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Lecture Slides By: Monalisa Panigrahi Asst. Professor LPU

Transposition Ciphers

• now consider classical transposition or permutation ciphers • these hide the message by rearranging the letter order without altering the actual letters used • can recognise these since have the same frequency distribution as the original text

**Types of Transposition Ciphers Techniques
**

• Rail Fence Technique • Columnar Transposition Techniques

– Simple Columnar Transposition Techniques – Simple Columnar Transposition Techniques with multiple rounds

**Rail Fence cipher Technique
**

• write message letters out diagonally over a number of rows • then read off cipher row by row

1. Write down the plain text message as a sequence of diagonals 2. Read the plain text written in Step1 as a sequence of rows.

Example 1. Given Plain text – Hello Everyone H l o v r o e e l E e y n 2. Cipher Text : HlovroeelEeyn .

Example: • Plain text : CAPSTONE PROJECT .

Write the plain text message row by row in a rectangle of a predefined size 2. It can be any random order such as 2. .3.1 etc 3. Read the message column by column. The message obtained is the cipher text message.Simple Columnar Transposition Techniques 1. Thus.

Given Plain text– Hello Everyone • Consider a Rectangle with four columns. H o r e e E y l v o l e n .Example • 1.

Example • Decide a random order : 2 4 1 3 • Read the text in the order of these columns • Cipher Text : eEylenHorelvo .

Cipher text is eEylenHorelvo • Perform Step 1 to 3 as many times as desired .Simple Columnar Transposition Techniques with multiple rounds • Given Text – Hello Everyone • After Round 1.

Example • Round 2: • eEylenHorelvo e e r o E n e y H l l o v • Choose same order of columns : 2 4 1 3 • Read the text in the order of these columns Cipher Text: EneloveeroyHl .

SRAECOJPPTCNETO 3. ETRPTONAPOSJECC . CPTNPOETASOERJC 2.Example Plain Text : CAPSTONE PROJECT 1.

Sita meets Ram and says Rjjy rj ts ymj xfggfym bj bnqq inxhzxx ymj uqfs.Review Questions 1. The following message was received by Bob : hs yis ls. eftstof n^ TyymrieraseMr^ e ho ec^etose Dole^. What would be the transformation of a message ‘HAPPY BIRTH DAY TO YOU’ using Rail Fence Technique 3. What does she wants to convey ??? 2. If she is using modified Caesar Cipher. with the key as 24153? Find the original Plain text ? . If the message is encrypted by using The Simple Columnar Transposition method.

C B A If Sita sends a message HSLDNVGSVNLMVB. X Y Z Changed to : Z Y X ………. Consider a scheme involving the replacement of alphabets as follows: Original : A B C ………. What should Ram get from this ? .Review Questions 4.

Encryption and Decryption • As we know the process to transform plain text to cipher text or vice versa – encryption and decryption .

• To encrypt and decrypt the message – encryption and decryption algorithm • Usage both must be same each other – otherwise the decryption cannot success • Others method using key = one time pad in Vernam Technique • Algorithm – know to everyone– to made the message secure – use the key. • Receiver received the message and decrypt it to plain text.Encryption and Decryption… Cont • In computer communication – sender send the encrypt message through the network. .

Encryption and Decryption… Cont .

• Every Encryption and Decryption process has two aspects : – Algorithms – Key (used for encryption and decryption) .

Encryption and Decryption… Cont • There are 2 cryptography mechanism – Symmetric key Cryptography = use same key to encrypt and decrypt the message – Asymmetric key Cryptography – use different key in encrypt and decrypt the message .

Symmetric and Asymmetric Key Cryptography • Symmetric Key Cryptography and the key distribution problem .

Create the same problem – By courier may improve the situation – same problem happened – Another option by hand-delivery mechanism – Others idea – put the envelope in box and locked it – difficult to receiver to opened it – Another KEY? – Send key by another way – No solution completely acceptable – either not fully proof or not practically possible – called key distribution problem / key exchange problem – Same key to encrypt and decrypt – symmetric key operation .Symmetric Key Cryptography and key distribution problem… Cont – Problem in transmission.

so need 2 different pair of key .Symmetric Key Cryptography and key distribution problem… Cont – Let say A want to send different message to 2 person B and C.

500 lock and key pairs .Symmetric Key Cryptography and key distribution problem… Cont – How about involve more than 5 person? – So we can write in Mathematic • Person involve (PI) – PI * (PI – 1) / 2 • 10 pairs of key and locked needed • Let say 1000 person involve – Remember that locked and key pair must be maintained by somebody – 1000 * (1000 – 1) / 2 = 499.

Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange / Agreement Algorithm – Introduction • Solution to the problem of key agreement or key exchange • Both parties can agree on a symmetric key – used in encryption / decryption • Based on mathematical principle – describe the step in algorithm. illustrate by example and discuss mathematic basic .

K1=K2=K . actually the keys is similar.Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange / Agreement Algorithm… Cont – Description of the algorithm – Let say Alice and Bob agree upon a key that used in encrypt/ decrypt. The step by using Diffie-Helman algorithm shown in the figure. • Base on the step involve.

Thus K becomes the shared Symmetric key between Alice and Bob . n and g Bob 2 A = g^x mod n 3 A 6 K1=B^x modn B 4 B = g^y mod n 5 7 K2=A^y modn As it turns out. K1=K2=K.Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange / Agreement Algorithm 1 Alice Alice and Bob agree on two prime numbers.

Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange / Agreement Algorithm… Cont – Example of the algorithm • Let take small exam to prove the DifieHelman Key Exchange.2 . 3. This have been shown in Fig.

Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange / Agreement Algorithm… Cont .

Here the compute » K1 = Bx mod n » What is B? from step 4.Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange / Agreement Algorithm… Cont – Mathematical Theory behind the algorithm • 1st lets look at technical description of the complexity of the algorithm • What is actually means – Take a look what Alice does in step 6. substitute this value of B in step 6 we have following equation » K1 = (gy)x mod n = gyx mod n . » B = gy mod n » There for.

base on x and y that cannot easily be calculated – mathematically . Hence the Proof – Obviously question. if Alice and Bob can generate key separately – so can attacker.Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange / Agreement Algorithm… Cont – What Bob does in step 7.A.B.g. K2 = Ay mod n What is A? from step 2 we have. – Solution: exchange n. substitute this value of A in step 7 we have following equation » K2 = (gx)y mod n = gxy mod n » » » » – Now basic mathematic say » Kyx =Kxy – So we get K1=k2=k. Here Bob compute. A = gx mod n There for.

Why Diffie-Hellman Works ??? Alice Bob Alice fill up Another one-third Of the key using her secret random number Alice Completes The key By adding The last Part Received From Bob g One-Third of the key(g) is public Bob sends the key to Alice g x g x y g Alice sends the key to Bob y g y Bob fills up Another one-third Of the key using his secret random number Bob Completes The key By adding The last Part Received From Alice Both keys are the same because the order of Completion (x First or y First) does not matter x g .

Tom copy all the value. let say n=11 and g=7 (those code is basic in calculate the key K1=K2=K) – She not realize that the hacker (Tom) listening for their conversation. • This happened as follow – As usual Alice send n and g to Bob.Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange / Agreement Algorithm… Cont – Problem with algorithm • Diffie Helman Key Exchange – not solve all the problem associated with key exchange • Can fall pray to the man-in-the-middle attack that also called bucket brigade attack. .

24 Fig. 3. Note that Alice calculate for A and Bob calculate for B but Tom calculate both. A and B. this can be look at fig.Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange / Agreement Algorithm… Cont – Lets say all select random value for x and y as shown in fig.25 .3.25 Fig. 3. 3.24 – All the three person calculate A and B with x and y that have been selected.

i: 4) Alice.i: 2) to Bob. and Tom have a value A and B as shown in 3.i: 8) to Alice.i: 9)to Bob.27 . Bob. Tom intercept it and send his A (e.Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange / Agreement Algorithm… Cont – The real Drama: » Alice send A(e. » Bob send his B (e. Alice accept it and not realized what had happened » At this juncture. Alice. Tom intercept it and send his B (e. Bob not realized it.

Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange / Agreement Algorithm… Cont .

3.Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange / Agreement Algorithm… Cont Fig.28 . those three person generate the key as shown in 3.28 » Why Tom generate 2 keys? Fig.27 » Base the key. 3.

– Let say A want to send a message to B.Asymmetric Key Operation • Asymmetric Key Operation – Have 2 keys . – K1 known as public Key and K2 as private key . so B will send K1 to A to be used in encrypting the message – B will open / decrypt the message by using K2 – K1 != K2 – K1 everyone know… but not K2. only B knows. encrypt and decrypt the message.

Asymmetric Key Operation .

C may use the same key (K1) to encrypt the message and B can use K2 (same as used to decrypt message A) – Only a pair of key is needed to execute cryptography process (if B want to receive from 1000 person) – But if they want to communicate with each other they will need 1000 lock. 1000 K2 – not as symmetric (499. 500) .Asymmetric Key Operation – What if B want to received a message from C. 1000 K1.

Steganography • Technique that hiding the message inside other message • Historically. etc • Of late – hiding behind the picture Fig.30 . 3. tiny pin puncher on specific character. the sender use invisible ink.

Key Range and Key Size • The cryptanalyst is armed with the following information – The encryption/ decryption algorithm – The encrypted message – Knowledge about the key size • Keys – challenge for the attackers • Attackers can develop programming to solve the keys – depend to size of key .

Key Range and Key Size… Cont .

long time to crack . 120 etc) – In bit – Bigger the key size. 56.Key Range and Key Size… Cont • How attackers determine either the message that he/she decrypt is the plain text or the right keys? • How to prevent? – Size of the keys (40.

Key Range and Key Size… Cont .

.56 bit not safe. if each computer can check 2300 keys in one second (which cannot happen) • 2162 millennia to search 1% of 512 bit key. • Tomorrow – 128bit may not safe • Another day – 256- – But impossible to 512 bit.Key Range and Key Size… Cont – Can also represent the possible values in the key range using hexadecimal – Complexity to the attackers – The keys size chasing by the technology • today. why? • Suppose that every atom in the universe is actually a computer • In the world – 2300.

Key Range and Key Size… Cont .

Guess the meaning of the message • Know some pair of plain text and corresponding the cipher text – tries to find other pairs of plain text • Chosen the plain text block – try to look for encryption of the same in cipher text – Know Plain Text Attack – Chosen Plain Text Attack . Has some and all the cipher text.Possible Types of Attacks • 3 possibility Attacks can be occurs – Cipher Text only Attack • The attacker doesn’t know about the plain text.

• Assume n=11. x=2. y=3.Question • Alice and Bob want to establish a secret key using the Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange protocol. • Find out the values of A. g=5. B and the secret Key (K1. K2) .

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