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THE QUALITY OF YOUR LIFE IS THE QUALITY OF YOUR COMMUNICATION ~ BOTH WITH YOURSELF & OTHERS
May 14, 2011 2
Rebuild Your Life
Effective Communication Dr Ali Sajid, PhD, PEC,
Don’t curse the darkness light a candle Chinese Proverb .
Sharing of Resources "A candle loses nothing by Lighting another candle" .
If you have your sight. 7 . you are blessed. If you have insight. you are a thousand times blessed.
Words Are Energy Never use words like defeats. raising your Energy Levels & Putting you in a “Winning Frame of Mind.” When you use a Positive word. engulfs you. Always talk of “Hope. Faith.” Words are Energy use them in your favour!! . Victory & Success. failure & problem. a wave of Positive word. Belief.
Benjamin Disraeli . .To be conscious that you are ignorant is a great step to knowledge.
I see and I remember. I do and I understand.Doing is Believing "I hear and I forget." (Confucius 551-479 BC) .
your speech should be better than your silence would have been." (Origin unknown) .Communication "He who wishes to talk well must first think well.” "When you speak.
New Style? "I praise loudly. 1729-1796.) . I blame softly.“ (Catherine the Great.
" (Leonardo Da Vinci) . but memory.Test of Intellect "Whoever in debate quotes authority uses not intellect.
) ." (Samuel Johnson.Good Writing "What is written without effort is in general read without pleasure.
Bad Attitude of Employee Don’t waste your time trying to change employees. Who have bad attitudes Inn Pareen a Kaleesa koo Kaleesa say hatta doon .
they're trained.“ Dale Carnegie .Dale Carnegie "Perhaps you will forget tomorrow the kind words you say today. but the recipient may cherish them over a lifetime." -."Great speakers are not born.
” --Chinese Proverb .Conversation with Wise Man “A single conversation with a wise man is better than ten years of study.
not a critic.Stephen Covey . not a judge. . Be a model.Light Be a light.
Doug Firebaugh "Communication is really all anyone ever gets paid for ultimately." -...if you plan on spending any time there.." -..you will PAY....and if you cannot effectively communicate....."Communication skills are the lifeblood of a successful life..not get paid.Doug Firebaugh .
" Julia A."Little deeds of kindness. little words of love. help to make earth happy like the heaven above. your expression is the most important . Fletcher Carney Of all the things you wear.
but also for what you do not say." – Martin Luther ."You are not only responsible for what you say.
but their echoes are truly endless." . "Kind words can be short and easy to speak.Mother Theresa of Calcuta .
Challeng eEFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION .
Planning Organizing Management Process Leading Controlling Communication External Environment Customers Suppliers Stockholders Governments Community others Purpose & Function of Communication .
Your Success.Mgrl Effectiveness Through Communication You Spend Most of Your Time at Work Communicating. Communication Is Becoming in Increasingly Important In Increased Globalization.Based on Strong Communication Skills. Diversity Workplace Specialization. Communication Tech Offers New Opportunities of Communicate More Often & More Efficiently Than Ever Before. .
( garmoo ghamoo ka lahoo zooq a yaqan say) . databases. Managers have three basic jobs. memos. Promote Interpersonal Unity : Motivate people through speeches. conversations on lunch & on ceremonies & through walking around. press releases. letters. . office memo. videos. Managerial Function of Communication Collect Information : Collect relevant info from conversations. & internet. Convey Info & Decision : To inside & outside org through speeches. Reports. memos. phone calls.
Toward Effective Communication Org goal Goals-related behavior Communication network objectives Communication activities Communication policies Relationship of Communication Factors to Org Goals .
Mgr as nerve centre in Info Processing Network Manager as monitor Gathers external info (through liaison role) form contacts. informers. peers. & experts Manager as monitor Gathers internal info (through leader role) Form subordinates Manager as nerve center in information-processing network Mgr as disseminator Distributes information to subordinates Mgr as spokesperson .
as in the case of eating.Need for Communication • Very strong in Human beings • Considered as a basic need. sleeping. • Established as both a social & individual need . etc.
Interpersonal Communication Three Broad Types Oral. memos. . Hidden messages & can influence process & outcomes of face-to-face communication. policy manuals. Written Communication: letters. Written. Mgrs often underestimate its importance. forms. Nonverbal Communication Involves all messages non language responses. Mgrs prefer face-to-face & telephone communication to written communication because it permits immediate feedback. reports. Anything that sends message. & other documents used to share info in org. Nonverbal Oral Communication: Consists of all forms of spoken info\ Most preferred type of communication used by mgrs.
” The Art of Leadership Max De Pree.The Importance of Communication Skills as Expressed by Business Authorities “Top executives from Fortune 500 companies rate communications skills as the most important quality for business leaders.” New York Times Business Section “There may be no single thing more important in our efforts to achieve meaningful work and fulfilling relationships than to learn and practice the art of communication. Author .
” --Michael Rook. San Diego.Evidence of Communication Weakness in Business “I’m surprised how so many people struggle with communication.” --Sam Reeves. CA “The first thing the H R Department did was give me a writing book. IT Consultant AMS. Production Manager Hewlett Packard. CO . Denver.
Cost of Correspondence One page business letter that took 10 minutes to dicate cost between $13. Wastes Effort. Jeopardizes goodwill.52 in 1996. .60 and $20. Poor writing costs even more since it Waste Time.
. you are communicating.) Communication is shared feelings/shared understanding. If you can honestly achieve that goal.
Who Is Responsible? The Communicator. How Much Is The Communicator Responsible? 60 Percent! .
May 14. 2011 36 .
2011 37 .May 14.
Think > listen >
May 14, 2011
Why is communication important ? •
• • • • Inspires confidence Builds respect Helps make friends Reveals your ability to others Develops a distinct personality
May 14, 2011
We need to improve communication... as
70 % of our communication efforts are: misunderstood misinterpreted rejected distorted or not heard
May 14, 2011 40
Communication in Organizations Chief Executive Officer Sales Manage r Legal Production Financal Enginering HR Plant Manager Plant Manager Plant Manager Diagonal communication Horizontal or lateral communication Upward and downward communication Copy Rights Dr Sajid .
2011 42 .May 14.
2011 .43 May 14.
AND SUCCESS IS ENSURED. EXCELLENT RELATIONSHIPS ARE DEVELOPED. 2011 44 . CHANGES ARE FACILITATED. DESIRED RESULTS ARE ACHIEVED.PEOPLE ARE INFLUENCED. PROBLEMS ARE SOLVED. May 14.
2011 45 .PLAYS A VITAL ROLE IN DISCOVERING OURSELVES & THE WORLD AROUND US May 14.
2011 47 .IS NOT JUST GETTING THE MESSAGE ACROSS BUT ITS ACCEPTANCE FROM ITS INTENDED RECEIVERS WHICH CAUSES THE EXPECTED BEHAVIOUR FROM THE RECEIVERS OF THE MESSAGE ONLY THEN. THE RECEIVERS WILL BE WILLING TO CONVERT THE COMMUNICATION INTO ACTION May 14.
LISTEN TO. OBSERVE & INTERPRET ALL FORMS OF LANGUAGE IS ESSENTIAL FOR EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION May 14. 2011 48 .
.Communication is a two-way process of giving and receiving info through one or more number of channels.
Communication Communication is the process of sending and receiving messages .
preciseness & feedback .Importance Of Communication Organizational / Functional: greater info access & awareness Improves coordination: reduces logical gaps Encourages cooperation: helps bring everyone in th mainstream Gives a direction: to tasks and activities Morale and empowerment Decision making aid Speeds up orgal processes Better focus on customer requirements Generates a greater sense of orgal commitment & involvement A Problem Solving Tool: by clarity.
What needs to be communicated Information/data + Attitudes Values Moods Emotions .
.Communication is a process through which mgrs coordinate. & influence their subordinates. Ability to communicate effectively – considered by most mgrs critical in determining managerial success. lead.
managing & interpreting info. Communication relates. & Org change & Development also Entail Communication. writing. Delegation. listening. Coordination. & use of symbolic gestures”. . serving clients. “Reading. speech-making. directly to basic mgt functions.Ability involves broad array of activities.
Developing “Reward systems & interacting with subordinates” as part of Leading function etc – Impossible w/o some form of communication . Essential Tool for People Who Want to Stay in Touch With Rest of World.
Essential to: Establishing standards. & Taking corrective actions. Pervasive part of virtually all managerial activates. . Monitoring performance.
" -.Layne and Paul Cutright . .The bridge between our separate realities is communication . To communicate is to relate. .
costly .Communication in Org In Enterprises. Necessary to have for effective decision making. Getting info from mgrs’ superiors & subordinates . Short stoppage on fast-moving production line . Need more relevant info.frequently causing info overload.from depts & people elsewhere org.lost output. Production Problems communicated quickly for corrective action Info increased . . info must flow faster.
.Communication skills can make or break career of org.
Elements of Communication Encoding Perception & Interpretation Message Nonverbal Communication s Channel Communicator .
COMMUNICATION PROCESS Stimulus Filter Feedback Message Destination Medium .
Communication Process Social Context Sender Encodes Medium Feedback Decodes Receiver Noise Noise Basic Element in Communication Process .
Original Message Percentage of Understanding lost in communication 100 Percent Top mgt’s understanding 63 percent VP Understanding 56 percent General mgr’s understanding Average Information Loss 40 percent Division mgr’s understanding 30 percent Unit mgr’s understanding 20 percent Employee’s understanding Average Information Loss .
. FEEDBACK: Process of verifying messages & receiver’s attempts to ensure message be decoded is what sender really meant to convey.
two-way Process rather than just event. . Through feedback. Meant To avoid communication failure as it provides preliminary info to sender. communication becomes dynamic.
With de-emphasis on status. mgr should develop atmosphere of trust & confidence & Supportive Leadership Style. . To elicit honest feedback.Listening: Key to interrupting Mgr must avoidUnderstand subordinates & putting them on defensive.
Intended to belittle the employee. 4. Valid.Characteristics of Effective & Ineffective Feedback Effective Feedback 1. 7. 3. Willingly heard by employee. 6. Judgmental. Dr. Clear. Makes the employee defensive. General. 8. 5. Specific. 7. Inappropriate. 2. 4. Timely. Intended to help the employee. 5. Descriptive. Communication. Useful. Sajid. 3. Oct 2k8 . 8. Inaccurate. 6. 2. Not understandable. Untimely. Ineffective Feedback 1.
Can cause distortion in sending & receiving of messages. In addition to physical conditionsmake communication more difficultEmotional states can also create noise.Noise Internal or external interference with or distraction form intended message. .
Symbols of communication imperfect. . Some Basic Truths about Communication Meanings sent are not always received. Meaning is in the mind.
Elements of Good Talking Voice Quality Talking Style Word Choice & Vocabulary Listening: Key to Understand Rushed. . Never-listening mgr will Seldom Get Objective View of Function of Org.
How to overcome Communication Roadblocks ? • Effective Listening • Reading body language • Effective Speaking • Skill Training .
The Process of Listening .
Types of Listening Active vs. Passive Positive vs. Negative What Kind is it? Appreciative Empathic Discriminative Analytical .
Effective Listening Behaviors that support effective listening Behaviors that hinder effective listening .
Effective Listening Behaviors that support effective listening • Maintaining relaxed body posture • Leaning slightly forward if sitting • Facing person squarely at eye level • Maintaining an open posture • Maintaining appropriate distance • Offering simple acknowledgements • Reflecting meaning (paraphrase) • Reflecting emotions • Using eye contact • Providing non-distracting environment .
put downs • Interrupting • Criticizing • Judging • Diagnosing • Giving advice/solutions • Changing the subject • Reassuring without acknowledgment .Effective Listening Behaviors that hinder effective listening • Acting distracted• No response • Invalidating response.
" (William Slater) .Importance of Listening "There is none so blind as those who will not listen.
) .Test of Listening "If you don't agree with me it means you haven't been listening.“ (Sam Markewich.
When people talk. Most people never listen. Franklin Delano Roosevelt . listen completely.
Every head is a world.Anna Cummins . do not write them on their tombstones."Listening looks easy. speak them rather now instead. but it's not that simple." --." ---Cuban proverb "Do not save your loving speeches for your friends till they are dead.
Empathy. . & Concentration on communicator's messages are Prerequisites for understanding.Time.
want to be taken seriously. "Effective communications starts with listening." --Robert Gately .People want to be heard. want to be understood.
& hard work Often overestimated in effectiveness . patience motivation.Importance of Listening Exists as first verbal skill people learn Accounts for most of communication time Ranks hi in business Requires high in business Requires clear thinking.
Listening from our hearts. Truly listening to someone is one of the greatest gifts we give to each other." Kay Lindahl . It is holy work. Speaking from the heart takes courage – to risk & be vulnerable with another.open and waiting for the other to speak what is truly in their heart .is a ministry of hospitality.
Nature of Listening Sensing Filtering Remembering .
" -. How often is it left unspoken.Linda Douty." -."How often could things be remedied by a word. .Norman Douglas "Silence is the training ground for the art of listening.
Dalai Lama ." ."Remember that silence is sometimes the best answer.
in this conversation."Responsible Listening is speaking we do to prove to the other person that we understand what his or her total message said. Listening is suspension of judgmentsuntil we gain new info" Peter deLisser . saves us from attacking & defending. what speaker meant at this moment. allows for no judgment of the other person's character. Its only function is to present.
(b) degree of alertness. (c) conditioning Entails Nervous system & filtering by the mind Continues with search for ways to express meaning Ends by sending message .entering receiver’s sensory world Involves process of selective perception Depends upon listener’s (a) sensory limitations.The Listening Process Begins with symbols .
laid back Pays attention Easily distracted Asks questions Asks no question Keeps open mind Has preconceptions Assimilates information Disregards information .More & Less Effective Listening Skills Active. focused Passive.
Non-listening Comparison of Non-listening & Active Listening Orientation toward self Little use of mind (thinking) Lack of etiquette Inattention to principles of effect No consideration of alternate messages Little empathy Casual attention to meaning Emphasis on winning Little personal involvement Inattention to nonverbal communication Results in conflict Active Listening Orientation toward others Significant use of mind Good application of etiquette Effective use of principles of effect Consideration of alternate messages Much empathy Intense attention to meaning Emphasis on understanding Much personal involvement Focus on nonverbal communication Results in rapport .
Improving Listening Ability Commit to improve Focus attention Cultivate accuracy of filtering Concentrate on remembering Apply techniques .
too. Our first responsibility as effective listeners is to understand ourselves as communicators. Just as the sources of the communication message should be trained in self-intra personal communication. so." --. should listeners know themselves.Carolyn Coakley .
The Ten Commandments of Listening Stop talking Put talker at ease Show talker you want to listen Remove distractions Empathize with talker Be patient Hold your temper Go easy on argument and criticism Ask questions Stop talking .
Anyone who thinks clearly should be able to write clearly about any subject at all.” William Zinsser. Author -On Writing Well .“Writing is thinking on paper.
& incorrect spelling. ineffective sentence structure. & use poor grammar. are too wordy.Some Tips for Improving Written Communication Many people fall into habit of using technical jargon that can be understood only by experts in same field. Common problems in written communications are that writers omit conclusion or bury it in report. .
Use active verbs. Use short sentences & paragraphs. Use short & familiar words Use personal pronouns (such as “you”) whenever appropriate.Some Tips for Improving Written Communication Use simple words & phrases. . as in “Mgr plan…” Avoid unnecessary words. use charts. Give illustrations & examples.
Enhance comm effectiveness for both sender & receiver – a. Follow up b. Regulating info flow c. Following up simply involves checking at later time to be sure that message received & understood.Orgl Skills Three orgl skills . Regulating information flow –sender or receiver takes steps to ensure that overload does not occur. Understanding richness of different media. .
Managing Communication Within Diverse Orgs Communication permeates every org. . others cause confusion & errors. Formal communication follows chain of command & is recognized as official.impede org processes. some messages sent throughout org contain misinfo or secret info. Involves exchange of message b/w two or more levels in org. Some messages are clear effective. Vertical Info: Flow of info both up & down chain of command.
The more elaborate our means of communication. the less we communicate. Kin Hubbard .
Flow of communication At the workplace * Upward From subordinates to superior * Downward From superiors to the subordinates * Lateral From one employee to another .
Types of communication Formal Informal .
" .COMMUNICATION NETWORKS Formal communication network : follows the hierarchical structure of the organization." Informal communication network: involves communication that follows the "grapevine. or the "chain of command.
Formal Communication HEAD Instructions and directives Information Managers Managers Workers Workers Workers Workers Efforts at coordination .
Typically shown by org chart of any org. Informal communication channels. A box -link in the Chain of Command. A line-for formal channel for transmission. .Formal Communication Channels. Official structure of an org. Type of Communication Communicating among members of an org. Formal communication channels.
Formal Communication Channels. . Horizontal information flow. Downward information flow. Upward information flow.
DIRECTION OF COMMUNICATION FLOW Downward communication flows from upper management down to the employees at lower ranks. Job instruction Ideology Information Feedback Upward communication is initiated by those at the lower levels of the organization positive timely support current policy .
policy statements. Media for oral downward communication. Downward flow of info through org. Top mgt issuance of policies. Info lost/distorted -comes down chain of command. pamphlets. procedures.does not ensure communication.time-consuming. speeches. loudspeakers. letters. Esp.top mgrs insist info sent directly to person requiring it.instructions. telephone. . in org with “Authoritarian Atmosphere”. handbooks. even grapevine. Directives -not understood or read.Downward Communication Flows from people at hi to lower levels in org hierarchy. meetings. Memo. Feedback essential for finding out whether info perceived as intended.frustrating . electronic news displays. Delays .
.Upward Communication From subordinates to superiors .transmit info. what lower-level employees thinking.found in participative -democratic orgs. exit interviews. marketing info. practice open-door policy. Primarily nondirective .continues up hierarchy. ombudsperson. Suggestion systems. Counseling sessions. Grapevine. financial data.filter messages . oral Questionnaires. group meetings.appeal . Objective transmission of info essential for control. Hindered by mgrs in communication chain . complaint Systems.unfavorable news to bosses. Upper mgt needs to know production performance. joint setting of objectives.grievance procedures.
Position provide “Valuable Upward Communication Link” front-page scandals & legal costs by grinning improprieties attention of appropriate person before problems. Control Data. Originated in Sweden. McDonnell Douglas & AT&T few companies using ombudsperson in 1986.civil servant to investigate complaints about fed bureaucracy. GE.investigates employees’ concerns.Upward Communication Ombudsman-. creating free flow communication rests with superiors. Anheuser-Busch. . suggesting workers trust person. . Org climate influenced by upper mgt. Companies established position for person . Effective communication requires environment subordinates feel to communicate.
CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION Face to Face Interactive TV .mails / reports .high speed connections (two way) Video-Voice / Data Channel (one way) Telephone E-mail Personal written correspondence Formal written message Public speaking Data Reports Broadcast e.
Formal & Informal Commun networks in a Div of a Small Mnfg Company Department Manager Supervisor Supervisor Navy Solid Lines = Formal Network Coral Dashed Lines = Informal Network (at a moment in time. for they change often) .
Flat structure & wide span of control. Less flexibility. Informal channels increase as organization has closed formal channels. Distortion: misunderstanding or communication errors at different communication links in the chain. To reduce distortion reduce number of levels in the structure.Formal Communication Channels. 80% of info that travels around through grapevine is business related & 75_95% is accurate. Fragmented info. Grapevine: Supplements formal channels. (isolated). Informal Communication Channels. .
Common Grapevine Chains Found in Org Gossip Chain (One person tells many) Cluster Chain (Many people tell few) .
progress • unsolved problems requiring managerial assistance • Suggestions and ideas • Subordinates’ feelings about jobs.COMMUNICATION PATTERNS Vertical: Downward • rationale for doing jobs • organization’s policies. practices • performance appraisals • sense of mission Vertical: Upward • reports on work. co-workers. the organization Horizontal • task coordination • information sharing • problem solving • conflict resolution • peer support .
TM 14-6 CENTRALIZED COMMUNICATION NETWORKS Y X Chain x X x DECENTRALIZED COMMUNICATION NETWORKS Circle All-channel .
. Performance based reward system. Devolution of responsibility. Communication in and out of an organization. Special newsletters.External Communication Network. Suggestion schemes. Quality teams. Types: Formal contacts with outsiders Informal contacts with outsiders.
Bill Marriott. frequently visits kitchens. delivery people. Claims that by talking with employee throughout hotel. . & custodial work areas when-ever he tours Marriott hotel. he gets new ideas & has better feel for entire company. subordinates far down orgl hierarchy. or anyone else who is involved with company in some way. customers.Mgt by Wandering Around-Informal Commn Popular form of informal communication Basic idea -some mgrs keep in touch with what’s going on by wandering around & talking with people – immediate subordinates. loading docks.
CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION VOCAL VERBAL NONVERBAL SPOKEN WORDS SIGH GRUNT INFLECTION NON-VOCAL WRITTEN WORDS FACIAL EXPRESSION POSTURE / GESTURE SPATIAL RELATIONSHIP .
People send messages to each other without talking. They communicate through facial expressions, head positions, arm and hand movements, body posture, positioning of legs & feet, and the way people use “space”
• Interpreting body language is vital in any communication process • Observe the body movements and postures • Match the other person’s body language, if appropriate and if required.
Types of Nonverbal Communication
Body Language Space Time Para language Color Layout and Design
Types of Nonverbal Communication: Kinesic behavior,-body motion such as gestures, facial expressions, eye behavior, touching,- Body movement. Physical characteristics- body shape, physique, posture, height, weight, hair, & skin color. Paralanguage- Voice quality, volume, speech rate, pitch, & laughing. Environment- Building & room design, furniture & interior decorating, light noise, & cleanliness. Time-Being late or early, keeping others waiting, & other relationships between time & status.
” Peering over tops of eyeglasses Pointing a finger Standing behind a desk & leaning palms down on it Holding jacket leaps while speaking .Reading Body Language Unspoken message “ I’m nervous Behavior Clearing throat Expelling air (such as “Whew!”) Placing hand over mouth while speaking Hurried cigarette smoking “I’m superior to you.
communication. Leaves no permanent record. interchange. accurate. Written 1. Disadvantages May suffer form inaccuracies. 2. 2. Tends to be more1. 3. Inhibits feedback & interchange. Is more difficult & time consuming. Seldom time for thoughtful response.Interpersonal Communication From Oral Advantages 1. . Promotes feedback &1. It easy to use 2. Provides record of2.
Such audit is tool for examining communication policies. Organizational communication is viewed as group of communication factors related to organizational goals. .Communication Audit One way to improve communication in org is to conduct communication audit. networks & activities.
Such audit is tool for examining communication policies. . Organizational communication is viewed as group of communication factors related to organizational goals.Communication Audit One way to improve communication in org is to conduct communication audit. networks & activities.
Whiteboard software. Network is a group of computers that are connected to share the information. Concept of a PAPERLESS ORGANIZATION. .COMMUNICATING THORUGH TECHNOLOGY E-mail. The Internet Internet is a network of networks. LAN-WAN. Video conferencing software. Group scheduling software. Electronic meeting software.
Barriers interfere with organizational excellence. .Barriers to Effective Communication Despite its apparent simplicity. info transmitted form one party to another -Distorted. Consequently. & communication problems -result. communication process rarely operates flawlessly.
Communication -Barriers Process Barrier Every Step in Communication process is necessary for effective communication. Following situations: Sender barrier. . Encoding barrier. Blocked steps become barriers. A management trainee with unusual new idea fails to speak up at meeting for fear of criticism. A Boluchi-speaking factory worker cannot get Sindahi-speaking supervisor to understand grievance about working conditions.
. failure of trainee ask any questions causes mgr to wonder if any real understanding what is being taken place. A restaurant mgr does not understand unfamiliar computer jargon during a sales presentation for laptop computers. Decoding Barrier. A mgr who is preoccupied with preparation of budget asks clerk to repeat earlier statement. customer concludes that a store’s consumer hot line is waste of time.Process Barriers Medium Barrier. A mgr with a soft voice can reach hundreds of people by using a sound system. After getting no answer three times & busy signal twice. Choosing appropriate medium is especially important for mgrs who must overcome physical barriers. Feedback barrier. Receiver barrier. During on-the-job training.
For example. .Physical Barriers Sometimes physical object blocks effective communication. Thousand of miles between New York & Islamabad & time-zone difference can complicate communication in a global org. a Factory worker. who wears ear protectors probably could not hear someone yelling : “Fire!” Distance is another physical barrier.
Words are indispensable. distrust of opposite sex. Unexpected reactions or behavior by others may signal a semantic barrier.Semantics is study of meaning of words. Psychological . thought they can sometimes cause a great deal of trouble. People’s backgrounds. computer science. or advertising may become so accustomed to their own technical language that they forget that people outside their field may not understand them. racial prejudice. Mgrs in such fields as accounting. & social barriers are probably responsible for more blocked communication than any other type of barrier. or lack of self-confidence .
Distrust. In climate with forces. become defensive. In light of threats – whether real or imagined – people tend to tighten up. or it can be due to past experiences -subordinate punished for honestly reporting unfavorable. Distrust can be result of inconsistent behavior by superior. information to boss. Threat & Fear Undermine communication. any message will be viewed with skepticism. & distort information. . but true.
Inadequate knowledge Conflict ing signals V E R B A L Differences in interpretations Differences in perception Language differences Inappropriate Use of expressions Inappropr iate emotions N O N V E R B A L Ambiguity Distraction Polarization .
Info overload. Unethical communication. Inefficient communication. Message competition. Closed communication climate. Message complexity. Physical distraction.Barriers Within Organizations. Lack of trust. Differing status. Inadequate structures. Incorrect choice of medium. Media richness .
Info Overload Occurs when amount of info -process is exceeded. Withdrawing from info flow. Lowering quality of info processing. Searching for people to help process some of info. Delaying processing of info until info overload abates. Info overloaded lead to: Failing to process or ignoring some of info. . Mgr’s responsibility in disseminator role is to filter large volumes of info & distribute it appropriately. Processing info incorrectly.
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