This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Huawei Confidential. All Rights Reserved
Parameters Optimization is an important step after RF Optimization Service quality and network resources utilization will be improved after Parameters Optimization
N w S s In rg te e ite te ra d
S g S V rific tio in le ite e a n
C ste o S s lu r f ite re dy ? a Y S E
R O tim a n F p is tio
S rv e T s g e ic s e tin P ra e r O tim a n a m te p is tio
Y S E
R g la R fe n e R u e u r e re c o te Ts g e tin & S tsA a s ta n ly is
R - o tim tion e p isa Ne d ? e de
Objectives Upon completion this course. of Parameters 4 Internal Use . you will be able to: Understand the procedure of Parameters Optimization Master the contents Optimization.
Chapter 1 Parameters Optimization Procedure Chapter 2 Parameters Optimization Content 5 Internal Use .
Get Data again and Compare Y Problems Eliminate Or Need not Change more End 6 Internal Use .Parameters Optimization Procedure Data Input and Find Problems Verify Parameter Problems Y Classify Parameter Problems N Other Process Determine Parameter Values to be Modified and List MML Commands Evaluate Changing Effects N Determine whether Changing Y Prepare Test Plan and Implement Changing N End Test .
Data Input and Find Problems
Drive Test Data KPI Network Statistic Data
Network Tracing Message Network Warning Information
Use Input Data to find out the Problems such as - Call Setup Success Rate Low - Handover Success Rate Low - Drop Call Rate High etc.
Verify Parameter Problems
No RF Problems
Related with Environment Or Speed Parameter Problems
No Hardware /Software Problem
Parameters never Optimized Before
Classify Parameter Problems
Mobile Management Parameter Problems Power Control Parameter Problems Power Configuration Parameter Problems Load Control Parameter Problems Other Parameter Problems
New Parameter List Parameters Changing MML Command Values 10 Internal Use .Determine Parameter Values List Parameters Changing Form Original Parameter Values vs.
Evaluate Changing Influence Evaluate influence on Customer Service and Other Networks Evaluate influence on OMC ( Efforts . Maintenance) 11 Internal Use .
Tools and be ready to get Information . 12 Internal Use . Change Parameters and Make Records. Routes.Prepare Test Plan and Implement Changing Prepare Test schedule .
Chapter 1 Parameters Optimization Procedure Chapter 2 Parameters Optimization Content 13 Internal Use .
Cell Selection & Reselection 2. Handover 14 Internal Use .Chapter 2 Parameter Optimization Contents 1.
15 Internal Use . Only some parameters about network optimization are mentioned here and maybe more parameters need to be added in the future.Parameters Optimization Contents Mobile Management Parameters Optimization Power Control Parameters Optimization Power Configuration Parameters Optimization Load Control Parameters Optimization Note: Because there are a lot of parameters . it is not possible to introduce every parameter .
Mobile Management Parameters Optimization Cell Selection & Reselection . .Changing of cell on which UE camped on.Ensure seamless coverage and load balancing.Only for UE in Idle more or Cell_FACH. 16 Internal Use . CELL_PCH and URA_PCH .Changing cell for UE in CELL_DCH mode .To ensure UE is always connected to the best serving cell to receive system information and establishing RRC connection Handover .
Cell Selection & Reselection Procedure g hr weee a o e hn v r e nw L Ns e PM i sl c d e t ee n c l i f r ao o e n mi n l o t so do t e L N t r f r h PM e c l i f r ao e n mi n l o t so do t e L N t r f r h PM e Srd t e o i f r ao n mi n o t Cl Sl co e e t n l ei n s i al ou b t e c l f ud e on l 1 n s i al c l f ud o u b e on t e l I ii l na t Cl Sl co e e t n l ei s i al c l f ud u b e on t e l 2 s i al c l f u d u b e on t e l n s i al ou b t e c l f ud e on l Cl Sl co e e t n l ei we l ai g hnev n c net d once me o d s i al u b t e c l f ud e on l Cm d ap e nr ay o l ml NSni a s ht Aid t ta ce r g t ao o s l ce ei r t n n e t d s i e PM i r j c d LN e t s ee ( xet w c ue 1 ec p i h as #4 t [ ]1 ] 5[ 6 o #5 r 1 ) rt r t e no u il me d o e d l ae ev il me d o e d t i gr rge s i al u b t e c l f ud e on l Cnet d once me o d Cl e l Rs l co ee t n ei Ea ao vl t n ui P cs r es o n s i al ou b t e c l f ud e on l g hr oe e we n hn o UI i S n M te E hU n ac p b c l f ud o ce t l e o n ae l AyCl n e l Sl ci n e to e UI i s re S ne d M t ac p b c et l ae c l f ud e on l Cl Sl ci n e e to l e we l ai g hnev n c net d once me o d 1 ac p b c et l ae c l f ud e on l Cm d n ap o e a y el n cl s i al u b t e c l f ud e on l 2 rtr t e no u il me d o e d l ae ev il me d o e d t i gr rge ac p b c et l ae c l f ud e on l Cnet d once me o d ( m gny E e ec r c lsol ) a n l y Cl e l Rs l ci n ee to e Ea ao vl t n ui P cs r es o n ac p b o ce t l ae c l f ud e on l 17 Internal Use .
Q rxlev in m P pensatio com n When UE wants to select an UMTS cell . 18 Internal Use . the cell should satisfy S Criterion.Cell Selection Criteria (S Criteria) The cell selection criterion S is fulfilled when: fo F Dc lls: r D e fo T Dc lls: r D e S le >0 A DS u >0 rx v N q al S le >0 rx v Where: S qual = S rxlev = Qqualm eas Qrxlevm eas – Q u in q alm .
Cell Selection Parameters 19 Internal Use .
If Sintrasearch is not sent for serving cell. perform intra-frequency measurements. Sintersearch perform inter-frequency measurements. UE need not perform inter-frequency measurements. Sintrasearch perform intra-frequency measurements. perform measurements on cells of RAT "m".Cell Re-selection Measure Condition Uses Squal for FDD cells and Srxlev for TDD for Sx Sx > Sintrasearch. Sx > SsearchRAT m. Sintrasearch Sx <= Sintrasearch. is not sent for serving cell. Sintersearch Sx <= Sintersearch. If Sintersearch. is not sent for serving cell. perform inter-frequency measurements. UE need not perform intra-frequency measurements. 20 Internal Use . If SsearchRAT m. Sx > Sintersearch. UE need not perform measurements on cells of RAT"m". perform measurements on cells of RAT "m". If Sx <= SsearchRAT m.
s ea Rn = Qm s. respectively.s + Qhyst.Qoffset.More than 1 second has elapsed since UE camped on the current serving cell. only if the following conditions are met: .n ea . 2) Select the Cell with the highest R value using the following method: Rs = Qm s. R values are calculated using CPICH RSCP. 21 Internal Use .s. .New cell is better ranked than the serving cell during a time interval Treselection. the UE shall reselect the new cell.Cell Reselection Criteria (R Criteria) 1) All cells satisfy S Criteria.n Cells are ranked according to the R criteria. In all cases. TDD and GSM cells. P-CCPCH RSCP and the averaged received signal level for FDD.
Cell Reselection Parameters 22 Internal Use .
Cell Reselection Parameters 23 Internal Use .
Handover 24 Internal Use . Cell Selection & Reselection 2.Chapter 2 Parameter Optimization Contents 1.
Handover Procedure –Neighbor cells both from same NodeB or other NodeBs Node B measurement control Measurement and filtering Node B Measurement report Node B Handover decision Handover execution Intra-frequency cells 25 Internal Use .
Soft Handover Example 26 Internal Use .
Soft Handover Procedure 27 Internal Use .
Otherwise it is equal to 0. NA : The number of cells not forbidden to affect reporting range in the current active set. Internal Use 28 . W : Parameter sent from UTRAN to UE. R1a : Reporting range constant. CIONew : Cell individual offset for the cell entering the reporting range if an individual cell offset is stored for that cell.Soft Handover Event – 1A 1A (Add a cell in Active Set) NA 10 ⋅ LogMNew + CIONew ≥ W ⋅10 ⋅ Log ∑ M i + (1 − W ) ⋅10 ⋅ LogMBest − ( R1a − H1a / 2) i =1 MNew : Measurement result of cell entering the reporting range. H1a : Hysteresis for the event 1a. not taking into account any cell individual offset. Mi : Measurement result of a cell not forbidden to affect reporting range in the active set. MBest : Measurement result of the cell not forbidden to affect reporting range in the active set with the highest measurement result.
Mi : Measurement result of a cell not forbidden to affect reporting range in the active set. W: Parameter sent from UTRAN to UE. H1b : Hysteresis for the event 1b. 29 Internal Use . MBest : Measurement result of the cell not forbidden to affect reporting range in the active set with the lowest measurement result. R1b : Reporting range constant. CIOOld : Cell individual offset for the cell leaving the reporting range if an individual cell offset is stored for that cell.Soft Handover Event – 1B 1B (Remove a cell from Active Set) NA ≤ W ⋅10 ⋅ Log ∑ M i + (1 − W ) ⋅10 ⋅ LogM Best − ( R1b + H1b / 2) i =1 10 ⋅ LogM Old + CIOOld MOld : Measurement result of the cell leaving the reporting range. NA : Number of cells not forbidden to affect reporting range in the current active set. not taking into account any cell individual offset. Otherwise it is equal to 0.
Otherwise use the cell substitute the active cell . MInAS : Measurement result of the cell in the active set with the lowest measurement result. CIOInAS : Cell individual offset for the cell in the active set that is becoming worse than the new cell. 30 Internal Use .Soft Handover Event – 1C 1C (A non-active primary CPICH becomes better than an active primary CPICH.add the non-active cell into active set . Otherwise it is equal to 0. H1c : Hysteresis parameter for the event 1c. If Active Set is not full . ) 10 ⋅ LogM New + CIO New ≥ 10 ⋅ LogM InAS + CIO InAS + H1c / 2 MNew : Measurement result of the cell not included in the active set. MInAS : Measurement result of the cell in the active set with the highest measurement result. CIONew : Cell individual offset for the cell becoming better than the cell in the active set if an individual cell offset is stored for that cell.
Otherwise only modify measurement control. 31 Internal Use . ) 10 ⋅ LogM NotBest + CIO NotBest ≥ 10 ⋅ LogM Best + CIOBest + H 1d / 2 MNotBest : CIONotBest : MBest: CIOBest : H1d : Measurement result of a cell not stored in "best cell" Cell individual offset of a cell not stored in "best cell" . If the chosen cell is not in Active Set . Cell individual offset of a cell stored in "best cell" . Hysteresis parameter for the event 1d.Soft Handover Event – 1D 1D (Change of best cell. Measurement result of the cell stored in "best cell". add the cell into Active Set and modify measurement control .
TrigTime1B.5) 10 . Hystfor1B. the sum of this parameter0 value and the actually tested value is used for UE event estimation. used to determine the relative threshold of soft0 handover according to the measured value of each cell in the active set. namely 5dB (step 0. namely 640ms .H1d. the event will be triggered). H1c.namely 4dB(step 0. Only the equation are always satisfied during the trigger time.5) for H1a . Hystfor1D 6. FilterCoef Filter coefficient of L3 intra-frequency measurement D5 . (CIO) WEIGHT Weighting factor.Soft Handover Parameters Parameter Name IntraRelThdFor1A IntraRelThdFor1B Description Relative thresholds of soft handover for Event 1A (R1a) Relative thresholds of soft handover for Event 1B (R1b) Default Setting 10 . 8.TrigTime1D Soft handover time-to-trigger parameters (event time-to-triggerD640. TrigTime1C. TrigTime1A. parameters. namely 5dB (step 0.5) for H1b.Soft handover hysteresis (H1x) Hystfor1C.namely 5 32 Internal Use .namely 3dB (step 0.5) Hystfor1A. CellIndividalOffset Cell CPICH measured value offset.
RAB Assign Req 21 RAB Assign Resp 33 Internal Use . HandoverFromUtranCommand 45 RL Del Req 46 RL Del Resp 33 Relocation Required 34 Relocation Command 44 Iu Release Req 47 Iu Release Complete 28 PhyCh Reconfig RNC 3G MSC 2G MSC BSS 8. Measure Control (measure ID 0x2 ) 5. UL DT(Setup) 14. RRC Setup Complete 3.RL Recfg Ready 18.Common ID 9.RL Recfg Ready 29. Measure Control (measure ID 0x1 ) 4. UL DT(Connect Ack) 25 Measure Report(2D) 26. Security Mode Command 12.Intersystem Handover – CS Domain Procedure UE NODEB 1. DL DT( Connect) 24.RL Recfg Comit 30 PhyCh Reconfig CMP 31 Meaure Control(ID3 ) 32Measure Report 35.RL Recfg Prep 17. Security Mode CMP 15.Initial UE message(service request) 6.DL DT (Authentication Request) 7.RL Recfg Commit 19 RB Setup 20 RB Setup Cmp 22. DL DT( Alerting ) 23. DL DT(Call proceeding) 16.UL DT (Authentication Response) 10.RL Recfg Prep 27. RRC Connect Req 2. Security Mode Command 11. Security Mode CMP 13.
Intersystem Handover Measure 1) Inter-frequency measurement reporting Event 2D . : The absolute threshold that applies for the used frequency and event 2f. : The absolute threshold that applies for the used frequency and event 2d. 34 Internal Use . Event 2d: The estimated quality of the currently used frequency is below a certain threshold.2F to reflect the currently used frequency quality. 2f QUed s ≥TUed s 2f +H 2 f / 2 The variables in the formula are defined as follows: QUsed TUsed 2f H2f : The quality estimate of the used frequency. Event 2f: The estimated quality of the currently used frequency is above a certain threshold. QUsed ≤TUsed 2d − H 2d / 2 The variables in the formula are defined as follows: QUsed TUsed 2d H2d : Quality estimate of the used frequency. : Hysteresis parameter for the event 2f. : Hysteresis parameter for the event 2d.
Note: If inter-system quality satisfies the following condition before the timer expires: Mother_RAT + CIO < Tother_RAT . and a handover decision will be made when the timer expires. 35 Internal Use . : Hysteresis.Intersystem Handover Measure 2) RNC Receive 2D reports ( i. Allow UE to begin measure other system signal. but different contents) to let UE stop measuring other system signal .RNC sends Measurement Control (ID3). If the formula is met.RNC use the following formula to judge whether it should handover UE to another system .When Received 2F reports ( i. . and RNC will waiting to receive the next inter-system measurement report. 3) When RNC received periodical reports .H/2 timer will stopped. which is the inter-system cell setting offset. a trigger-timer called TimeToTrigForSysHo will be started. Mother_RAT Tother_RAT Mother_RAT CIO H + CIO > Tother_RAT + H/2 : Inter-system handover decision threshold : Inter-system (GSM RSSI) measurement result received by RNC : Cell Individual Offset.e current serving carrier signal is poor ) : . RNC sends Measurement Control (ID3.e current serving carrier signal is no longer poor).UE will send measurement result reports periodically .
Intersystem Handover Parameters 36 Internal Use .
Parameters Optimization Contents Mobile Management Parameters Optimization Power Control Parameters Optimization Power Configuration Parameters Optimization Load Control Parameters Optimization 37 Internal Use .
thus improve capacity and quality Maintain link quality in uplink and downlink by adjusting the powers Overcome near far effect by providing minimum required power level for each connection Provides protection against shadowing and fast fading 38 Internal Use .Power Control Parameters Optimization Power Control Characteristics Minimize the interference in the network.
Power Control Classification T CC m a d P o mn S IR S Tr e IR ag t B r /B r le e U E Nd B oe RC N In e L o P w r C n o n r o p o e o tr l O te L o P w r C n o u r o p o e o tr l Oe L o P w rC n o p n o p o e o tr l Open Loop Power Control To determine UE’s initial uplink transmit power in PRACH and NodeB’s initial downlink transmit power in DPDCH. Outer Loop power control To maintain the quality of communication at the level of bearer service quality requirement. Inner loop power control frequency is 1500Hz Internal Use 39 . while using power as low as possible. Power of every one slot in accordance with TPC commands. Inner loop power control (also called fast closed loop power control To adjust UE’s uplink / NodeB’s downlink DPCH.
CPICH_RSCP + UL interference + Constant Value Primary CPICH TX power .Uplink BCH£ º PICH channel power C B H£ CP C º ICH channel power UL interference leve UL interference leve Constant Value alue Constant V RA ACH R CH MeasureC ICH S P easure CP H_RSCP PIC _R C M and determinethe initial ine and determ the initial transmittedpow itted power er transm Preamble_Initial_Power = Primary CPICH TX power .Open Loop Power Control . UL interference and Constant Value are broadcasted in the System Information and CPICH_RSCP is the measured value by UE 。 40 Internal Use .
: Downlink cell orthogonal factor. : Chip rate (3.Open Loop Power Control . Internal Use 41 . : Current cell’s carrier transmit power measured at the NodeB and reported to the RNC.84M).Downlink Dtrmehdwininapwr e r n t eo ni ki ii l o e t e i l r De int edwn ntapw e meh o n k ti l o e l i cnrl oto r cno ot l DH C DH C RC reosh AH pr t e e t RC rprt t e AH osh maudvu e sr da e a e ae msrevlu eu l M sre P H c0 e u CC EI a e I / I M sr CICE/0 e u P Hc a P= R W Pcpich Eb/Io (Ec/Io)cpich α Ptotal Eb R E × ×( PCPICH /( c )cpich −α × Ptotal ) Io W Io : User bit rate. : Downlink Eb/Io required value for a bearer service. : Primary CPICH transmit power. : Measurement value reported by the UE.
Open Loop Power Control Parameters 42 Internal Use .
to converge to required link quality (BLER) set by the network (RNC) in downlink.Outer Loop Power Control M rod e ity a c M rod e ity a c iv rs iv rs c m in ob g in c m in ob g in St S ta e e IR rgt St S ta e e IR rgt SN RC St S ta e e IR rgt St S ta e e IR rgt DC R N St S e IR St S e IR ta e rgt ta e rgt Used to setting SIRTarget for inner loop power control. If UE is not in DTX status (that means RNC can receive uplink traffic data). Internal Use 43 . Uplink outer loop power control is controlled by SRNC (serving RNC) for setting a target SIR for each UE. Otherwise . RNC uses BLER to compute SIRTarget . Downlink outer loop power control controlled by UE receiver. RNC will use BER to compute SIRTarget . SIRTarget is updated according to the estimated uplink quality (Block Error Ratio/ Bit Error Ratio).
Outer Loop Power Control Parameters 44 Internal Use .
to keep the received SIR to be around SIR target.Inner Loop Power Control Divided into uplink and downlink inner-loop power control Purpose to adjusts UE or NodeB transmit power. 45 Internal Use .
46 Internal Use .Uplink Inner Loop Power Control UTRAN behaviour Serving cells (cells in the active set) estimate SIRest of the received uplink DPCH. if SIRest < SIRtarget . If "PowerControlAlgorithm" indicates "algorithm1". TPC = "0". then the layer 1 parameter PCA shall take the value 1 and if "PowerControlAlgorithm" indicates "algorithm2" then PCA shall take the value 2. Serving cells then generate TPC commands and transmit TPC on every slot according to the following rule: if SIRest > SIRtarget . UE behaviour Upon reception of one or more TPC commands in a slot. Which algorithms to be used is determined by a UE-specific higher-layer parameter. Two algorithms supported by UE when deriving a TPC_cmd. and is under the control of the UTRAN. combining multiple TPC commands if more than one is received in a slot. TPC = "1". This is also valid when SSDT transmission is used in the downlink. UE shall derive a single TPC command. for each slot. TPC_cmd. "PowerControlAlgorithm".
If "TPC-StepSize" has the value "dB1".Uplink Inner Loop Power Control The step size DTPC is a layer 1 parameter which is derived from the UE-specific higher-layer parameter "TPC-StepSize" which is under the control of the UTRAN. then DTPC shall take the value 2 dB. After deriving of the combined TPC command TPC_cmd using one of the two supported algorithms. UE shall adjust the transmit power of uplink DPCCH with a step of DDPCCH (in dB) which is given by: DDPCCH = DTPC × TPC_cmd. 47 Internal Use . For Algorithm 2 DTPC shall always take the value 1 dB. then the layer 1 parameter DTPC shall take the value 1 dB and if "TPC-StepSize" has the value "dB2". The parameter "TPC-StepSize" only applies to Algorithm 1 .
No change in power The 5th slot of a set. The value of TPC_cmd is derived as follows: .If TPC = 0 . only one TPC received.Uplink Inner Loop Power Control Algorithm 1 UE received 0ne TPC in not soft handover. Otherwise. . In this case. TPC_cmd=0. TPC_cmd = -1 and the transmission will decrease 1dB. then TPC_cmd = –1. UE shall process received TPC on a 5-slot cycle. then TPC_cmd = 1 Algorithm 2 UE not in soft handover. TPC_cmd = 0 . TPC_cmd = 1 and the transmission will increase 1dB. TPC_cmd=0 48 Internal Use .If TPC = 1 . TPC _cmd is derived as follows: If all TPC are 0. If all TPC are 1. TPC_cmd value shall be derived as follows: The first 4 slots of a set.
If DPC_MODE = 1 : UE repeats the same TPC command over 3 slots and the new TPC command is transmitted such that there is a new command at the beginning of the frame.Downlink Inner Loop Power Control UE behaviour UE generate TPC commands to control the network transmit power and send them in the TPC field of the uplink DPCCH. 49 Internal Use . The DPC_MODE parameter is a UE specific parameter controlled by the UTRAN. The UE shall check the downlink power control mode (DPC_MODE) before generating the TPC command: If DPC_MODE = 0 : UE sends a unique TPC command in each slot and the TPC command generated is transmitted in the first available TPC field in the uplink DPCCH.
UTRAN adjust its downlink DPCCH/DPDCH power accordingly. 50 Internal Use . and shall update the power every slot. and shall update the power every three slots. For DPC_MODE = 0. UTRAN estimate the transmitted TPC command TPCest over 1 three slots to be 0 or 1.Downlink Inner Loop Power Control UTRAN behaviour Upon receiving the TPC commands. UTRAN estimate the transmitted TPC command TPCest to be 0 0 or 1. If DPC_MODE = 1.
Inner Loop Power Control Parameters 51 Internal Use .
Parameters Optimization Contents Mobile Management Parameters Optimization Power Control Parameters Optimization Power Configuration Parameters Optimization Load Control Parameters Optimization 52 Internal Use .
Physical Channels Type 53 Internal Use .
Common Channels Parameters All channels’ power is reference to PCPICH Power expect PCPICH itself . 54 Internal Use .
Dedicated Channels Parameters Dedicated Channel Power is also reference to PCPICH Power. 55 Internal Use .
Parameters Optimization Contents Mobile Management Parameters Optimization Power Control Parameters Optimization Power Configuration Parameters Optimization Load Control Parameters Optimization 56 Internal Use .
Load Control Parameters Optimization Call Admission Control (CAC) To control cell’s load by admission/rejection request to ensure a cell’s load under control. Dynamic Channel Configuration Control (DCCC) To dynamically change a connection’s load to improve cell resource utilization and control cell’s load. 57 Internal Use .
Call Admission Control Procedure c ll a m s nr q e t a r e a d is o e u s r iv G t th s r ic c a a te is a d e e e v e h r c r tic n th c r e t lo d e ur n a U lin c ll a m s n p k a d is io cnoea a n o tr l v lu tio am d d itte ? y n D w lin c ll a m s n o n k a d is io cnoea a n o tr l v lu tio am d d itte ? y n c ll a m d a d itte c ll r je te a e c d ed n 58 Internal Use .
Call Admission Control Parameters 59 Internal Use .
Configured bandwidth is fixed when no DCCC .Dynamic Channel Configuration Control DCCC: Dynamic Channel Configuration Control aim to making full use of radio resource (codes.Traffic rate Rate band or 60 Internal Use .Configured bandwidth is changing when DCCC . CE ) . power.
DCCC Procedure Traffic Volume measurement control UE and RNC Measurement Measurement report DCCC decision DCCC execution 61 Internal Use .
Traffic Volume Measurement Transport Channel Traffic Volume Threshold Time Reporting event 4A Reporting event 4A Transport Channel Traffic Volume Threshold Time Reporting event 4B Reporting event 4B Reporting event 4B 62 Internal Use .
don’t decrease bandwidth 63 Internal Use .DCCC Decision 1) 4a event report -> increase bandwidth 4b event report -> decrease bandwidth 2) If current bandwidth<=DCCC threshold.
Dynamic Channel Configuration Control Parameters 64 Internal Use .
Dynamic Channel Configuration Control Parameters 65 Internal Use .
Parameter Optimization is a complicated procedure and needs parameter and algorithm knowledge. Parameter Optimization will be combined with other optimization activities making network better ! 66 Internal Use .Summary Parameter Optimization improves network quality and solves network problems.
Huawei Confidential. All Rights Reserved .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.