ancient to medieval rhetoric

5th C BCE to 15th C CE, this period "holds the seeds of the theory of rhetoric debated and developed in contemporary intellectual circles"
(Covino & Jolliffe 165).

‡ the conventional history Plato didn't

‡ democracy in Sicily, 5th C BCE brought a judicial system + need 4 people to learn to speak as prosecutors or defendants ‡ Corax wrote handbooks

this instruction. said the Sophists could "not teach rhetors to speak the truth, and thus that their art was questionable." the sophist, Isocrates, who also taught, is noted as an exception -- he never accepted a fee
(Covino & Jolliffe 61.)

‡ Plato calls 4 an "ideal, philosophical
rhetoric" (dialectic), still enamored of his former teacher, Socrates, and his seemingly magical gifts.

‡ imitating Corax, some found success, and thus more handbooks‡ Aristotle responds w/ his Arts of or "techne" were Rhetoric. "rhetoric as the counterpart of produced (prescriptions 4 successful dialectic, in which rhetors would be able oration) to establish a 'truth' and persuade an audience to accept it." ‡ the Sophists ("philosophers,
mathematicians, and musicians") started to offer instruction in good public speaking ("show pieces")

‡ Aristotle into "probable truths" (enthymeme) to Plato's "episteme" (certain knowledge) (Covino & Jolliffe 165)

and then ...
later (84 BCE, De Inventione; 54 BCE, De Oratore), in Rome, Cicero combines much of the earlier Greek work on rhetoric -- "the handbooks, the sophistic teaching, and the philosophical rhetoric of Plato and Aristotle" and devised "a theory of public speaking particularly suited to his time's political and social context." later, "the Roman Quintilian synthesized about seven centuries of rhetorical theory, creating a body of thought about oratory and eloquence that was then adapted and put to use in the spread of Christianity throughout western Europe." (recall "Vir bonus dicendi peritas," or "the good man speaking well" -ethics, morals, values, and whatnot) (Covino & Jolliffe 165.

lexicon + concepts (note: these are porous membranes, these cell walls. see?)
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ dialectic and rhetoric as "counterparts," complimentary protrepticus (the "journey" of philosophical enterprise. the "movement." associated with Aristotle) ‡ polis agora democracy dialectic (integrated by the Sophist "Isocrates [who] rejects ‡ the philosophical insistence on the possibility of teaching transcendent knowledge"; it "is immoral because it teaches social isolation." in Antidosis, he argues the need for "an ideal rhetoric that could incite practical political action [guided by phronesis or practical wisdom] and at the same time be ethical" (Covino & Joliffe 61). epistemic rhetoric: (4 the Sophists, rhetoric could be taught beyond an "ideal." Arguing not from transcendent, a-priori truths but from diff perspectives (dissoi logoi), rhetoric could generate a version of contextualized truth. a way of generating "intersubjectively verifiable" truth (Cherwitz). enthymeme: rooted in the dialectic "syllogism." based not on "true" but probable premises. it is a "partial syllogism" (i.e., "Socrates is mortal, therefore human"), audience expected to supply the middle term. debated for centuries, Lloyd Bitzer (20th C) focused on the probable nature of the enthymeme as key.

(ideal) dialectic
(Plato's "elitist" skill, 4 a "chosen few"). natural talent required. not easily reducible to teachablity.

episteme (certain knowledge. for Plato
arrived at via ideal, philosophical dialectic based upon true premises). also, naturally, considerable meaningful in terms of "public" and "publicness," as in, what we come to know as knowledge (however we arrive at such knowledge), but in Classical Rhetoric terms, it is more often associated with Plato's essentialism, foundationalism, and certainty.



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