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A synonym is a substitute of a word, similar in meaning and sense which has to perform the same function in a sentence as the original word does. Thus a noun must have a noun synonym; an adjective must be replaced by an adjective synonym, and so on e.g. I praise her form (verb) I admire her form (verb) This is exactly what he meant (adv) This is precisely what he meant. (adv)
Find out the words nearest in meaning to the words underlined. A) he has amassed a lot of wealth 1.)saved 2)heaped 3) earned 4) hoarded B) The event was really spectacular 1) visible 2) extravagant 3) impressive 4) oracular. C) The beauty of the Himalayas arrested his breath. 1) choked 2)freshened 3) Interrupted 4) held.
Calm Caution Barbarous Auspicious Assistance Ignore Mysterious Novice Comprehend Renounce Insolence Triumph Vocation .. I appreciate the alteration suggested by the engineer 1) Improvement 2) Alternation 3)change4) adulteration. Provide a synonym to the words given.EXERCISE Contd.
Absent Active Birth Bitter Stagnant Elaborate Dusk Word .g. Death Sweet Flowing Brief Dawn.ANTONYM Antonym is a word which is opposite in meaning and sense. If exact opposite is not available. For e. we select the nearest opposite. Antonym Present Passive.
For.g.e.) A homonym can be used as different parts of speech. . It is the context. The noun ³bear´ and the verb ³bear´ are homonyms (of each other.HOMONYMS Homonym is a word that has both the same sound and spelling as another but is different in meaning and origin. that gives a correct meaning to the word. in which a word is used.
Arm stick Still Vice Arch rush Bark boot Last bridge. Bat Base Bear Boot Case Corporal Hamper Plot Pale .EXERCISE Use the following Homonyms in different contexts so that they convey different meanings.
their spellings confuse us thus resulting in mistakes.HOMOPHONES Homophone is a word that sounds like another word but is different in spelling. Effect Addition. ¶Knew¶ and µnew ¶are homophones (of each other) Homophones are sound. for e.when it comes to writing. .g. Edition Adapt.alikes . Adept Birth. Berth. meaning and origin. Affect.
2. In yoga. 4. you learn to control your (breath. 1. 5. He was caught by the first (slip.laid) in his bed the whole night but could not sleep. quite) again. Soon the crowd dispersed and it was all (quit.Complete the following sentences using the appropriate word from those given in the brackets. He (lied . breathe. sleep)in both the innings. breadth. 3. 6.empire) raised his finger.awaiting) a reply to my letter. he had left the crease. quiet.lay . Even before the (umpire . .) I have been (waiting .
PARONYMS Paronyms are words derived from the same root but different in meaning. . Admittance Childish. Childlike Considerate.g. considerable. . E.admission. The root part of the word has resemblance of spelling and sound.
In other words a single word can replace the whole sentence. for e.ONE WORD SUBSTITUTION Brevity is a quality in communication. some important substitutes can be One who does not believe in god--.atheist . which can be achieved by using a single word which shall convey the meaning conveyed by a group of words.g.
A man who thinks highly only of himself± Egoist That which cannot be heard--.Anniversary One who believes in keeping tradition± conservative A speech made without preparation± Extempore. .ONE WORD SUBSTITUTION Contd« Belonging to one¶s ancestors--.Inaudible.aquatic The yearly return of a date--.Ancestral Animals that live in water ---.
Syntax Sentence Structures. Verb patterns and their usage .
SYNTAX It is through meaningful sentences that we communicate. A sentence is a combination of words in a certain order. . Syntax tells us about that order. So it is important to know how a sentence is formed. it is the way words and phrases are to be put together to form meaningful sentences.
An aero plane flies in the air. Reena is my sister. children play football regularly. various combinations are possible giving rise to a variety of structures. The Sentence: a sentence is a combination of words that makes complete sense in itself. 1. 2. 3.SYNTAX Contd« The art and science of µputting words and phrases together¶ to form sentences can be studied by examining function of words in a sentence.g. . for e.
Where do you live? For e. .g. They always end with a question mark...I will not go there (Negative) Interrogative sentences: Sentences of this kind are used to make enquiries. The earth moves round the sun (affirmative) . Statements: statements are the sentences that state or declare something.g. 4. 2. For e. Can I help you? 1.KINDS OF SENTENCES There are four kinds of sentences. They are also called assertive or declarative sentences. 3.
pity. admiration . For e g What a beautiful building! How hot it is! . sorrow and other feelings in an emphatic way. These sentences always end with an Exclamatory mark.EXCLAMATIONS: Sentences of this kind express surprise.
has over a thousand pupils. . Gupta He The school It B is a teacher teaches in a school. SUBJECT AND PREDICATE A Mr. is a leading school of the town .PART OF A SENTENCE.
Predicate tells what action the subject does. it -. we find that it can be: _ name of person : Mr. Gupta -.a pronoun : he. The first part (column A) is called the Subject. The second part (column-B) is called the Predicate.Each of these has two parts. The subject is the agent of action . . On an analysis of the subject (column-a).a noun with a possessive : his students .the school Adjective or an article before it.
does etc. compliment.DEFINITION Subject :The subject is a noun or a pronoun with or without other words going with it. adverb. . Predicate :The Predicate has a verb that says what the subject is. It may also be defined as the verb and the words²object.that go with it. adverb phrase etc. has.
In the above sentences. . but not complete sense. the group of words in italics make sense. Such a group of words that makes sense. but not complete sense is called a phrase.THE PHRASE The sun rises in the east The birds fly in the sky There was a knock on the door.
THE CLAUSE She has a chain of gold She has a chain that is made of gold.) It is a clause. . In the second sentence the group of words that is made of gold has a subject (that) and a predicate (is made of gold. In the first sentence of gold is a phrase.
SIMPLE SENTENCES Rita bought an expensive dress Rita was a student of Miranda house She wants to become an engineer Each of these sentences has a subject and one verb in the predicate part of the sentence. Such sentences are called simple sentences .
THE MAIN PARTS OF A SIMPLE SENTENCE 1) 2) 3) The subject-it may be a noun. He bought a pen.) An object if the verb is transitive e. The verb-it is a finite verb (F.g. verbs change with the number and person of the subject. a noun phrase or a pronoun. .
Each sentence is a combination of two independent clauses joined by a conjunction. Walk fast or you will miss the train Each of these sentences has two different clauses.COMPOUND SENTENCE We bought the tickets and went in. Each clause in the sentence above has one finite verb .
. You will miss the train A sentence that has more than one independent clause joined together by a conjunction is called a compound sentence. Walk fast. We went in.) We bought the tickets.COMPOUND SENTENCES (CONT. The principal clauses are joined together with the help of coordinating Conjunctions.
) Here is a list of coordinating Conjunctions: But Yet Still For So Not only«But also Nevertheless Either«or Neither«nor .COMPOUND SENTENCES (CONT.
The clause that is italicized is the subordinate or the dependent clause. This is the book that I wanted to read. The clause that is not italicized can stand by itself as a complete sentence. . It is called the principal or the main clause.COMPLEX SENTENCES This is a place where he was born The man whom you helped is my neighbour The thief ran away when he saw us. Each of the above sentences has two clauses.
that both subordinating conjunctions (though. lest. It can be seen from the above e. It will have more than one Finite verb.) Definition : A sentence .g. yet. is called a complex sentence.which has a principal clause and at least one subordinate clause.COMPLEX SENTENCES (CONT. nevertheless) and relative pronouns .