Pre-History

Definition: Period before people kept written records

Earth= 6 billion years old

•Timeline
Age of Earth = 6 billion years x Human-like- creatures on Earth - 3-5 million years x Species= Homo Sapien on Earth at least 50,000 years x Writing invented (end of Pre-History) = 5,000 -6,000 years ago
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Dating System
B.C. =Before the Christian Era (Pope Gregory miscalculated birth of Christ by 4 years, according to modern scholars. Jesus thought to be born in 4 B.C. x A.D.= (Anno Domini) In the year of our Lord x B.P.= Before the present (years ago)
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Unwritten Evidence
Fossils= human and animal bones & teeth or traces left in rocks of plants & animals. Example - footprints x Artifacts= Objects shaped by humans
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Marine Fossils

Artifacts

Dating Processes: Carbon 14
most commonly used x based on radioactive carbon in living organisms decaying at a fixed rate x discovered in 1948 by Willard Libby x Limitation: can be used only on once living things (not minerals) x Limitation: not accurate for items over 100,000 years old.
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Other processes: Amino Acid Racemization
can be used to date items up to 1 million years old

Other processes
Potassium -40 x Uranium x Thorium x each is used to date rocks and minerals
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Man Superior to Other Animals?
Thumb- ability to grasp something x Upright Posture- frees hands for manipulation and carrying x Speech- allows us to think abstractly and pass on culture to next generation x Large Brain- allows more complex thought and memory
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Human-Like creatures
Australopithecus x 3.7 million years old x walked upright on two legs x found in Tanzania, Africa x uncertain of relationship between them and modern Humans
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Paleolithic Age or Old Stone Age
called so because almost all of the artifacts were made of stone x used caves as shelter x ate seeds, nuts, fruits, plants x began to hunt small animals x made tools and weapons x Developed spoken language to pass on information and skills to next generation
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Early Flint Tools

Early People Java Man or Peking Man
Hunters migrated long distances in search of food. x Expanded into Asia 1-1.5 million years ago x Remains found on island of Java in Indonesia in 1891 x Remains also found in 1929 near Beijing, China (Formerly called Peking)
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The Ice Age
Periods of Glaciation x Actually there were 4 periods x Each period lasted 10-20 thousand years each x During each the Earth had periods of extremely cold weather
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Ice Ages
Ice covered 1/3 of the Earth’s surface from each pole x Normally 1/12 Earth’s surface covered x Water becomes trapped in great sheets over 1 mile thick x Ocean levels dropped several hundred feet as more and more water is trapped. x Moving ice changed the shape of Earth’s surface
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Ice Ages (3)
As sea level dropped underwater ridges were exposed and became “land bridges” x Example: BERINGIA - Connected America and Asia across Bering Strait
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Extent of Ice during Ice Age

Cause of Ice Ages?
Large Meteorite crashing into Earth causing smoke and dust to be thrown up into the stratosphere blocking out the Sun x Volcanic action worldwide causing smoke and dust to be thrown up into the stratosphere blocking out the Sun x Large Meteorite causing volcanic action.
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Neanderthal Man
lived 100,000 to 30,000 years ago x Remains were first found in Neander Valley in Germany in 1856 and also in Asia and North Africa x Buried their dead with tools and weapons and thought to have religious concept of life after death. x Powerful builds, thick eyebrow ridges
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Neanderthal Man (2)
Lived in caves x Wore clothing made of animal skins x Were first people to cook food x Nursed sick and helped weak to survive x Disappeared for unknown reasons during last Ice Age
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Cro-Magnon Man
Appeared almost as modern man does today x lived on Earth many thousands of years x By end of Old Stone Age no longer existed as a distinct type of people. Became HOMO SAPIEN
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Mesolithic Age Middle Stone Age
from 10-12,000 years ago to 5,000 years ago. x domesticated animals- dog -goat x invented bow & arrow, fishhooks, spears x first vehicle of transportation- (dug-out canoe) x People were NOMADIC- moved from place to place
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Neolithic Age New Stone Age
Ground and polished stone tools to a fine point or edge rather than chipping x Made tools from wood x Made specialized tools- awl-wedges-sawsdrills-chisels-needles
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Neolithic Revolution
ECONOMY- the way in which a people make their living x Previous economy: HUNTING & GATHERING x New economy: FOOD PRODUCING x 1. Herding- cattle, sheep, horses, pigs - for food and clothing x 2. Agriculture- plant and grow wheat, barley, rice, and millet for food
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Tools of Neolithic Revolution

Results of Neolithic Revolution
Established permanent homes as farmers were tied to the soil x Formed villages of several thousand people about 8,000 years ago x Farming was so productive that not everyone was needed for it x Developed specialized skills for nonfarmers
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Neolithic Results Specialized Skills
Making tools and weapons x Making shelter and clothing x Weaving baskets x Making pottery for cooking and storage x ARTISANS= people skilled in these crafts x Concept of PRIVATE PROPERTY developed
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Neolithic Results (3)
BARTER ECONOMY developed = exchanging goods for other goods x TECHNOLOGY = new methods and materials to create new tools for their work
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Neolithic Technology
Baking Pottery and bricks x Potter’s Wheel & Transportation wheel x Grinding Wheel and spinning wheel x Plow pulled by oxen x Looms for making cloth x Sail for Transportation x The use of metals
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Neolithic Metals
COPPER- first metal to be used. x easy to extract and work but tools were soft and did not remain sharp x BRONZE- made by mixing Copper and Tin x much harder and more durable than either metal
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Bronze Age
Period in which bronze replaced copper and stone as the main tool material x First came from Southwest Asia x about 5,000 years ago x Spread to Egypt and China
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Bronze Age Weapons

Iron Age
Began around 3,200 years ago in Asia Minor x Required the invention of the FORGE- a furnace to hold and concentrate the heat x Also invention of the BELLOWS to force air on the fire to make it burn hotter
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First Civilizations 4 cradles of civilization
MESOPOTAMIA- earliest location - in South West Asia -land between Tigris River and Euphrates River- located in what is today IRAQ x EGYPT- located in Africa on the Nile River x INDUS- On the Indus River just West of the Indian Peninsula x CHINESE- On the Huang He River in China
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Developing Civilization Flood Control & Irrigation
Involved building canals and dikes x Cooperation needed for this x Was the cause of the first Governments
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Spreading Civilization
Merchants and Traders developed x Bought goods from farmers and sold to people in the towns x Passed along ideas also x CULTURAL DIFFUSION - is what this is called
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Making a Calendar
Observed changes in seasons x When floods occurred x Phases of the moon and stars x Lunar month based of cycle of moon phases x Lunar Year (12 months) = 354 days x 11 days short of Solar Year= 365 1/4 days
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Writing
Needed to preserve and pass on Information x to record events and keep tax records x step 1: Picture = a thing = PICTOGRAM x step 2: Picture = an idea = IDEOGRAM x step 3: Picture = a sound = PHONOGRAM or a syllable x step 4: Picture = single consonant or vowel
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Early seal writing