An Introduction to Drilling

Akshat Tarate Summer Trainee New Builds Division - EOSIL

Topics to be covered
What is Drilling Components of Drilling Drilling Systems Well Control Systems Circulation Systems Drillstring Components Drilling Process


Times change

An Event of Joy turning into a BIG Problem!!!


Global Disaster


What is Drilling
It is a process of creating a hole in the given work-piece of a certain diameter In our case it is a process of creating a hole in the earth to provide a conduit for the production of oil and gas.


Components of a Drilling Rig .

Components of a drilling rig 7 .

Power System 8 Horse Power of Rig? .

Hoisting System The hoisting system is a large pulley system which is used to lower and raise equipment into and out of the well such as ± Drillstring ± Casing 9 .

Swivel 10 .

Drawworks 11 .

around which the drill line is spooled. used when running. are also connected to the travelling block. A set of clamps. the drillstring or casing into or out of the hole. known as the elevators. This hook is used to suspend the drillstring. A large hook with a snap-shut locking device is suspended from the travelling block. or pulling. 12 . known as the crown block and down to another set of sheaves known as the travelling block. The drilling line is reeved over a set of sheaves in the top of the derrick. The drum of the drawworks is connected to an electric motor and gearing system.Hoisting System Drawworks ± The drawworks consists of a large revolving drum.

It is the true load bearing structure of a Land rig. 13 .Derrick It is the structure used to support the crown blocks and the drillstring of a drilling rig.

Derrick 14 .

Drilling Systems .

Kelly Drive Systems It consists of the following components ± Kelly ± Kelly Bushing ± Rotary Table 16 .

It must have this hexagonal shape to transmit rotation from the rotary table to the drillstring.Kelley The kelly is the first section of pipe below the swivel. 17 . It is normally about 40µ long. and has an outer hexagonal cross-section.

18 .Rotary Table The revolving or spinning section of the drillfloor that provides power to turn the drillstring in a clockwise or anticlockwise direction.

19 .Kelley Bushing An adapter that serves to connect the rotary table to the kelly. It is connected to the rotary table by four large steel pins that fit into mating holes in the rotary table. The kelly bushing has an inside diameter profile that matches that of the kelly. usually square or hexagonal.

Top Drive 20 .

21 . The electric motor delivers over 25000 ft-lbs torque and can operate at 300 rpm.Top Drive Systems A top drive system consists of a power swivel. driven by a 1000 hp dc electric motor. This power swivel is connected to the travelling block and both components run along a vertical guide track which extends from below the crown block to within 3 metres of the rig floor.

On land rigs or fixed platforms the BOP stack is located directly beneath the rig floor.Well Control system Blow Out Preventer ± BOPs are basically high pressure valves which seal off the top of the well. Types of BOP ± Annular BOP ± Ram Type BOP ‡ Pipe Ram BOP ‡ Shear Ram BOP ‡ Blind Ram BOP 22 .

Annular BOP 23 .

Ram Type BOP 24 .

Kill and Choke Manifold 25 .

BOP Accumulator System 26 .

Mud Circulation System .

Mud Circulation System 28 .

Hopper Works on the Venturimeter System 29 .

Mud Pits 30 .

Mud Pump 31 .

Shale Shaker 32 .

Centrifuge 33 .

Drilling String Components .

gouging or grinding the rock at the bottom of the hole. chipping. The bit drills through the rock by scraping. 35 F . Everything on a drilling rig directly or indirectly assists the bit in crushing or cutting the rock.Drill Bit The tool used to crush or cut rock.

± To Provide Weight on Bit (WOB) F 36 .Drill Collar Drill collars are tubulars which have a much larger outer diameter and generally smaller inner diameter than drillpipe. ± To provide stiffness in the BHA for directional control. The function of drill collars are: ± To provide enough weight on bit for efficient drilling ± To keep the drillstring in tension. thereby reducing bending stresses and failures due to fatigue.

The rotation and cutting action of the bit can frequently result in a vertical bouncing effect. More lengths of HWDP are required to maintain compression in highly deviated holes. The major benefits of HWDP are: ± ± ± ± Increased wall thickness Longer tool joints Uses more hard facing May have a long central upset section 37 It should always be operated in compression. . The stress concentration is due to: ± ± The difference in cross section and therefore stiffness between the drillpipe and drillcollars. The HWDP is used to absorb the stresses being transferred from the stiff drill collars to the relatively flexible drillpipe.Heavy Weigh Drillpipe Heavy wall drillpipe (or heavy weight drillpipe) has a greater wall thickness than ordinary drillpipe and is often used at the base of the drillpipe where stress concentration is greatest.

The Drillpipe is a seamless pipe with threaded connections. At the other end of each length ofdrillpipe is the male end of the connection known as the pin. 38 . known as tool joints. At one end of the pipe there is the box. which has the female end of the connection.Drill Pipe Drillpipe is the major component of the drillstring It generally constitutes 90-95% of the entire length of the drillstring.

Stabilizer 39 .

Help to prevent wall sticking. Increase bit life by reducing wobble. In vertical holes the functions of stabilisers may be summarised as follows: Reduce buckling and bending stresses on drill collars Allow higher WOB since the string remains concentric even in compression. Act as a key seat wiper when placed at top of collars.Stabilizers The function of the stabiliser depends on the type of hole being drilled. 40 .

Drilling Process .

30´ Conductor It is placed by three ways ± Drilling a 36´ hole and placing a 30´ conductor ± Pile Driving (done in the desert areas and offshore) ± Jetting (done offshore) 42 .

Piling of a 30´ Conductor The conductor is then driven to refusal. Refusal is defined as the number of hammer blows per foot of penetration The conductors are usually welded and driven. 43 .

Working of Diesel Pile Driver 44 .

Drilling a 26´ Hole The hole can be drilled in two ways ± Drill the hole with 26´ bit ± Drill a 17½´ hole and underream it to 26´ 45 .

Installation of 20´ Casing The casing bowl is then set on the rotary table The elevators are prepared The float collar and float shoe is made into the casing string and lowered The casing is then cemented 46 .

Drilling a 17 ½´ Hole For drilling this hole we generally use a 21 ¼´ annular BOP. 47 . The BOP has to comply to API 16A.

13 3/8´ Casing Job The 17 ½´ section is drilled. 13 3/8´ casing is run in hole and cemented in place. The wellhead is then bolted on top of the Surface casing wellhead. 48 .

Drilling 12 ¼´ Hole The Mud is prepared and 12 ¼´ BHA is made up and run in the hole LOT are carried out to find out the Formation Integrity 49 .

Recommended BOP configuration 13 5/8´ Annular 13 5/8´ Double Ram ± Pipe Ram ± Shear Ram 13 5/8 Annular BOP 13 5/8 Pipe Ram BOP 13 5/8 Shear Ram BOP 13 5/8´ Pipe Ram Drilling Spool 13 5/8 Pipe Ram BOP 50 .

9 5/8´ Casing After the hole section is drilled. 9 5/8´ production casing is run. 51 . hung off in the wellhead. The entire production casing is then pressure tested to maximum expected tubing pressure (METP) This casing goes to around 10000 ft. cemented and pressure tested.

with the same configuration as for the 12 ¼´ BHA. FIT/LOT are carried out 52 . is normally used to drill through the production casing cement shoe and the reservoir to well target.Drilling a 8 ½´Hole A 8 ½´ BHA.

The liner will typically be hung off with a 100 to 150m overlap into the production casing.7´ Liner Job The 7" liner is made up and run in hole on a running string. The Liner is also Cemented in place 53 .

Thank You Any Questions?? 54 .