THERMO-ECONOMIC ANALYSIS FOR THE OPTIMAL CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF BIOMASS GASIFICATION ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS

ASTRID YULIANA RAMIREZ ADRIANA PALENCIA SALGAR

INTRODUCTION

GAS CONTAMINANTS AND GAS CLEANING

ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION

THERMO-ECONOMIC OPTIMISATION

Hydrocarbons . CO2 .H2. and N2 .Soot .Trace species .Tar (Quantity) . CO.INTRODUCTION GAS CONTAMINANTS AND GAS CLEANING ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION THERMO-ECONOMIC OPTIMISATION IMPROVING BIOMASS GASIFIERS TECHNOLOGIES IGCC Integrated gasification combined cycle Steam injected gas turbine Solid oxide fuel cells Wood + O2+N2 Tar formation O2 Electricity generation Steam GASIFICATION CONDITIONS .Main gas species .

INTRODUCTION GAS CONTAMINANTS AND GAS CLEANING ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION THERMO-ECONOMIC OPTIMISATION To minimize the contaminant formation DESIGN PROBLEM To obtain a high net conversion efficiency Identifying Gasification conditions Gas cleaning Technologies Energy conversion Technologies Tar deposits are an economical bottleneck to gasification (Equipment shutdowns) Review of gas cleaning technologies Gasification process Optimization .

Secondary 600-800 Phenols.INTRODUCTION GAS CONTAMINANTS AND GAS CLEANING ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION THERMO-ECONOMIC OPTIMISATION TAR Organic contaminants with a molecular weigh larger than benzene (78kg/kmol) Classification of biomass tar according to formation temperature Category Range (°C) Species Primary 400-600 Acids. ketones. phenols. fulfurals. guaialcols. furans. monoaromatic hydrocarbons Tertiary 800-1000 Polyaromatic hidrocarbons Shorter reaction times Gas phase reactions that becomes progressively aromatics . heterocyclic heters.

Metal based Uneconomic due to H2S desactivation Mineral based . SOOT ) Catalytic conversion can be operated a lower T elimination the heating (SOOT )and material requeriments.INTRODUCTION GAS CONTAMINANTS AND GAS CLEANING ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION THERMO-ECONOMIC OPTIMISATION TECHNOLOGY Fixed bed co-current gasifiers and circulating fluidized beds produce less tar than fixed bed counter courrent gasifiers PHISICAL TAR REMOVAL PROCESS TAR CONTROL CHEMICAL TAR CONVERSION PROCESS ‡ Scrubbers ‡ Wet electrostatics precipitators ‡ Packed bed filtering ‡ Bag filters Thermal conversion processes involve rainsing the gas temperatarute above 1000°C (PAH .

. and also trough the catalytic or thermal conversion of NH3 and NOx to N2 y H2O. Thermal NOx can be form simply from the addion of N2 or O2 (515)%.INTRODUCTION GAS CONTAMINANTS AND GAS CLEANING ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION THERMO-ECONOMIC OPTIMISATION OTHER GAS CONTAMINANTS Nitrogen and sulphur gases ‡ Precursor to acid rain and photochemical smog ‡ The low temperature and oxygen deficient favor NH3 which ‡ act as NOx precursor. NOx control can be dome through fume recirculation and post combustion.

Bag filters or dry electrostatic filters Removes fine particles. Alkalis combine with chlorine to form Alkali chlorides. . AC induce corrosion. wet scrubbers It can be operate close to gasifier temperature. sticky and reactive.INTRODUCTION GAS CONTAMINANTS AND GAS CLEANING ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION THERMO-ECONOMIC OPTIMISATION PARTICULATE (FLY ASH AND DUST PARTICLES) Particulates are organic and inorganic fine dust particles entrained out of the gasifier by products and cause corrosion and clogging. certain components of biomass ashes are dense. Due to the importance or ther alkali content. Pariculates can be removed by phisical process like: Cyclones Allow recycling large particulates and bed material to the gasifier. It is ineffective at removing particles of sub-microns.

INTRODUCTION GAS CONTAMINANTS AND GAS CLEANING ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION THERMO-ECONOMIC OPTIMISATION Due to feedstock collecion and transportation costs. electricity production from biomass is typically limited to less than 100MW. Parameter Feedstock Oxidant Power ouput (MW) Efficiency (%) Gasifier Gas cleaning CYCLE 1 Wood Steam 2 25 Atmospheric 2 Bio (misc) Air 6 33 Pressurised 3 Wood Air 8 29 Atmospheric 4 Wood Air 32 40 Atmospheric 5 Coal Oxygen 800 43 Pressurised Cold ICE Hot GT-CC Cold GT-CC Cold GT-CC Cold GT-CC .

Increse the efficient of the biomass process (15-25%) .INTRODUCTION GAS CONTAMINANTS AND GAS CLEANING ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION THERMO-ECONOMIC OPTIMISATION Cycles of energy production with biomass gasification as a part of the process BOILERS AND RANKIE CYCLES Gasification combined cycle (CC) with heat recuperation by steam generation appears advantageous for electricity production. TOPPING CYCLES Gas turbines Internal combustion engines (More efficient that gas turbines) Internal combustion engine combined cycle can realistically be considered for biomass based power generation.

A multivariate regression relates these parameters (representative of producer gas.INTRODUCTION GAS CONTAMINANTS AND GAS CLEANING ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION THERMO-ECONOMIC OPTIMISATION The gasification model was developed with air gasification data for a pilot circultation fluidised bed reactor operated at atmospheric pressure MODELLING 1. . The distribution of a subset of tar species was determined from the quantity and elemental composition of the total tars by nonstoichiometric equilibrium calculations 3. tar and char distribution variations) to operating conditions and fuel compositions. Light gas species. A complete stoichiometry was written for the reaction system. total tar and char concentration were verified by mass balance reconciliation 2. and fitted to the calculated product distribution by letting reaction equilibrium temperatures vary from the measured gasification temperature.

CO. CH4. .INTRODUCTION GAS CONTAMINANTS AND GAS CLEANING ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION THERMO-ECONOMIC OPTIMISATION MODELLING The thermodynamic properties of biomass were obtained from atomic group contributions. N2. The stoichiometry was generated from the following master equation: Four model tar compounds were kept for flowsheet calculations: fulfural. CO2. The light gas species considered were {O2. Char was assumed to be solid graphite (C). phenol. H2. naphtalene and pyridine. NH3} and C2H4 representing all remaining light hydrocarbon gases. H2O.

nor waste heat exported from the process.INTRODUCTION GAS CONTAMINANTS AND GAS CLEANING ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION THERMO-ECONOMIC OPTIMISATION OBJECTIVE FUNCTIONS Electricity generated Power consumption of each process equipment Dry ash free (daf) mass flow rate Specific chemical exergy of wood calculated with the method of Szargut and Styrylska The model considers that no fuel other than wood could be imported to the process. The properties of wood are specified in the model. .

.INTRODUCTION GAS CONTAMINANTS AND GAS CLEANING ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION THERMO-ECONOMIC OPTIMISATION OBJECTIVE FUNCTIONS The second objective is the total grass roots costs. the total investment cost for a new production site: Total grass roots costs CGR Equipment costs considering actual operating conditions and construction materials Bare module equipment costs at base case conditions .e. i.

oxygen gasifier whith gas cleaning process combined with a ICE-CC (internal combustion engine) hot gas cleaning process combined with a GT-CC (gas turbine) . steam.INTRODUCTION GAS CONTAMINANTS AND GAS CLEANING ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION THERMO-ECONOMIC OPTIMISATION OPTIMIZATION CASES STUDIES Six alternatives have been included in the optimisation superstructure Each scenario combines Air.

INTRODUCTION GAS CONTAMINANTS AND GAS CLEANING ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION THERMO-ECONOMIC OPTIMISATION OPTIMIZATION CASES STUDIES CONSIDERATIONS These assumptions became of interest for assessing the sensitivity of the equilibrium modeL Modelling steam and oxygen gasification scenarios Assuming that both gasifiers could be adapted to operate either in atmospheric or pressurised conditions .

INTRODUCTION GAS CONTAMINANTS AND GAS CLEANING ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION THERMO-ECONOMIC OPTIMISATION OPTIMIZATION CASES STUDIES OTHER CONSIDERATIONS temperature and pressure losses in the different equipments .

INTRODUCTION GAS CONTAMINANTS AND GAS CLEANING ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION THERMO-ECONOMIC OPTIMISATION OPTIMIZATION CASES STUDIES FOR OXYGEN GASIFICATION an ASU using ceramic ion transfer membranes (ITM) Other technologies ‡(800-900°C) ‡Mechanical power consumption=150kWh/ton O2 ‡Criogenyc separation Most economical option .

INTRODUCTION GAS CONTAMINANTS AND GAS CLEANING ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION THERMO-ECONOMIC OPTIMISATION OPTIMIZATION CASES STUDIES ICE FLOWSHEET MODELLING EQUATIONS ‡The stoichiometric combustion fuel to air ratio was assumed to be 1.6 ‡nmec: mechanical efficiency ‡ncool:engine cooling water requirements ‡nflue: flue gas temperature were related to the electrical power generation by empirical efficiency calculations Related to the electrical power generation by empirical efficiency calculations .

for steam gasification .INTRODUCTION GAS CONTAMINANTS AND GAS CLEANING ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION THERMO-ECONOMIC OPTIMISATION OPTIMIZATION CASES STUDIES DECISION VARIABLES 10 decision variables ‡Operating conditions ‡Steam cycle operational variables ‡Wood moisture content after drying (mc) ‡ER: equivalence ratio for air or oxygen gasification ‡SBR: steam to biomass ratio.

INTRODUCTION GAS CONTAMINANTS AND GAS CLEANING ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION THERMO-ECONOMIC OPTIMISATION OPTIMIZATION CASES STUDIES .

INTRODUCTION GAS CONTAMINANTS AND GAS CLEANING ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION THERMO-ECONOMIC OPTIMISATION OPTIMIZATION CASES STUDIES COST FUNCTION SCALING VARIABLES EQUIPMENT COSTS affect Decision variables Composition and fuel properties of wood .

. steam gasification had the most favourable trade-off. and that of air gasification mostly dominated that of oxygen gasification.000 evaluations.INTRODUCTION GAS CONTAMINANTS AND GAS CLEANING ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION THERMO-ECONOMIC OPTIMISATION RESULTS AND ANALYSIS IMPACT OF DECISIÓN VARIABLES ON OPTIMIZATION RESULTS After 15.

ICE-CC: 3110 ¼/kWe) and oxygen gasification (GT-CC: 2805 ¼/kWe. and 2717 ¼/kWe for ICE-CC) followed by air (GT-CC: 2465 ¼/kWe. steam gasification still appears as the best option (with specific costs of 2130 ¼/kWe for GT-CC. . In respect to the different oxidants and in terms of optimal specific capital costs.INTRODUCTION GAS CONTAMINANTS AND GAS CLEANING ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION THERMO-ECONOMIC OPTIMISATION RESULTS AND ANALYSIS IMPACT OF DECISIÓN VARIABLES ON OPTIMIZATION RESULTS ‡ ‡ ‡ investment costs tend to be minimised with GT-CC ER and SBR are not strongly correlated variables because they practically always take constant values. ICECC: 3324 ¼/kWe).

steam gasification still appears as the best option (with specific costs of 2130 ¼/kWe for GT-CC.INTRODUCTION GAS CONTAMINANTS AND GAS CLEANING ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION THERMO-ECONOMIC OPTIMISATION RESULTS AND ANALYSIS IMPACT OF DECISIÓN VARIABLES ON OPTIMIZATION RESULTS ‡ ‡ ‡ investment costs tend to be minimised with GT-CC ER and SBR are not strongly correlated variables because they practically always take constant values. ICECC: 3324 ¼/kWe). and 2717 ¼/kWe for ICE-CC) followed by air (GT-CC: 2465 ¼/kWe. In respect to the different oxidants and in terms of optimal specific capital costs. ICE-CC: 3110 ¼/kWe) and oxygen gasification (GT-CC: 2805 ¼/kWe. .

gasifier. and gas cleaning equipment costs vary essentially in function of the volumetric flow of gases. is advantaged by the lower cost of the gasifier and gas cleaning equipment. ‡Oxygen plant. ‡As a consequence. . which become higher for air gasification due to nitrogen gas and also for steam gasification due to the higher oxidant to biomass ratio . although penalised by the incremental cost of the ASU.INTRODUCTION GAS CONTAMINANTS AND GAS CLEANING ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION THERMO-ECONOMIC OPTIMISATION RESULTS AND ANALYSIS IMPACT OF DECISIÓN VARIABLES ON OPTIMIZATION RESULTS ‡The ICE is costlier than the gas turbine. is also more efficient. oxygen gasification.

INTRODUCTION GAS CONTAMINANTS AND GAS CLEANING ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION THERMO-ECONOMIC OPTIMISATION RESULTS AND ANALYSIS IMPACT OF DECISIÓN VARIABLES ON OPTIMIZATION RESULTS ‡The cost of wood dryers and heat exchangers is small compared with other equipments .

combustion) .INTRODUCTION GAS CONTAMINANTS AND GAS CLEANING ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION THERMO-ECONOMIC OPTIMISATION RESULTS AND ANALYSIS IMPACT OF DECISIÓN VARIABLES ON OPTIMIZATION RESULTS ‡(9b) is included only when material stream compositions are changed by chemical reactions ‡The most important exergy losses are due to chemical reactions (gasification.

ICE-CC: 3.5 ¼/We. optimisation results indicate that the energy conversion efficiency is maximised using ICE-CC at operating conditions that also favour low tar concentrations. followed by air gasification (GTCC: 2. ‡As for choosing among different oxidants steam gasification would appear to have the best specific capital costs (the optimal specific cost of GT-CC is 2. ‡Under the current modelling assumptions.1 ¼/We).wood was obtained and analysed to identify process operating conditions that minimise tar formation.1 ¼/We. .7 ¼/We). while that of ICE-CC is 2. and finally oxygen gasification (GTCC: 2. ICE-CC: 3.3 ¼/We).8 ¼/We.INTRODUCTION GAS CONTAMINANTS AND GAS CLEANING ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION THERMO-ECONOMIC OPTIMISATION CONCLUSION ‡Plant capacity of 20 MWth.