# ANCOVA

A hybrid of regression and analysis of variance

Analysis of covariance
 It is an analysis of variance performed on residuals from the regression of the response variable on the covariate

Analysis of covariance Yij ! Q  Ai  F i ( X ij  X i )  I ij Yij ! Q  Ai  F C ( X ij  X i )  I ij .

and different symbols or colors should be used for each treatment group.Plotting ANCOVAs  The ANCOVA plot should use the continuous covariate variable plotted on the x-axis. and the Y variable plotted on the y-axis. Each point represents an independent replicate. .

Plotting results A B C D E F .

6. treatment and interaction nonsignificant (B) No term significant (A) . 2. 5. 4. interaction term non-significant (D) Interaction term significant. everything else nonsignificant (E) Covariate not significant. covariate and interaction term non-significant (C) Treatment and covariate significant. treatment. Treatment significant.Match??? 1. and interaction significant (F) Covariate significant. 3.

Dangerous data!! 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 T1 T2 T3 .

lm(Y ~ Group*X) .An important thing«  In Analysis of Covariance order matters  This model: model <.lm(Y ~ X*Group)  is not the same as this one model <.

which measures the flow of ions using two electrodes inserted into the nerve fibre. www.Membrane potential (in millivolts) 'Action potential' is the name given to the electrical nerve impulse waveform that is generated by the neuron (nerve cell). The shape of an action potential can be seen using an amplifier circuit (voltage clamp) as shown in the diagram below.co.gif .ebme.uk/arts/aps/pic1a.

Membrane potential (in millivolts)  Yamauchi and Kimizuka (1971) measured membrane potential for 4 different cation systems as a function of the logarithm of the activity ratio of various electrolytes are various concentrations. We wish to test whether the mean membrane potential ³Y´ is different for these systems .

49 0.8 14.355 22.21 -0.8 -2.2 6 Ca-K X -1.43 0.10 0.31 0.8 20.08 0.17 -0.0 20.58 0.1 17.5 35.9 45.2 25.67 Y -10.65 0.05 0.0 N 4 10.112 17.28 -0.Data a= 4 groups (cation systems) Ca-Li Y -2.403 .3 32.8 27.5 39.50 0.25 -0.5 X -0.17 0.312 5 X -1.44 -0.05 0.7 41.59 X 14.41 0.4 6.81 Ca-Na Y -7.7 30.18 -0.0 6 Sr-Na X -1.79 -1.3 15.0 2.4 3.65 Y -5.35 0.83 -1.

Membrane potential for four different cation systems mean membrane potential in m a i a a a r a inear inear inear inear r a a a a a i . . lo activity ratio . .

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639 12.703 4.39 20.06 § y !§ (Y  Y ) 2 i i n1 § x ! §(X 2 n1 i  Xi) 2 0.87 within ! 2 .33 2 Ca-Na 1096.13 Sr-Na 2034.727 2.85 100.63 96.For each group compute the following: Component Ca-Li 311.09 .02 i 51.97 Ca-K 2180.30  X i )(Yi  Y ) 20.80 264.63 Pooled Within (sum) 5623.53 § xy !§ ( X b1 n1 15.07 21.66 21.461 4.

46 ¡ ¢ ¢ Ö §y withi ! 1 ( 74 .84 Sr-Na 2020.53 0.60 47.06  5575.33 .29 14.33 ! 0.13  47 .73 n 310.73 ! 47.898 ¡ (§§ ( ¡ i  i )(Yi  Y )) ¡ 1 2 dYX !5623.06  5574.02 Pooled(sum) 5575.79 ¢ 4.93 ! 48.33 §§ 2 dYX _ within ! 5623.30 ) ! 5574 .54 27.43 Ca-K 2152.43 i i §§ ( i  i ) Ö (Yi  Yi ) 2 § n1 § xy n1 a total ! § ni ( X i  X )(Yi  Y ) ! 242 .93 1 .For each group compute the following: Component Ö § y § (YÖ  Y ) 2   Ca-Li 2 Ca-Na 1092.13 § SS among _ b 's ! 48 .

309 1.85 We calculate unexplained sums of squares for these two levels of variation: §d 2 YX _ total !§ y 2 total  !§ n1 2 n1 2 n1 (§ xytotal ) 2 2 xtotal § n1 ( 42.65 (21. 5 .48 § §d n1 2 among total § 2 within 2 Y _ among !§ y among  (§ xyamong ) 2 2 xamong § .57) 2 ! 6013.30 !  1 .72  ! 1816.65  ! 6 .84) 2 ! 390.06 ! 390 .72  5623 .71 14.006 ! 6013 .We obtain § xy !§ n1 among § among total § within ! .

71  48.6 ( adj) Mean _ squareadjusted_ means ! Mean _ squareerror ! dY2 § £ a 1 ithin) ! ! 1768 .008 .129 ! 768.53 ! 195 .98 3.53 3 48 .We test the null hypothesis that there are no differences among sample means Y when these are adjusted for a common X and a common regression line: 2 dYX ( adj) ! 2 dYXtotal  2 dYX _ wit i ! 1816.56 ! 598 .008 16 2 dYX ( § a § n  a 1 i F ! ea _ ea _ area j te _ ea arewithi ! 598 .1 ! 3.

Sokal and Rohlf. Biometry . 2000.

0 .The output of R: X Group Residuals Df Sum Sq Mean Sq F value Pr(>F) 1 4197.5 195.2e-16 *** 3 1768.6 589.25 < 2.005e-13 *** 16 48.98 8.1 3.0 1395.0 4197.

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Assume that the population standard deviation was 1. reject the null hypothesis and shut down the process . the appropriate decision is _________.96 z = (120.5 That's too high.05.5 inches.2 inches. so we reject the null: D. quality control inspectors select a random sample of 36 rods.5-120)/(1. H0: mu = 120 Ha: mu not equal to 120 z crit = +/. Using alpha= 0. The last sample showed a mean of 120.When the rod shearing process at Stockton Steel is "in control" it produces rods with a mean length of 120 inches. If the mean length of sampled rods is too long or too short.2/sqrt(36)) z = 2. the shearing process is shut down. Periodically.1.