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Wireless Network Wireless Fidelity IEEE Standards Wireless Security WLANs Advantages & Disadvantages WLANs Consideration

Wireless network refers to any type of computer network that is wireless, and is commonly associated with a telecommunications network whose interconnections between nodes is implemented without the use of wires.

.11b Wi-Fi is an abbreviation for Wireless Fidelity and a catch all phrase for the several different standards and recommendations that comprise wireless networking. Wi-Fi enables the user to deploy a computer network without needing to run cable throughout the facility.Introduction to Wireless /802.

b 2. medical and scientific equipment. all work within the 2. cordless phones.4 GHz to 2.11. Microwave ovens.4 GHz frequency band.Introduction to Wireless /802. as well as Bluetooth devices.11b IEEE 802.4835 GHz) and provides a throughput of up to 11 Mbps with a range of just over 300 feet indoors. .4GHz 11Mbps International standard for wireless networking that operates in the 2. This is a very commonly used frequency.4 GHz frequency range (2.

802. In comparison T1 speeds are 1.11b enables transfers of up to 11 Mbps.b 2.Introduction to Wireless /802. Most deployments of Wireless utilize 802.11b is the most common wireless standard deployed today.4GHz 11Mbps 802.11b .11.54Mbps and DSL is normally in the 640Kbps range. Comparable to 10BaseT in speeds.11b IEEE 802.

11a specification offers more radio channels than the 802. Cost of 802.Introduction to Wireless /802.850 GHz) with a maximum 54 Mbps data transfer rate.11b.11a equipment is approximately twice that of 802.11b and current deployment is limited.a 5GHz 11Mbps International standard for wireless networking that operates in the 5 GHz frequency range (5. . These additional channels can help avoid radio and microwave interference.725 GHz to 5.11b IEEE 802. The 5 GHz frequency band is not as crowded as the 2.4 GHz frequency.11. because the 802.

.b 2.11g 2.11b ƒ ƒ ƒ IEEE 802.11g is in the final stages of development.11.a 5GHz 54 Mbps IEEE 802.11. The current draft (V5.4Ghz Hybrid 11/54Mbps 802.Introduction to Wireless /802. 2003.0) is open for comments until January 8.4GHz 11Mbps IEEE 802.

Non-Technical Considerations Which standard is right for you? 802.11.11b .4GHz Low Cost 802.Available late 2003 Compatible with 802.a 54 Mbps @ 5MHz Not widely adopted 802.b 11 Mbps @2.g New technology .11.11.

but it is no longer recommended. However. WPA also authenticates users to help ensure that only authorized people can access the network. When you enable WEP. . Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) WPA encrypts information. This key encrypts the information that one computer sends to another computer across your network.Introduction to Wireless /802.11b WEP . you set up a network security key.Wired Equivalent Privacy WEP is an older network security method that is still available to support older devices. and it also checks to make sure that the network security key has not been modified. WEP security is relatively easy to crack.

While WEP is supported by most all devices that support wireless security. or Wired Equivalent Privacy. is an older method for securing wireless networks from snoopers by encrypting information sent to and from the router from computers and other network devices. if you use WEP security. many hackers will still be able to see what websites you visit. Note that accessing HTTPS (HTTP Secure) websites over WEP will offer limited protection. what search terms you use.yellowpipe. this type of encryption is relatively easy to break.WEP. Thus.com/yis/tools/WEP_key/generator. etc. http://www.php ƒ .

This uses a 8-63 character passphrase that must be stored on the router and sent by each device that wishes to access the network. The longer the passphrase. These can easily be guessed by hackers. or Wi-Fi Protected Access.ƒ WPA. so if you implement this protocol. theoretically the stronger the protection. . is a much more secure method of encrypting information sent over wireless networks. the one most users will run across is called WPAPSK. Several different types of WPA security are available. please do not use passphrases such as "computer" or your first name.

yellowpipe. As with WPA. some older operating systems and hardware do not support this standard. As with the WPA protocol. http://www. * WPA2 is like WPA but offers a stronger encryption algorithm. it is not supported by some older devices and operating systems.com/yis/tools/WPA_key/generator. among other features.php .ƒ While WPA offers more security. use a longer passphrase to increase your network security.

3) Masters keys.7 million of possible combinations. Advantages of WPA over WEP are: 1) This gives you over 500 trillion possible key combinations. . This gives hackers more time to crack the encryption. 3) Master keys are never directly used. especially to collision-based attacks. 2) For 24 bits. 4) Better key management. are directly used. you only have about 16. instead of temporary keys.Main weaknesses of WEP are: 1) This feature makes WEP very vulnerable. 2)It has much better protection with better encryption methods. 4 Most users usually do not change their keys.

installation expenses can be significantly lower. and it can eliminate the need to pull cable through walls and ceilings. . Although the initial investment required for WLAN hardware can be similar to the cost of wired LAN hardware. It is easier to provide connectivity in areas where it is difficult to lay cable. Portable or semipermanent buildings can be connected using a WLAN.It is easier to add or move workstations. Installation is fast and easy. Access to the network can be from anywhere within range of an access point.

When a facility is located on more than one site (such as on two sides of a road). a WLAN can avoid the need to drill holes in walls. a directional antenna can be used to avoid digging trenches under roads to connect the sites. . Long-term cost benefits can be found in dynamic environments requiring frequent moves and changes. In historic buildings where traditional cabling would compromise the façade.

Security is more difficult to guarantee and requires configuration. it may be necessary to replace wireless cards and/or access points. Lower wireless bandwidth means some applications such as video streaming will be more effective on a wired LAN. . the data transfer rate to each computer will decrease accordingly. As standards change.As the number of computers using the network increases.

Devices will only operate at a limited distance from an access point. . Long-term cost benefits are harder to achieve in static environments that require few moves and changes. with the distance determined by the standard used and buildings and other obstacles between the access point and the user. A wired LAN is most likely to be required to provide a backbone to the WLAN. a WLAN should be a supplement to a wired LAN and not a complete solution.

Wireless Networking Overview ƒ ƒ Access Points NICs Network Interface Cards  PCMCIA  USB  PCI  CompactFlash ƒ Other Wireless Devices  Bridges and Routers  Print Servers ƒ PCs. Laptops. PDAs .

This section explains various common types of impairments and considerations that you may face in your wireless design and testing efforts. Many environmental factors can also affect your WLAN design. . and application and structural considerations. RF interference. you must consider common WLAN transmission and reception impairments such as Attenuation.In order to create a design for a wireless system.

You must plan your design and equipment use based on affecting ground and sky wave propagation such as transmitter height.Attenuation is the decrease in strength of a radio wave between a transmitter and a receiver. . and solar radiation factors. the strength decreases as the distance from the antenna increases. Attenuation Due to Antenna Cabling Loss due to antenna cable length must always be considered when designing a wireless system. but the greatest resistor to radio waves is the Earth. It can be caused by natural conductivity or by resistance of all sorts of physical matter. Radiated energy from the Earth and interference from trees and buildings will cause attenuation of a signal s ground waves. distance between transmitters. just as radiated energy and interference from water and dust particles in the atmosphere will affect a signal s sky waves.

trees. hills. asphalt. or tall buildings. fields. Dispersing extraneous radio waves is better than reflecting them. rocky surfaces. Examples of dispersal surfaces include rough. . shrubbery.Multipath distortion is caused by the transmitted signal traveling to the receiver via more than one path: A common cause of this is reflection of the signal from bodies of water. or any smooth. relatively flat surface. and so on. Examples of reflective surfaces include water. metal roofs.

A Yagi antenna is one example of a directional antenna that will help reduce or eliminate multipath distortion. .

Choose a standard. .Non-Technical Considerations Evaluate the need. Assess current security and future needs. Assess the environment.

Wireless Networking Overview Access Points connect the wireless network to the legacy network. .

500. .000.00 for more management features.11b Network Interface Cards (NICs) cost between P400.00 to P 600.Non-Technical Considerations ƒ ƒ 802. PCMCIA and CompactFlash versions.11b Wireless Access Points start around P2. PCI.00 and come in USB.00 for basic connectivity and run up to P2. 802.

It should include: ƒ What are your special security needs? ƒ What known vulnerabilities exist? ƒ How to safe guard against the risks? ƒ How do you recover from a security breech? .Non-Technical Considerations Develop a Security Plan.

Glass  Open w/ few walls or many separate rooms? ƒ Current technologies used  Do you use a 2.Wireless Networking Overview ƒ Look at the structure of your building.4 GHz cordless phone? Does it work throughout your environment? .  Steel. Concrete. Stone.

To enable patrons to bring their own laptop. To be on the leading edge. To enable you to easily move PCs. Can not run wire to locations needed. .Non-Technical Considerations ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ Cost savings over wireline. therefore reducing the cost of owning many PCs.

11. The current draft (V5.11.11b ƒ ƒ ƒ IEEE 802.Introduction to Wireless /802.b 2.4GHz 11Mbps IEEE 802.0) is open for comments until January 8. 2003.a 5GHz 54 Mbps IEEE 802.11g 2.11g is in the final stages of development.4Ghz Hybrid 11/54Mbps 802. .

This means anyone can access your network after hours by sitting outside with a laptop. .Non-Technical Considerations Your wireless network may not stop at your door.

Status of Wi-Fi in the Philippines. ƒ .ƒ Look for the Issues that involved NTC regarding the Wireless Fidelity in the Philippines.

John Gilmore ."The Net interprets censorship as damage and routes around it.