UNIT- I

INTRODUCTION TO IC ENGINES

HEAT

HEAT AND WORK

CONVERTIONS
‡ WORK can be completely converted into HEAT but HEAT cannot be completely converted into WORK . ‡ THE DEVISE WHICH CONVERTS HEAT INTO WORK IS ENGINE

Steam turbine) .GAS) External Combustion Engines (EC Engines): EC Engines are those in which combustion of fuels take places outside engine cylinder (Example: Steam Engine.Classifications: Internal Combustion Engines (IC Engines) External Combustion Engines (EC Engines) Internal Combustion Engines (IC Engines): IC Engines are those in which combustion of fuels take places inside engine cylinder (Example: Petrol. Diesel.

According to the method of fuel SI & CI d. Gas Engine. According to the cycle of operation Spark ignition engines(Petrol or Constant volume or Otto cycle) Compression ignition engines(Diesel or Constant Pressure) b.Classification of IC Engines: a. According to the Process of combustion Otto cycle. Dual combustion cycle . Diesel cycle. Diesel. According to the type of fuel used Petrol. c.

piston pin.Basic Parts of IC Engines: cylinder. piston rings &oil ring . crankshaft. crankpin. cylinder head. crankcase. flywheel Camshaft. connecting rod. piston.

designed to run on petrol (gasoline).About Petrol Engine: A petrol engine (also known as a gasoline engine in North America) is an internal combustion engine with spark-ignition. .

 Cycle of operation is completed in 4-strokes of the piston or 2 revolutions of the crankshaft.Working Cycles Four Stroke Petrol Engine:  It is also known as Otto cycle or constant volume cycle. of crankshaft rotation and hence a cycle consists of 720°of crankshaft rotation. 2-stroke: 1 power stroke per 1 crankshaft rev 4-stroke: 1 power stroke per 2 crankshaft rev Principle of Operation: The series of operations of an ideal four-stroke SI engine are as follows Suction Stroke or charging stroke Compression Stroke Expansion or Power Stroke or working stroke Exhaust Stroke .  Each stroke consists of 180°.

Principle of Operation .

Principle of Operation: Stroke Suction Stroke Compression Stroke Expansion or Power Stroke Exhaust Stroke Valve Position Suction Valve open Exhaust Valve closed Both Valves closed Both Valves closed Exhaust Valve open Suction Valve closed .

-Combn. Expansion Exhaust .Suction Compression Ign.

FOUR STROKE SI ENGINE .

FOUR STROKE ENGINE .

Working Principles of Four Stroke Diesel Engine: Increased pressure of combustion gases acts on piston -> converted to rotary motion Can be 2 or 4 stroke engines 2-stroke: 1 power stroke per 1 crankshaft rev 4-stroke: 1 power stroke per 2 crankshaft rev Engine stroke: A stroke is a single traverse of the cylinder by the piston (from TDC to BDC) 1 revolution of crankshaft = 2 strokes of piston .

Working Principles of Four-Stroke Diesel Engine Strokes Intake Compression Power Exhaust .

Working Principles Of Four Stroke Diesel Engine: Intake stroke Intake valve open. exhaust valve shut Piston travels from TDC to BDC Air drawn in Compression stroke Intake and exhaust valves shut Piston travels from BDC to TDC Temperature and pressure of air increase .

exhaust valve open Piston moves from BDC to TDC Combustion gases expelled .Working Principles Of Four Stroke Diesel Engine: Power stroke Intake and exhaust valves shut Fuel injected into cylinder and ignites Piston forced from TDC to BDC Exhaust stroke Intake valve shut.

FOUR STROKE CI ENGINE .

Working Principles Of Two Stroke Petrol Engine .

Working Principles Of Two Stroke Petrol Engine .

Petrol Engine Spark Ignition Ignition types Diesel Engine Compression Ignition .

23 . exhaust and transfer ports. namely inlet. instead of valves ports are cut on the cylinder walls. ‡There are three ports. ‡A spark plug is also provided.Two Stroke Cycle Petrol Engine Construction Construction : ‡A piston reciprocates inside the cylinder ‡It is connected to the crankshaft by means of connecting rod and crank ‡There are no valves in two stroke engines. ‡The closing and opening of the ports are obtained by the movement of piston. The crown of piston is made in to a shape to perform this.

Air fuel mixture which is transferred already into the engine cylinder is compressed by moving piston. The pressure and temperature increases at the end of compression.Working First Stroke : (Compression. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ 24 .Two stroke cycle Petrol Engines . ignition and inductance) (Upward stroke of piston) (a) compression: The piston moves up from Bottom Dead Centre (BDC) to Top Dead Centre (TDC) Both transfer and exhaust ports are covered by the piston.

the inlet port is uncovered by the plane.Two stroke cycle Petrol Engines .Working First Stroke : (Compression. ‡Fresh air fuel mixture enters the crankcase through the inlet port 25 . ignition and inductance) (Upward stroke of piston) (b) Ignition and Inductance: ‡ Piston almost reaches the top dead centre ‡The air fuel mixture inside the cylinder is ignited by means of an electric spark produced by a spark plug ‡At the same time.

Two stroke cycle Petrol Engines . ‡When the piston moves down. 26 .Working Second Stroke: (Downward Stroke of the engine) : (c)Expansion and Crankcase compression ‡The burning gases expand in the cylinder ‡The burning gases force the piston to move down. the air fuel mixture in the crankcase is partially compressed. This compression is known as Crank case compression. Thus useful work is obtained.

‡The crown of the piston is made of a deflected shape. The partially compressed air fuel mixture enters the cylinder through the transfer port. 27 .Two stroke cycle Petrol Engines .Working Second Stroke: (Downward Stroke of the engine) : (d) Exhaust and transfer: ‡At the end of expansion. So the fresh charge entering the cylinder is deflected upwards in the cylinder. ‡Thus the escape of fresh charge along with the exhaust gases is reduced. ‡Burnt gases escape to the atmosphere. ‡Transfer port is also opened. exhaust port is uncovered.

Working Principles Of Two Stroke Diesel Engine Compression Intake and exhaust valves shut Piston travels from BDC to TDC Temperature and pressure of air increase Power stroke Intake and exhaust valves shut Fuel injected into cylinder and ignites Piston forced from TDC to BDC .

Working Principles Of Two Stroke Diesel Engine ‡ Strokes ± Compression ± Power ± (Intake/Exhaust) .

Working Principles Of Two Stroke Diesel Engine .

Application Of Two stroke Cycle Engine Used in light vehicles Bikes. Lorries. Scooters.Application Of Four stroke Cycle Engine Used in heavy vehicles Buses. Mopeds Ship propulsion .. Trucks etc.

Application Of Four stroke Petrol Engine Buses .Trucks Mobile electric generating sets. buses and trucks 200 to 400kw-Earthmoving m/c 100 to 35000kw-Marine application . Small pumping sets with side cars Application Of Four stroke Diesel Engine 30kw-Tractors 40to 100kw ± jeeps.

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3. The injector or atomiser is employed to inject the fuel at the end of combustion stroke.Comparison of Petrol and Diesel Engines Petrol Engines 1. Pressure at the end of compression is about 10 bar. The fuel is injected in the form of fine spray. . 4.e. The temperature of the compressed air is sufficiently high to ignite the fuel. Pressure at the end of compression is about 35 bar. 2. The charge (i. The carburettor is employed to mix air and petrol in the required proportion and to supply it to the engine during suction stroke. A petrol engine draws a mixture of petrol and air during suction stroke. petrol and air mixture) is ignited with the help of spark plug. Diesel Engines A diesel engine draws only air during suction stroke.

14. 11. These are relatively low speed engines. These are also used in aeroplanes. .) 10. trucks. The maintenance cost is more. The maintenance cost is less. The thermal efficiency is about 26%.Comparison of Petrol and Diesel Engines (contd. The thermal efficiency is about 40%. 12. These are high speed engines. Overheating trouble is less due to high thermal efficiency. and earth moving machines. motorcycles and cars. The petrol engines are generally employed in light duty vehicle such as scooters. Overheating trouble is more due to low thermal efficiency.. 13. The diesel engines are generally employed in heavy duty vehicles like buses.

ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS .

ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS .

ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS .

ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS .

ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS .

ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS .

ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS .

ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS Engine capacity : 177.4cc Engine type : single cylinder.58kgm @ 6500rpm Gear box : 5 speed constant mesh Fuel system : carbureted Front brake : 270mm petal disc brake Rear brake : 200mm petal disc brake Front suspension : Telescopic hydraulic fork Rear suspension : gas shocks Front tyre: 90/90 x17 Rear tyre : 110/80 x 17 Height : 100mm Length : 2085mm Width : 730mm Ground clearance : 180mm Kerb weight : 137kg Fuel tank capacity : 16 liters . air cooled 4st Max Power : 17.3bhp @ 8500rpm Max Torque : 1.