GENERAL CHARACTER : Gram positive . Like bacteria . possess cell wall containing muramic acid. Have mycelial network of branching filament. have prokaryotic nuclei & are susceptible to antibacterial antibiotic . non capsulated . Dermatophilus . Most are free living . AEROBIC GENERA : Nocardia . non sporing . non motile .they are thin.y y y y y y y y Considered to be a transitional form between bacteria & fungi. ANAEROBIC GENERA :. filamentous that break into bacilli and coccied elements . . Arachnia .Actinomyces . streptomyces . Actinomedura etc . particularly in soil . Therefore they are true bacteria . Bifidobacterium Rothia etc .

y Bollinger(1877) found a mould like organism in the lesion of lumpy jaw in cattle. . y Wolf and Israel (1891) isolated an anaerobic bacillus from human lesions and produced experimental infections in rabbits and guinea pigs . This was named Actinomyces israelii . bovis . It causes human Actinomycosis while in cattle it is produced by A. y Term coined by Harz in reference to ray like appearance of the organism in the granules that characterize the lesions .

Characterised by development of indurated swelling in connective tissues . Haemophilus aphrophilus . A. and anaerobic sreptococci . meyri etc . In human beings . staphyloocci . causing a trauma (foreign bodies or poor oral hygiene may favour tissue invasion . A. normally present in mouth intestine and vagina as a commensels . caused an endogenos infection . leading to multiple sinuses . The lesions often points towards skin .y y y y y Chronic granulomatous infection occuring in human beings and animals .) Causative agents are Actinomyces israelii . . viscous . It is usually a cooperative diseases that is usually accompained by other associated bacteria which include Bifidobacterium dentium . suppuration of discharge of sulphur granules . odontolyticum . Fusobacteria . A.

Cervico facial .with lesion in lungs that may involve pleura and pericardium . y Thoracic .With indurated lesion on cheek and submaxillay region .it has been associated with a use of intrauterine devices . y Abdominal .where the lesion is usually around the cecum . y . y Pelvic . sometimes infection spreads to the liver by portal vein .

israeliis grow as fluffy balls at bottom . These granules are washed and inoculated into thioglycollate and incubated anaerobically at 37 degree celsius where A. Granules are white and yellowish and about 5 mm when examined. . Granules are infact bacterial colonies and Gram positive filaments . granules sediments and may be with drawn with a capillary pipette . On standing .y y y y y y Made by demonstrating Actinomycetes in the lesions by microscopy and by isolation in culture . bovis produces tubidity and A. Sulphur granules may be taken from pus which may be demonstrated by shaking it up in the test tube with some saline . surrounded by a peripheral zone of club shaped structures which is believed to be a antigen antibody complex .

Cervico facial .  Treatment will have to be continued for several months and supplemented by surgery where necessary . Pelvic .Thoracic .woman using intrauterine devices . Worldwide diseases . TREATMENT : The diseases responds to prolonged treatment with penicillin and tetracycline .  More common in rural areas and agricultural workers 60 % . 10 % .Abdominal . 20 % . . but its incidence in advance countries declining because of use of antibiotics .

y Found in soil and infection may be exogeneous . y Gram positive and some species such as N. brasiliensis are acid fast . y Systemic infection .causes Actinomycotic mycetoma which is a localised . granulomayous involvement of Sub-cutaneous and deeper tissues . commonly affecting the foot .cutaneous . Lung abscesses .generally cause pulmonary disease pneumonia . and hand presenting as a tumour with multiple discharging sinuses . asteroides and N . y CAUSES :y Cutaneous infection ( local abscesses ) y Sub.Resemble Actinomyces in morphology but are aerobic . y .

y TREATMENT . y Minocycline and cefotaxime are also effective .y Cotrimoxazole given for several months may be usefull . y . y Grow readily on ordinary media forming dry granular wrinkled colonies which produce pigment ranging from yellow to red .By demonstration of branching filaments microscopically and by isolation in the culture .