COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

DNA COMPUTING
Presented by: Debabrata panda REG NO:0801106191 3 rd yr CSE
DEBABRATA PANDA 0801106191

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

INTRODUCTION

DEBABRATA PANDA

0801106191

DNA computing q“Computation using DNA” but not “computation on DNA” qInitiated in 1994 by an article written by Dr.COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY qEver wondered where we would find the new material needed to build the next generation of microprocessors???? qHUMAN BODY (including yours!) ……. Adleman on solving HDPP using DNA DEBABRATA PANDA 0801106191 .

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY Uniqueness of DNA Why is DNA a Unique Computational Element??? qExtremely dense information storage. qExtraordinary energy efficiency. qEnormous parallelism.  DEBABRATA PANDA 0801106191 .

Each operation on a test tube of DNA is carried out on all strands in the tube in parallel ! q DEBABRATA PANDA 0801106191 .COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY Advantages of dna q1 CD = 800 MB q1 gram DNA = 1X10^14 MB q1 gram DNA = 145 trillion CDs qHDD Data Density = 7 Gbits/inch qDNA Storage = Over Million Gbits/inch qA test tube of DNA can contain trillions of strands.

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY A little more… qBasic suite of operations: AND. amplifying and many others in DNA. qEx: in Error correction.OR. linking.NOT & NOR in CPU while cutting. DEBABRATA PANDA 0801106191 . qComplementarity makes DNA unique. pasting.

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY BIOCHEMISTRY BASICS DEBABRATA PANDA 0801106191 .

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY Extaction Annealing DEBABRATA PANDA 0801106191 .

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY Polymerase Chain Reaction DEBABRATA PANDA 0801106191 .

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY GEL ELECTROPHORESIS DEBABRATA PANDA 0801106191 .

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY HAMILTONIAN DIRECTED PATH PROBLEM DEBABRATA PANDA 0801106191 .

of Lab procedures grows linearly with the no. what did Dr. q DEBABRATA PANDA 0801106191 Adleman’s solution of the Hamiltonian Directed Path 2 Problem(HDPP). qNo. On the other hand adding “Probability” too.COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY qWhy not brute force algorithm??? 4 qSo. Adleman use? s q‘Generate and test’ strategy where number  of random paths were generated and tested. 3 5 qgood thing about random path generation-each path can be generated independent of all others bringing into picture-. 6 t .“Parallelism” . of vertices in the graph.

[PCR with selected primers] qStep3: From all remaining paths.otherwise.[PCR] q DEBABRATA PANDA 0801106191 .[Magnetic bead purification] qStep5: If any path remains. keep only those that visit exactly n vertices. return “no”. return “yes”.[Gel purification] qStep4: From all remaining paths.COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY Algorithm (non-deterministic) qStep1: Generate Random paths[Annealing and Ligation] qStep2: From all paths created in step 1. keep only those that start at s and end at t. keep only those that visit each vertex at least once.

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY DANGERS OF ERROR DEBABRATA PANDA 0801106191 .

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY Errors possible qAssuming that the operations used by Adleman model are perfect is not true. qBiological Operations performed during the algorithm are susceptible to error qOnly that which happens within the boundaries of 3 dimensional world are counted…lot of probability involved qErrors take place during the manipulation of DNA strands. Most dangerous operations: qThe operation of Extraction qUndesired annealings DEBABRATA PANDA 0801106191 .

qWhat if a ‘bad’ path is taken as if it were ‘good’? qFALSE POSITIVE!! qLess dangerous.COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY The operation of Extraction qWhat would happen if a ‘good’ path were lost during one of the extraction operations in step4? qFALSE NEGATIVE! qAdleman’s suggestion: to amplify the content of the test tube.because the solution could be verified at the end of the computation DEBABRATA PANDA 0801106191 .

a strand could anneal with itself.COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY Undesired Annealings qTypes of Undesired annealings: qPartial Matches:A strand u could anneal with one that’s similar to ū. but it is not the right one. qFinally.  DEBABRATA PANDA 0801106191 . losing its linear structure. qHow can the probability of all these undesired annealings be decreased?? qwith an opportune choice of strands used to encode the data of the problem. qUndesired matches between two shifted strands: Ex:A strand vu could partially anneal with ūw.

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY LIMITATIONS DEBABRATA PANDA 0801106191 .

qNo universal method of data representation.COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY DNS vs electronic computers qAt Present.  DEBABRATA PANDA 0801106191 .Reason?.. qTime consuming laboratory procedures.for n vertices.NOT competitive with the state-of-theart algorithms on electronic computers qOnly small instances of HDPP can be solved. we require 2^n molecules. qGood computer programs that can solve TSP for 100 vertices in a matter of minutes.

qInstead. language systems. and future advances may make DNA computers more efficient. emailing and solitaire programs. and algorithms or by airlines wanting to map more efficient routes.COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY The future qAlgorithm used by Adleman for the traveling salesman problem was simple. As technology becomes more refined. qDNA Manipulation technology has rapidly improved in recent years. q DEBABRATA PANDA 0801106191 . qThe University of Wisconsin is experimenting with chip-based DNA computers. their powerful computing power will be used for areas of encryption. more efficient algorithms may be discovered. Hence better applicable in only some promising areas. genetic programming. qDNA computers are unlikely to feature word processing.

caltech.p df vhttp://ezinearticles.com/?DNA-Computing&id=4133566 v  DEBABRATA PANDA 0801106191 .edu/winfree/DNA.html vhttp://www.edu/~robins/Computing_with_DNA.COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY References vhttp://en.org/wiki/DNA_computing vhttp://dope.virginia.cs.wikipedia.

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY ANY QUESTIONS ??? DEBABRATA PANDA 0801106191 .

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY THANK YOU DEBABRATA PANDA 0801106191 .