A general plan or scheme to
achieve an objective provides an enlightened and objective viewpoint a sound philosophy and orientation to the total process of teaching selection of an instructional method
y An activities of educating or instructing y Activities that impart knowledge and
skills y A deliberate intervention involving the planning and implementation of instructional activities and experiences to meet the intended learner outcomes based on the teaching plan
skills and attitude) that occur at any time or in any place as a result of exposure to environmental stimuli y It is also an action by which KSA are consciously or unconsciously acquired and behavior is altered which can be seen or observed
.y Acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge.
skills. values and preference and may involve synthesizing different types of information y A change in behavior (knowledge.
major goal of teaching nature of the subject matter teaching-learning process roles and responsibilities of the teacher expectations from students kinds of evaluation techniques suitable teaching methods and strategies to be
1. Inductive Approach/learning 2. Deductive Approach/learning
y Also known as Discovery method y begins with a particular statement moving
on to a general statement ( specific to more general rules) y Process of rationalization (reasoning or explaining) from a simple to specific situation to a complex or general one
y Begins with general statements to specific
y Solving a problem or difficulty is done by
applying to it a generalization that has already been formed
The Constructivist Approach 6. Simulations
. Reflective teaching 2. Direct Instruction 5. Team Teaching 11. Interest Learning Centers 10. Experiential Learning 4. Inquiry teaching 7. Concept teaching 8. Cooperative Learning Approach 3. The Science-Technology-Society Approach 9. Synectics 12.y y y y y y y y y y y y
Classroom Demonstration y 23. Journal Writing y 15. Peer Tutoring y 19.y 13. Problem Solving y 18. Discussion
. Community Resources y 17. Role Playing y 14. Narratives y 16. Microteaching y 20 Field Studies y 21. Experimenting y 22.
Individualized Instruction y 27. Student Research y 25. Reading y 30. Independent Study y 26. Collections y 29. Projects y 28.y 24. Lecture
y Behavior which involves active. persistent and
careful consideration of any belief or practice y Through reflection. thus enabling her to formulate own concepts that can be applied to new learning situations. the student¶s experience acquire meaning which serve as basis for new ideas and behavior y To benefit from an experience the learner necessarily analyzes and evaluates.
y Based on small group theory y 2 Important Components y A. a cooperative incentive structure y B. a cooperative task structure
Cooperative Incentive Structure y Two or more individuals are interdependent for a reward they will share if they are successful as a group Cooperative Task Structure y Two or more individuals are allowed. coordinating their efforts to complete the task. or required to work together on some tasks. encouraged.
y 1. y Teams are made up of mixed abilities high. y 2. Reward Systems are group oriented rather than
individually-oriented y The interactions within the group is controlled by the members themselves. Students work in teams to tackle academic tasks.
. average and low achievers y Teams are composed of both sexes.
.y Views learning as a process of constructing meaning
which is greatly influenced by the learners accumulated experiences and understandings. y As an active process the learner continuously revise past learning's and reconstruct concepts as their interact daily with the environment y Anchored on the assumption that ³the absorption or simulation of knowledge is somewhat personal and therefore is the result of the learners can build up the same meaning out of the situation.
y Effective among the young since they are more perceptive and imaginative.
. y Provides opportunities for them to invent new ways of seeing things and constructing meanings. expressing at the same time their own feelings.y A teaching model that requires students to
Ex: I am a cloud drifting by. I am a rose. plant. My life is like a book. animal or with other persons.
. They identify with an object. The element should be watched in the analysis is the emphatic involvement. Personal Analogy
this kind of comparison shows how the students empathize with the ideas or objects. I move like an elephant.y 1.
The objects being compared need not be identical. The answers are in buffet style.y 2. The classroom is like a beehive. Direct Analogy
this kind of comparison is made between two objects or concepts. Ex: The house is like carnival.
object or feeling which appear to be opposites or contradictions.y 3. smile and a frown. helpless and powerful. Symbolic Analogy or Compressed
conflict the metaphoric comparison consists of a 2-word description of a situation.
. war and peace. Ex: Shy and aggressive.
y Free communication of ideas between the teacher
and students and among the students as well y Clarifying some points during a learning activity y To check at the end to find out if the objective of the lesson has been achieved y Also called ³orderly verbal interchange. thinking out aloud .or discourse´
y A kind of oral presentation delivered by an expert. y Because it is very specific in nature. is prepared to listen with a high degree of expectation
. the audience are usually belongs to the same discipline. y The lecturer is regarded as an authority in the
special topic he is requested to speak on.
experiences and minds of participants y Usually there is a speaker to discuss the theme or topic of seminar
.y Held for the purpose of solving or attempting to solve
a problem from evidence readings.
memories and daily happenings y In teaching. it is best to keep the record of what transpires during a learning activity y Provide a channel through which the teachers and students could get to know each other better
. chronology or register of events.y Journal. a record.
y An activity intended to help them reflect about their experience in order to learn better and better y A good way to receive a feedback regarding problems met and situations they undertook during the learning activity
. it consists of a day-to-day
record of learning activities through which the students can determine their own progress.y Used as pedagogical tool.
.Prepared by: Irish Joy V.