INTRODUCTION

KEYBOARD IS AN INPUT DEVICE. The keyboard, like a typewriter, is used for entering characters (such as letters, numbers and symbols). -> Keyboard layouts are different. The Qwerty keyboard was designed in 1868 in Milwaukee by Christopher Latham Sholes, who placed the keys corresponding to the most commonly used letter pairs at opposite ends of the keyboard, in order to prevent the typewriter hammers of the time from becoming jammed with one another. This keyboard was first sold by the company Remington in 1873.

Dvorak 
In 1936, August Dvorak (a professor at the

University of Washington) created a keyboard whose keys were arranged solely with efficiency in mind. The Dvorak keyboard placed all the vowels of the alphabet and the five most common consonants on the central row so they could be easily accessed, while also evenly dividing the work between the left and right hands.

Keyboard connector
Keyboards are generally plugged into the rear of the CPU, on the motherboard, using a purple PS/2 connector:

How it works
Inside the keyboard, there are metallic plate, circuit board (key matrix) and processor, which are responsible for transferring information from the keyboard to the computer. When a key is pressed, an electrical contact is formed between the row and column. The electric signals are transmitted to a microcontroller, which sends a code (BCD, ASCII or Unicode) to the computer describing the character which corresponds to that key.

Types of keyboards
There are four types of keyboards for PCs. The first three were invented by IBM, while the latter is the result of changes made when Microsoft Windows 95 was released. These are the four kinds of keyboards: 
The 83-key keyboard (PC/XT)  The 84-key keyboard (PC/AT)  The 102-key keyboard, called the extended keyboard  The 105-key Microsoft Windows 95-compatible keyboard.

1) PC/XT keyboards(83 keys) This was criticised for the arrangement of the keys(especially the Shift and Enter keys) which were too small and poorly placed). No LED indicator.

2) PC/AT keyboards(84 keys) This keyboard corrected the errors , by resizing the Shift and Enter keys. Additionally, the keyboard was bidirectional, meaning that it could display its status using LED indicator lights

3) Extended keyboards(102 keys) This new keyboard included different blocks of keys: The function keys were moved to the top of the keyboard, while cursor control keys, represented by arrows, were added

Microsoft Windows-compatible keyboards These three new keys are, from left to right: The left Windows key,The right Windows key The Application key.

ESCAPE KEY

The Escape key is used to cancel the data entry and to terminate the execution of the commands and programs.

FUNCTION KEYS

The Function keys are numbered F1, F2, F3,....F12. These are programmable keys used to issue commands. For example, F1 is most often used to access the Help file for a program.

PRINT SCREEN KEY

It used for the screen shots.

SCROLL LOCK

The Scroll Lock key is more useful under DOS where pressing it will stop text on the screen from scrolling off the top of the screen. This gives you time to read or print it before continuing.

PAUSE

Pause key is little used under Windows. Under DOS it is used to halt actions in progress, often so that messages on the screen can be read before they scroll off the screen.

TAB KEY
Tab key is used in documents to move the cursor over to the right to a pre-set point.

CAPS LOCK
When the Caps Lock key is on, pressing any alphabetic key will result in an upper case (capital) letter. The number and symbol keys are not affected.

SHIFT KEY
The Shift key is used in combination with the alphabetic keys to get upper case. With a numeric/symbol key, using the Shift key will produce the character at the top of the key.

CONTROL KEY
The Control key does nothing all by itself. It must be pressed in combination with other keys. When used in combination, the Control key changes the normal effect of a key. Exactly what will happen depends on the software in use at the time.

ALT KEY
The Alt key doesn't do anything by itself. But if you hold it down while pressing another key, an alternative meaning for each key will be established.

SPACE BAR

The Spacebar is used to enter blank spaces in text.

ARROW KEYS

These four keys are used to move the cursor on the screen.

ALPHABET KEYS

The letters of the alphabet and some punctuation marks are in these three rows. The order of the keys is called QWERTY from the order of the keys on the top row. This arrangement of the letters was inherited from the typewriter.

NUMBER/SYMBOL KEYS

On this row of keys you will see two characters, one at the top of the key and one at the bottom. The upper character is a symbol and is accessed by holding the Shift key down while pressing the key. Numbers can also be typed from the Numeric Keypad.

1)Eclipse LiteTouch LCD Touch screen Keyboard

2) Optimus Tactus Touch Keyboard

3) Pc Inside a Keyboard
This new generation All-in-One PC in a keyboard not only takes up far less desktop space, but also puts an Intel® Core 2 Quad CPU with all its features and performance at your fingertips. Simply place it on your desktop, plug in a monitor and you are done.

4)

Silicone Keyboard with Mouse (SKM) 

This silicone keyboard with integrated mouse is the first choice

for environments that require washable keyboards. The rigid surface of the keyboard offers to the user the best tactile feedback feeling, which is similar to a regular keyboard of personal computer. SKM Keyboard is a 100% compatible to a standard keyboard and does not require any special driver. SKM keyboard as 102 keys and a "QWERTY" (or "AZERTY") type configuration. A single type A USB connector supports the keyboard and the mouse devices. Facts Ideal for hospitals, laboratories, at nursing stations, on medical carts or anywhere cleanliness and reliability are of outmost concern.

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