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)

**Earth pressure and structure (Rankine theory)
**

Dr. Md Mizanur Rahman

Acknowledge: Dr. D. A. Cameron Previous course coordinator

Earth pressures on retaining structures

School of Natural and Built Environments CIVE 3008-Lecture 12: Earth pressure and structure (Rankine theory)

Earth pressures on retaining structures

School of Natural and Built Environments CIVE 3008-Lecture 12: Earth pressure and structure (Rankine theory)

Earth pressures on retaining structures

School of Natural and Built Environments CIVE 3008-Lecture 12: Earth pressure and structure (Rankine theory)

Earth pressures on retaining structures

Two Methods

to estimate the earth pressures on structures

1 . Rankine 2 . Coulomb

Plausible stress states

1.

Plausible failure mechanisms

Relative merits of approaches?

**Rankine earth pressures
**

A lower bound estimate Effective horizontal stress , H = K z

where, K = earth pressure coefficient z = effective vertical stress

E a rth p re ssu re sta te s

(retaining walls)

“ At rest ” wall is not moving , so the soil an intermediate state

Acti Passiv ve e Both are failure states

**Earth pressure at rest
**

“ AT REST ” PRESSURE The intermediate state K = K o = fn ( soil type, density, OCR)

The soil laterally

is

unable

to

move

- can ’ t expand , OR contract

e.g soil confined in a large body of soil

Active state

Shear stress

(stress relaxation)

o envel re failu pe

σ ′

3f

σ ′

3o

σ ′

1

Normal stress

Active state

At rest state

Passive state

Shear stress

(stress intensification)

o envel re failu pe

σ ′

3o

σ ′ 1σ ′

3f

σ ′

1f

Normal stress

At rest state

Passive state

**All three states
**

Shear stress

At Rest

op envel e ailur f

e

Activ e state σ ′

Passive state

Normal stress

1o Note: Active state: stress relaxation Passive state: stress intensification

The 3 States

retaining wall)

(consider a vertical

H / z KO

Kp

Ka

Wall movement

NB : Passive needs LARGE strains

**Equations for Rankine States
**

(Can be derived from Geometry of Mohr’s circles)

**For ACTIVE STATE
**

Case 1A : c = 0

H = K a z and = [K a max 0 . 333 for loose sand ] Ka

Active state

Shear stress

F

l ai

u

, re

f

nf ,

(σ 1 )/2 σ 3

φ (σ 1 + σ 3)/2

Normal stress

NB : Active state = a failure state

Active state

From the geometry ,

Active state

(with cohesion)

Case 2A : c 0 H = K a z - 2c K a Notes : • the 2nd term is a constant! •z = (z) + z i . e . stress due to self weight + extra due to surface load

**Can soil undergo tension?
**

H = K a z - 2c K a If z = 0 , then H 0 Now if z = z , At what depth will H = 0?

z

This depth is called the depth of cracking, zc, & defines the potential tension zone

Depth of Cracking

By definition: At z c , H = 0 Therefore, H = 0 = K a z c - 2c K a Therefore, z c = [2c K a ][ K a ] Or

z

**The tension zone
**

The pulling power of cohesive soil is ignored in calculations of pressures behind retaining walls over the depth zc because:

- tension is unsustainable i . e . short term only !

However, no compressive pressures exist in this zone = a dead zone

**Evidence of a tension zone
**

How can unsupported, vertical sided trenches be cut to metres depth in clay soils? What depth is possible? What happens if it rains? Warning : people laying pipes have died in collapsed trenches! OH & S???

**Summary of active state
**

• • Stresses relaxed

common retaining wall situation

**Ka = (1 – sin)/(1+ sin )
**

clean sand, Ka 0.33 usually

**• Theoretical tension or crack zone from cohesive strength (c)
**

may be applied to slope stability

Passive state

Again, from Geometry of Mohr’s circles Case 1P : c = 0

H = K p z and K p =

[K p min 3 for loose sand ]

Passive state

(with cohesion)

Case 2P : c 0 H = K p z + 2c K p Note : 1.the 2nd term provides greater constant passive pressure component

**Orientation of Failure Planes
**

From Mohr’s circles

Active state : (45 + /2) to horizontal Passive state : (45 - /2) to horizontal

**Orientation of Failure Planes
**

ACTIVE

PASSIV E

Sliding surfaces?

2c Ka

ACTIV E z

c

Tension is ignored!

+2c Kp

PASSIV E

Typical Lateral stresses , c 0

**The Influence of Pore Water
**

Steady state (and seepage) pressures add to lateral stresses on walls Should Ka be applied to the pore water pressure?

NO WAY ! Hydrostatic means K = 1

**The Influence of Pore Water
**

No Water

Water

c = 0

+

c = 0

TOTAL LATERAL STRESS H = H = Ka z

H = K a z

u = wz

**The Influence of Pore Water
**

In the previous example

uniform soil, no surface load and with or without a Water Table at ground level,

Almost twice the total lateral pressure is experienced with the high Water Table Effective lateral stresses are halved, BUT full pwp is exerted!

**Importance of Drainage for Retaining Walls (Drains, Filters & Weep
**

holes)

Granular zone or geofabric drain

Weep holes

Examples

From Whitlow - modified Find the total resultant thrust and its point of action behind vertical-backed retaining walls of height, 12 m, resulting from earth and water pressures given the following situations

1.Surface horizontal; no surcharge; single soil layer, c = 0, = 30 , = 18 kN/m3 2.Surface horizontal; uniform surcharge of 10 kPa; single soil layer: c = 0, = 30, = 18 kN/m3 3.Surface horizontal; no surcharge; two soil layer: 0-5 m depth, c = 0, = 30, = 18 kN/m3 > 5 m depth, c = 0, = 36, = 20 kN/m3

Examples

Thrus = lateral pressure x area t = average pressure x height over which it

acts, per m length of wall

40 kPa 20 kPa

360 kN

9 m

360 kN

3 m

60 kPa

Examples

Resultant, Pa = Σ (α λ λ τ η ρ υ σ τ σ ) Resultant Thrust = Πο ι ν τ ο φ α χ τ ι ο ν φ ο υ ν δ β ψ συ µ µ ι ν γ µ ο µ ε ν τ σ αβ ο υ τ α π ο ι ν τ α ν δ δ ι ϖι δ ι ν γ β ψ Πα 10 kPa

120 kN

12 m

360 kN

4 m

Location of resultant force

X m

60 kPa

Examples

Answer Resultant, Pa = (120 + 360) Pa = 480 kN per m length of wall Point of action found by summing moments about the base and dividing by Pa 120 x 6 + 360 x 4 = Pa x X X = (720 +1440)/480 = 4.5 m

Examples

Q1 . c = 0, 18 kN/m3 = 30, =

8 m 12 m 432 kN

72 kPa K a = 0 . 333

Examples

Q2. As for surcharge 1 but 10 kPa

10 kPa

8 m 40 kN 432 kN

3 . 33 + 72 kPa

Ka =

ANSWER

472 kN/m, 4.17

Examples

Q3. Two soils granular

5 m 12 m K a1 = 0 . 333

K a2 = 0 . 26

At z = 5 m , σ ζ = 90 κ Πzα = 12 m , σ ζ = 140 At κ Πα

ANSWER 366 kN/m, 4.15 m

Example

From Whitlow , cont ’ d

6.Surface horizontal; no surcharge; single soil layer, cu = 45 kPa, u = 0, = 18 kN/m3 7.Surface horizontal; no surcharge; single soil layer, c = 15 kPa, = 20 , = 18 kN/m3 13.Surface horizontal; no surcharge; two soil layer, 0-4 m depth, c = 0, = 30, = 19.6 kN/m3 > 4 m depth, c = 25 kPa, = 15, = 18.2 kN/m3 11. 12. ANSWERS Q6 441 kN/m, 2.33 m Q7 408 kN/m, 3.21 m Q11 458 kN/m, 3.61 m

Example

Q7. c = 15 kPa,

zc

= 20,

= 18 kN/m3

12 m 408 kN

K a = 0 . 49 zc = 2 . 38 m

( 0 . 49x216 - 30 0 . 49 kPa OR 84 . 8 kPa

21 = 0.49x18xzc

ANSWER : 408 kN/m, 3.21 m

Limitations of Rankine

1.Vertical backs of walls only 2.Backfill surface must be regular

– – a solution exists for provided slope angle, a sloping < to the backfill, slope -

BUT pressures act parallel theoretically wrong!

**5.Backfill loads approximated
**

–

/

surcharge

effects

**6 . Wall friction ignored !
**

friction is beneficial

Summary

1)Earth pressures are needed for design of retaining walls & excavations 2)Three major states: at rest, active and passive

─ Last 2 are failure states

**3)Earth pressure coefficients effective stresses 4)Water pressures are important
**

− total lateral stresses

are

based

on

5)Cohesion leads to potential cracked zone for Active state

Excavation Bracing

Support systems: soldier beams (vertical) & shuttering between them

Possible failure shape

or steel sheeting

Trench

Strut Wale Steel sheeting PLAN

Example

Design of Bracing

Earth pressures are not simple - propping forces from struts - progressive construction Empirical design earth pressures - struts designed for thrust Refer to Notes for guidance

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