ƒ ƒ

What characterizes a molecule as an acid? What do all acids have in common?
Formula HC6H7O7 H3PO4 HC2H3O2 H3BO3 H2C2O2 H2CO3 HCl Found in Lemon juice Gatorade Vinegar Eyewash Rhubarb Soda pop Stomach acid Electrical conductivity Fair Fair Fair Fair Fair Fair Good Taste Sour Sour Sour Sour Sour Sour Sour in dilute

Compound Citric acid Phosphoric acid Acetic acid Boric acid Oxalic acid Carbonic acid Hydrochloric acid

ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ

All carry the name acid All conduct electricity to some degree All have sour taste The element common to all members of the group is hydrogen

e. c. f. Taste sour Corrode metals Electrolytes React with bases to form a salt and water pH is less than 7 . d.a. Produce H+ (as H3O+) ions in water (the hydronium ion is a hydrogen ion attached to a water molecule) b.

ƒ ƒ What characterizes a molecule as a base? What do all bases have in common? NaOH KOH Ba(OH)2 Mg(OH)2 Al(OH)3 Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Barium hydroxide Magnesium hydroxide Aluminium hydroxide Iye Liquid soap Stabilizer for plastics Milk of magnesia Antacid .

Are electrolytes d.a.ions in water b. chalky c. Produce OH. Taste bitter. Feel soapy. React with acids to form salts and water f. pH greater than 7 . slippery e.

ƒ Electrical conductivity:  Molecules came apart into ions ƒ Acids:  Molecule that ionized to give up hydrogen ions H A H+ A- .

ions (problem: some bases don t have hydroxide ions) .Acids produce H+ ions (or hydronium ions H3O+) Bases produce OH.

.

Acids proton donor Bases proton acceptor A proton is really just a hydrogen atom that has lost it s electron! .

ƒ ƒ Acid is a proton donor Base is a proton acceptor Base Acid .

which compound is the acid? HNO3 + NH4OH NH4NO3 + H2O ƒ ƒ .ƒ Which of the following compounds could not possibly an acid? H2O CuSO4 NaHCO3 CH3COOH Why is your selection in question 1 correct? In the following reactions.

HNO3 + H2O H3O+ + NO3Acid Base hydronium ion nitrate ion HNO3 + H2O H3O+ + NO3Acid Base HNO3 + H2O Q H3O+ + NO3Acid Base conj. Base . Acid conj.

A Brønsted-Lowry acid is a proton donor A Brønsted-Lowry base is a proton acceptor base acid conjugate acid conjugate base .

Label the acid. conjugate acid.+ H3O+ .+ H3O + H2O + HC2H3O2 C2H3O2. and conjugate base in each reaction: HCl + OHCl. base.

+ H+  H2CO3 C2H3O2.+ H+  H2O CO32.+ H+  H2SO4 ClO4.+ H+  HCO3NH3 + H +  NH4+ HCO3.+ H+  HC2O3O2 H2PO4 + H+  H3PO4 SO4 2.+ H +  HClO4 Molecule or Ion Water Bicarbonate ion Ammonium ion Carbonic acid Acetic acid Phosphoric aicd Bisulfate ion Hydronium ion Nitric acid Hydrochloric acid Sulfuric acid Perchloric acid Increasing tendency to give up Hydrogen ion .Molecule or Ion Hydrobonate ionxide ion Carbonate ion Ammonia Bicarbonate ion Increasing tendency to capture Hydrogen ion Acetate ion Hydrogen phosphate ion Sulfate ion Water Nitrate ion Chloride ion Bisulfate ion Perchlorate ion OH.+ H+  HNO3 Cl.+ H +  HCl HSO4.+ H+  HSO4H2O+ + H+  H3O+ NO3.

forming hydronium ion and chloride ion? ƒ If acetic acid is placed in water. Will HCl give up a hydrogen ion to water. will the acetic acid molecule donate a hydrogen ion to water to make the hydronium ion? .ƒ Suppose that HCl is placed in water.

 Strong electrolyte .ƒ Strong acid:  Transfer all proton to water.

Weak acids: .

Its concentrations ranges from 10-1 mol /L (0.Hydronium ion is found in a wide range of concentrations in water solutions.log [ H3O+] .1 M) in strongly acidic solutions to 10-14 (o.00000000000001 M) in strongly basic solutions The term pH was developed to make it easier to write about hydronium ion concentration pH = .

.

log [H3O+] pH = .log [1o-7] pH = 7 .ƒ pH = .log [H+]  Remember the concentration [] means Molarity Example: the concentration of hydronium ions in water is : [H3O+] = 0.0000001 mol/L [H3O+] = 1 x 10-7 M And if pH =.

Example: If [H+] = 1 X 10-10 pH = .(.10) pH = 10 Example: If [H+] = 1.8 X 10-5 pH = .8 X 10-5 pH = .log 1 X 10-10 pH = .log 1.74) pH = 4.74 .(.4.

00 X 10-7 M solution of Nitric acid .Find the pH of these: 1) 1) A 0.15 M solution of Hydrochloric acid A 3.

If the pH of Coke is 3.12.6 x 10-4 M . [H+] = ??? Because pH = .pH = log [H+] Take antilog (10x) of both sides and get -pH = [H+] 10 [H+] = 10-3.12 = 7.log [H+] then .

What is the Molarity of hydrogen ions in the solution? .5.ƒ A solution has a pH of 8.

H2O can function as both an ACID and a BASE. In pure water there can be AUTOIONIZATION Equilibrium constant for water = Kw Kw = [H3O+] [OH-] = 1.00 x 10-14 at 25 oCc .

00 x 10-14 at 25 oC In a neutral solution [H3O+] = [OH-] so Kw = [H3O+]2 = [OH-]2 and so [H3O+] = [OH-] = 1.00 x 10-7 M .Autoionization OH- H3O+ Kw = [H3O+] [OH-] = 1.

log [OH-] Since pH and pOH are on opposite ends. pH + pOH = 14 . pH and pOH are opposites! pOH does not really exist. pOH looks at the perspective of a base pOH = .ƒ ƒ ƒ Since acids and bases are opposites. but it is useful for changing bases to pH.

5 x 10-7 M.What is the pH of the 0.0010 M NaOH solution? The OH.ion concentration of a blood sample is 2. What is the pH of the blood? .