EndoCavity

Transrectal Transvaginal Ultrasound

it is sometimes necessary for the ultrasound probe to be positioned inside the body. . This type of internal ultrasound scans commonly are used to view the prostate gland. gall bladder and esophagus. they are not usually painful. stomach. and an endocavity transducer can be used for rectal and vaginal examinations. While these types of medical tests may be uncomfortable.Although many types of ultrasounds are carried out from outside the body.

Ultrasound uses a transducer that sends out ultrasonic sound waves at a frequency too high to be heard. When the transducer is placed at certain locations and angles. which are then converted into an electronic picture of the organs. . The sound waves bounce off the organs like an echo and return to the transducer. the ultrasonic sound waves move through the skin and other body tissues to the organs and structures within. The transducer picks up the reflected waves.

. The beam is swept like a search-light through the tissue or object being examined. the beam can be steered electronically. and the data from multiple beams are put together to make a visual image showing a slice through the object. each of which can be pulsed individually. The Endocavity . The transducer elements control the characteristics and direction of the soundbeam. Usually. A curvilinear array gives a large footprint and near field with a wide sector. for instance by pulsing the elements one by one in sequence along a row.Phased Array probe consists of many small ultrasonic elements. By varying the timing.Endocavity Phased Array A curved or curvilinear array transducer is similar to a linear array except that the image created has a sector type format. curved transducers are described by the radius of curvature in mm. In other words. a pattern of constructive interference is set up that results in a beam at a set angle.

Steering: Electronic Broken Crystal: poor steering and focusing.Endocavity Transducer The Endocavity transducer is a small ultrasound transducer with high frequency and inserted internally. . Frequency: 6 18 MHz Array Elements Curvature radius: 10 13 mm 180 degree angle view.

. The following slides are examples two endocavity pelvic exams (rectal and vaginal). A pelvic ultrasound allows quick visualization of the pelvic organs and structures.Endocavity Pelvic Exam A pelvic ultrasound is a noninvasive (the skin is not pierced) procedure used to assess organs and structures within the pelvis.

Female Pelvic Exam Pelvic Ultrasound Examines: * ovaries * fallopian tubes * uterus * cervix * bladder Male Pelvic Exam Pelvic Ultrasound Examines: * bladder * prostate gland * seminal vesicles .

Preparation .

You may feel some pressure. A digital rectal examination will be done before the ultrasound test. If a man is also having a biopsy of the prostate gland. he may be given antibiotics for a day before the test. Tell your health professional if you are allergic to latex so that a latex-free cover can be put on the transducer before it is used.Transrectal Test Preparation If you are having a transrectal ultrasound. Then a lubricated transducer probe will be gently inserted into your rectum. It will slowly be moved to take pictures from different angles. . you may need an enema about an hour before the test. You will be asked to lie on your left side with your knees bent. Water may be put into your rectum to clean the end of the transducer so that clear pictures can be seen.

Transrectal Ultrasound 7. such as the prostate and seminal vesicles.5 MHz. A transrectal ultrasound is the most common test to look at the male pelvic organs. Curved Phased Array Transrectal Ultrasound Transducer is shaped to fit into the rectum. Sometimes. a small sample of tissue (biopsy) may be taken with small tools inserted through the rectum during a transrectal ultrasound. .

and ejaculatory duct obstruction (Zinner syndrome) vesicle cyst. P. ipsilateral seminal The present article reports a triad of right renal agenesis. prostate. Gross dilatation of the proximal part of right seminal vesicle is also seen (arrow).Zinner's syndrome is a triad of mullerian duct abnormality comprising of unilateral renal agenesis. (b) Trans-rectal ultrasound parasagittal image showing a large cyst (*) with internal echoes in the region of right seminal vesicle. UB. [2]. urinary bladder . ipsilateral seminal vesicle cyst.[3] The case illustrated in this article is unique in terms of early age of presentation during late adolescence with predominantly urinary symptoms Transrectal Scan: Zinner Syndrome :(a) Trans-rectal ultrasound transverse image showing a large cyst (*) with internal echoes in the region of right seminal vesicle. and ejaculatory duct obstruction. [1] The patients are in a 19-year boy who presented with urinary symptoms usually diagnosed at third or fourth decade of life and often present with infertility.

000 new cases of Prostate Cancer will occur this year. However. .Prostate Cancer: Transrectal Ultrasound The American Cancer Society estimates that about 235. Prostate Cancer can be treated effectively if it is caught in the early stages.

.Transvaginal Test Preparation If you are having a transvaginal ultrasound. Only the tip of the transducer is put in the vagina. You will not need to drink fluids to fill your bladder for the test as you do in a transabdominal ultrasound. lubricated transducer probe will be gently inserted into your vagina. You will be asked to lie on your back with your hips slightly raised. A thin. You need to lie very still while the ultrasound scan is being done. you will empty your bladder. tell your health professional if you are allergic to latex so that a latex-free cover can be put on the transducer before it is used. For transvaginal ultrasound. do not drink any fluids for 4 hours before the test. If you are having only a transvaginal ultrasound.

Curved Array Transvaginal Ultrasound Transducer is shaped to fit into a woman's vagina. In rare cases. A transvaginal ultrasound is done to look for problems with fertility. Sometimes. a small sample of tissue (biopsy) may be taken with small tools inserted through the vagina during a transvaginal ultrasound . a hysterosonogram is done to look at the inside of the uterus by filling the uterus with fluid during a transvaginal ultrasound. A woman may have both transabdominal and transvaginal ultrasounds to look at the whole pelvic area.5 Mhz.Transvaginal Ultrasound 6.

Normal Transvaginal Ultrasound Normal uterus during transvaginal ultrasound. .

Ultrasound scanning gives a clear picture of soft tissues that do not show up well on x-ray images. Ultrasound is the preferred imaging modality for the diagnosis and monitoring of pregnant women and their unborn babies. Ultrasound provides real-time imaging.Advantages Most ultrasound scanning is noninvasive (no needles or injections) and is usually painless. Ultrasound is widely available. Pelvic ultrasound can help to identify and evaluate a variety of urinary and reproductive system disorders in both sexes without even the minimal risks associated with x-ray exposure . easy-to-use and less expensive than other imaging methods. Ultrasound imaging does not use any ionizing radiation. making it a good tool for guiding minimally invasive procedures such as needle biopsies and needle aspiration.

barium exams. Large patients are more difficult to image by ultrasound because tissue attenuates (weakens) the sound waves as they pass deeper into the body.Disadvantages Ultrasound waves are disrupted by air or gas. CT scanning. therefore ultrasound is not an ideal imaging technique for the bowel or organs obscured by the bowel. and MRI are the methods of choice in this setting. In most cases. .