 480 kN per m length of wall Point of action found by summing moments about the base and dividing by Pa 120 x 6 + 360 x 4 = Pa x X X = (720 +1440)/480 = 4.5 m

School of Natural and Built Environments CIVE 3008-Lecture 12: Earth pressure and structure (Rankine theory)

Examples
Q1 . c = 0,  18 kN/m3 = 30,  =

8 m 12 m 432 kN

72 kPa K a = 0 . 333

School of Natural and Built Environments CIVE 3008-Lecture 12: Earth pressure and structure (Rankine theory)

Examples
Q2. As for surcharge 1 but 10 kPa
10 kPa

8 m 40 kN 432 kN

3 . 33 + 72 kPa

Ka =

472 kN/m, 4.17

School of Natural and Built Environments CIVE 3008-Lecture 12: Earth pressure and structure (Rankine theory)

Examples
Q3. Two soils granular
5 m 12 m K a1 = 0 . 333

K a2 = 0 . 26

At z = 5 m , σ ζ = 90 κ Πzα = 12 m , σ ζ = 140 At κ Πα

School of Natural and Built Environments CIVE 3008-Lecture 12: Earth pressure and structure (Rankine theory)

Example
From Whitlow , cont ’ d
6.Surface horizontal; no surcharge; single soil layer, cu = 45 kPa,  u = 0,  = 18 kN/m3 7.Surface horizontal; no surcharge; single soil layer, c = 15 kPa,  = 20 ,  = 18 kN/m3 13.Surface horizontal; no surcharge; two soil layer, 0-4 m depth, c = 0,  = 30,  = 19.6 kN/m3 > 4 m depth, c = 25 kPa,  = 15,  = 18.2 kN/m3 11. 12. ANSWERS Q6 441 kN/m, 2.33 m Q7 408 kN/m, 3.21 m Q11 458 kN/m, 3.61 m

School of Natural and Built Environments CIVE 3008-Lecture 12: Earth pressure and structure (Rankine theory)

Example
Q7. c = 15 kPa, 
zc

= 20,

= 18 kN/m3

12 m 408 kN

K a = 0 . 49 zc = 2 . 38 m

( 0 . 49x216 - 30  0 . 49 kPa OR 84 . 8 kPa

21 = 0.49x18xzc

ANSWER : 408 kN/m, 3.21 m

School of Natural and Built Environments CIVE 3008-Lecture 12: Earth pressure and structure (Rankine theory)

Limitations of Rankine
1.Vertical backs of walls only 2.Backfill surface must be regular
– – a solution exists for provided slope angle,  a sloping <  to the backfill, slope -

BUT pressures act parallel theoretically wrong!

/

surcharge

effects

6 . Wall friction ignored !
friction is beneficial

School of Natural and Built Environments CIVE 3008-Lecture 12: Earth pressure and structure (Rankine theory)

Summary
1)Earth pressures are needed for design of retaining walls & excavations 2)Three major states: at rest, active and passive
─ Last 2 are failure states

3)Earth pressure coefficients effective stresses 4)Water pressures are important
− total lateral stresses

are

based

on

5)Cohesion leads to potential cracked zone for Active state

School of Natural and Built Environments CIVE 3008-Lecture 12: Earth pressure and structure (Rankine theory)

Excavation Bracing
Support systems: soldier beams (vertical) & shuttering between them
Possible failure shape

or steel sheeting

Trench

Strut Wale Steel sheeting PLAN

School of Natural and Built Environments CIVE 3008-Lecture 12: Earth pressure and structure (Rankine theory)

Example

School of Natural and Built Environments CIVE 3008-Lecture 12: Earth pressure and structure (Rankine theory)

Design of Bracing
Earth pressures are not simple - propping forces from struts - progressive construction Empirical design earth pressures - struts designed for thrust Refer to Notes for guidance

Information Only