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V Trade between the Greek world had a major

influence on the region and led to their

success that lasted until the Romans began
their conquest.

V Brought distant lands together.

V 2eavily maritime trade, especially pre-roads
{ ’n some city-states, relied more on trade than agri.

V ©live ©il and Wine were the big sellers

V Trade with Egypt, Sicily, Russia, Spain

V —artnerships to spread risks of ventures
{ Ship owners, merchants, money lenders

V  actories,͟ and small businesses popped up

V Trade brought many Greeks together

{ estivals (athletic, literary, musical)
V The best athletes from Greek states came to
©lympia to engage in contests of skills.
V d truce was announced at the Games

V dlliances were often announced

V Served as more than just an athletic interest

V Revived in 1859 d (winter started in 1924,

paralympics in 1948)
V avorite ©lympic Event

V avorite ©lympic Moment

V Locations of the ©lympics

V 2ellenistic Era
{ Time period after dlexander until Roman Empire

V ependent on 2orse and onkey travel

{ Smaller, luxury items

Mediterranean, Red Sea and drabian Sea travel

- Bulkier goods
V —atriarchal family structure

V ©nly position open to women was priestess

V amous Greek, female poet uSappho, 600 BC

{ ’nstructed young women, criticized for
homosexual activity
{ Exiled from Lesbos to Sicily
V Some were Greeks, others —©Ws, slave
markets from Russia, Egypt and Nubia

V Some slaves were able to gain an education

and gain greater responsibilities and
occasionally could even earn freedom (rare)
V Through trade, Greek merchants learned from
Egyptians and Babylonians

V 5th and 4th centuries BCE

{ Combined their own interests to create their own
cultural tradition
V Thestudy of fundamental problems, such as
those connected with existence, knowledge,
values, reason, mind, and language.
dddresses such problems by its critical,
generally systematic approach and its reliance
on rational argument. The word "philosophy"
comes from the Greek (R R ), which
literally means "love of wisdom.͟
V dthenian Gadfly
V Learn most through —lato͛s

{ ocused on ethics
{ Socratic Method
{ Critic of democracy
{ Tried to improve dthenian justice
{ Sentenced to death
{ The dR

V   R -80 BCE
V efinition of Justice, the just city and just man
V —   
 are rulers, or Guardians, of
—lato's Utopian Gallipolis. ’f his ideal city-state is
to ever come into being, "philosophers [must]
become kings͙or those now called kings
[must]͙genuinely and adequately philosophize
V drgued for an intellectual aristocracy
V —lato͛s student
V Believed that philosophers could rely on their
senses and then use reason to sort it out

V Biology, physics, astronomy, psychology,

politics, ethics and literature

V The master of those who know.͟

V 2ead of the royal academy of Macedon

V Wrote —  
{ ©nly one thing could justify monarchy, and that
was if the virtue of the king and his family were
greater than the virtue of the rest of the citizens

V ocused most on logic

{ The formal systematic study of the principles of
valid inference and correct reasoning
V There was not one god and the Greek
ancestors focused on natural elements:
{ Sun, Wind and Rain

V ©ver the years they created gods to personify

the elements

V There were bitter battles between deities

until Zeus
V The ather of Gods and men.
V 2e was the god of sky and thunder
V Zeus was the child of Cronus and Rhea
V 2e is known for his erotic escapades. These
resulted in many godly and heroic offspring
V Mythology served as a foundation for cults
V Greek ceremonies and rituals were mainly
performed at altars which contained a statue of a
particular deity
V dnimal Sacrifices were popular
V Some turned to mystery religions which operated
as cults but members had to be initiated to learn
their secrets.
V Eleusinian Mysteries
{ Revolved around a belief that there was a hope for
life after death for those who were initiated
{ Needed to observe their moral standards

V Cults were important for women as they gave

them their own sphere in society
{ emeter, goddess of grain was popular
V The god of the grape harvest and wine
V dlso known as Bacchus
V uring the harvest season women had a festival
in the hills
V Euripides wrote an account, the play O 
{ They would lose all self-control, begin shouting
excitedly, engage in uncontrolled sexual behavior, and
ritualistically hunt down and tear to pieces animals
devouring the raw flesh
V Emotional festivals were replaced by plays

V Tragedies and comedies

{ Tragediansu deschylus, Sophocles, Euripides

{ Comediansu dristophanes (ridiculed public figures
and decisions)
V Epicureans
{ —leasure, quiet satisfaction
V Skeptics
{ oubted possibility of certainty in anything
V Stoics
{ Most respected and influential
{ Thought of a universal family
{ uty, virtue
{ Emphasis on inner peace

V 2ellenistic Religion and —hilosophy all
addressed individuals in their search for
direction in a complex world