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Philosophy and education have a firm relation. Fichte affirms this relation in the essays he wrote to the German. He said, ³Without the benefit of philosophy, education cannot attain a state of perfect clarity. There is an interrelation between the two any of which will be imperfect and ineffectual without the other.´ John Dewey exceeds this point. He says, ³The classical philosophy would not have been existent without the pressure of the educational questions on the intellectualities. Hobart Spencer says, ³The accurate education can be practical through the accurate philosophy only.´
qalb (emotion). µAql (the faculty of reason). The body consists of several faculties corresponding to the physical senses. The soul could be elevated to the noblest of positions but it could also be debased to the lowest of the low. or nafs (self) according to the function that is ascribed to it. The nature of the learner with regards to learning has been the subject of study in psychology. learner. µaql (mind or intellect). unique to human beings. . being human. knowledge.The Islamic Philosophy of Education Three important elements that are necessary ingredients in the formulation of a philosophy of Islamic education . The spiritual faculty is known as: the ruh (soul). and means of instruction. The learner. elevates them above the rest of creation. is made up of a dual nature of spirit and body.namely.
social needs for affection. Unlike in the Western philosophical tradition where there has been constant debate since Greek philosophy. activity. Islam believes in the possibility of obtaining knowledge of Truth and Reality. According to Al-Attas. that is. and spiritual needs relating to something larger and beyond one¶s self. the need to reach for God. The learner has physical needs for food.It is common knowledge that the learner is inquisitive and flexible and can be molded especially at a tender age. . We know that man is equipped with a soul and physical senses and prepared by Allah to acquire knowledge. and status within a social group. and sex. In Islam there has not been much debate on this matter. belonging. µilm (knowledge) is the arrival of the maµna (meaning) of an object in the soul or the arrival of the soul at the meaning of an object of knowledge. as demonstrated by Plato¶s Theatetus. Thus the soul is not merely passive but active too.
and social sciences. the articles of faith. there exists a hierarchical structure to knowledge.Wahy (revelation) and intuition are received by the soul. the µilm alnaqliyah (revealed)²some of which is fard µayn. natural and applied sciences. which is a communal duty. In this manner. On the other hand. there exists two categories of knowledge. It includes the knowledge about the pillars of the religion. These correspond to the different degrees of certainty of knowledge and the means of procuring it. The five physical senses are the windows of the mind. Islam ensures that every individual is anchored to his faith while exploring new horizon . individual duty²and the µilm alnaqliyah²which is fard kifayah. particularly for obtaining empirical and the rational knowledge. and the Shari¶ah. and. Fard µayn knowledge is finite. just as there exists a dual nature in mankind. such as medicine. fard kifayah knowledge is obligatory upon the community. Each community should ensure that there are some people who are knowledgeable in the acquired or intellectual knowledges essential for the survival of the society. and obligatory for every individual Muslim to acquire. mathematics. In the Islamic worldview. certain.
The nature of the knowledge that provides the content of education is the major concern of the curriculum. Both fard µayn and fard kifayah knowledge have the purpose of strengthening faith. There is always tension between faith and reason just as there is between the kite and the string. There is no compartmentalization of knowledge into religious and secular spheres. if for some reason the string is broken. the kite will fly off in any direction. systematic study of the world of man and nature. . spirituality. then it will wander in all directions without knowing its limit. Knowledge is integral or holistic as suggested by the "tawhidic" worldview. if reason is not grounded in faith. where faith is the string and reason is the kite itself. Similarly. the former through careful study of the words of Allah in the Holy Qur¶an and the latter through a meticulous. and these views of man and knowledge have a great bearing upon Islamic education. and ethics. Knowledge is integral to action.The analogy of flying a kite can be used to describe the relationship between faith and reason.
and spirit. It endows the possessor with the knowledge of the proper places of things or objects (hikmah) in the scheme of Creation and subsequently to act in a just manner (`adl). mind. This acknowledgment is manifested in obedience and adherence to His commandments. . who. upbringing) is adab (proper way or virtue). such that it leads to the recognition and acknowledgment of the proper place of God in the order of being and existence´ of mankind. progressively instilled in man. the primary goal of Islamic education is to produce the good being. ensures him or her to be the servant (`abd) and the vicegerent (khalifah) of Allah who has undertaken the amanah (trust) of maintaining prosperity on earth. Al Attas defines ³education´ as the progressive instilling of ³the recognition and acknowledgment of the proper place of things in the order of creation. some still prefer tarbiyah.Education (ta¶dib. Therefore the primary goal of education is to lead man to recognize and acknowledge his Creator. In other words. disciplining. by developing all his/her potentials accordingly. Adab refers to the discipline of body.
moral. . There is no conflict between societal and individual aims because there is unity of purpose. which fulfills the spiritual needs of the individual. and curriculum.To this effect education is designed to produce the Godfearing (taqwa) servant of Allah who is aware of his individual vertical relations with Allah (hablun min Allah) and his social horizontal relations with his fellow man (hablun min al-nas). Just as knowledge is a reflection of man. should reflect knowledge. in effect the primary goals of education include spiritual. which fulfills the physical and intellectual needs necessary for societal development radiating from it. social. Thus.so also the curriculum should possess a center or a core consisting of revealed knowledge (µilm alnaqliyah). particularly at the tertiary level. and acquired knowledge (µilm alnaqliyah). ideally the curricular framework of an Islamic educational institution. The figure below illustrates the relationship between man. knowledge. and physical development with specific goals. Just as man is of a dual nature having a body and a spirit . intellectual.
To fulfill the requirement of fard kifayah (acquired knowledge). The balance between them must be preserved. Being the core of the curriculum. however. fard µayn (revealed knowledge) will be required of all students. are essential for happiness in this world and the next. . fard µayn and fard kifayah.Both knowledges. students will choose to specialize in at least one field of study.
Yet. Some worked in the frame of the spiritual goals while others worked in the material.The Educational Goals The Educational Goals Education enjoys serious goals and big social responsibilities. . The specialists have exerted great efforts for explicating such goals and responsibilities. and a fourth sought the individual growth and the personal composition. they have had different viewpoints regarding the question of defining those responsibilities. A third group looked upon the social goals.
and confide in God¶s oneness. If it has been obtaining the concerns of this world. refining your ethics. . and the human spirit. and violating the bad-tending soul. Likewise. it must lead the individuals to the sacred pure life that is originated by the cognition of God. holding its positions. collecting its wreckages.Spiritual Goals: Some Islamic educationists have affirmed that the basic purposes of education and learning are self-purity. realize nature. nature. then many happy returns will be yours!´ A number of Islamic educationists specify self-purity as the provisory of receiving knowledge. teachers used to check one¶s moralities before being accepted as a student. The morally wrong ones were dismissed from classes so that they would not use their knowledge in evildoings. Al-Ghezali says. This is the most elevated purpose and the noblest intendment. and ostentation before the others. On that account. and you abstained from sleep. He also affirms that the purpose of education should be the presentation of a sacred pure life of sincerity and goodness. I do not know your intendment. and the constructing of relations with God. Froble says that education is supposed to make the individuals feel their internal souls. self-chastity. then woe is you! If your intendment is enlivening the Prophet¶s practices. ³O youngster! Many are the nights that you have passed with seeking knowledge and scanning books.
and committing ourselves to His path through virtues. We can achieve so by adopting the accurate cognition of the Lord. which does not lead to perfection and self-discipline. ³Virtues are the leading purposes of education.´ As he asserts the moral aspect of education. ignoring the other aspects. cherishing Him. . out of the circle of education. ³The purpose of education is improving what our fathers corrupted. John Luke says. Willula says.Master educationists have agreed upon the idea of dismissing any edification.´ The previous opinions have focused lights on the moral and spiritual aspects of education.
´ This opinion.Material Goals: A group of educationists believes that the organization of the youth for obtaining their earnings should be the main goal of education. Human beings. God has made the lands usable. . we should show our sons how to seek their earnings. It has been said. are required to gain the earnings and seek its means that are actually the most imperative for awarding the survival of the individuals and the dependants. and instructed us to seek the various ways and have from His sustenance. so. This opinion is interested in the material aspects exclusively. as they tend to live persistently. ³The learning of a profession is a security against poverty. however. Some English educationists have named this goal as ³bread and butter goal.´ The wealthy should not rely upon their fortunes and neglect professions and career. owns a value..
´ Islam has declared most of these goals as the basic principals of the educational domains. The social goal of education is the management of learning in a way that produces the industrial development for achieving people¶s contentment and enabling them to act the necessary social duties. Jean Beige says. and develop the makings as much as possible. In addition. and fulfill the required social tasks completely. Otherwise. it should share out the spirits of equality among people. It is also given the mission of developing the activities that are practiced by the UN Organization for keeping peace.´ Kondrsie says. Education is responsible for substantiating the spirit of conformity and familiarity among people. education should act for enabling every individual to master the personal skills. ³First of all. and supporting the respect of others¶ rights as well as the basic rights. ³The most significant goal of education is the attainment of the perfect boons of personalities. . it will not achieve the political equality that the law declares. including the racial and religious groups.Social Goals: Some educationists have looked upon the matter from a social aspect.
good relation with the society. respecting people¶s rights. Plato supposes that one of the educational goals should be releasing the ignorant individuals from the bonds of unawareness. to the goals of the educational processes. self-reliance.Individual Development: Some educationists believe that the main goal of the educational processes is the achievement of the individuals¶ perfect growth according to their predispositions and capabilities. Other educationists added the estimation of the ethics. presenting the environmental factors. . The cultural heritage is regarded as one of the educational means. The highest mental natures should be elevated to the ranks of practicing good deeds in this world. and working for developing the human societies. the good behavior. Such a heritage should be organized psychologically for fitting the various stages of development. They also added self-will. forbidding evil. and the rectification of desires. and the activities in labor to the educational processes. and taking them from the world of gloom to that of illumination and freedom.
The development of the social trends. 1. They are the well being.More Goals Philosophers of education state more goals that achieve the individual development and self-assertion. The development of individual-social concurrence. The providing of a set of suitable tendencies. 6. The founding of useful habits that are related to labor and lessons. and the recognition of the natural world. 5. The development of a steady philosophy of life. 10. The presentation of the principal information. The development of the accurate ways of thinking. 7. The development of physical conditions. The development of the artistic and aesthetic aspects. 8. Other philosophers expose ten goals as the most important in the education. The development of social senses. the emotional and social duties. 2. 4. 9. . 3.
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