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V V  is the vocalized form
of human communication. It is
based upon
the syntactic combination
of lexicals andnames that are
drawn from very
large vocabularies.
V speech flow
V loudness

V intonation

V and intensity of overtones

V V describes the speed at
which utterances are produced as
well as the number and duration of
temporary breaks in speaking
V ©
 reflects the amount of
energy associated with the
articulation of utterances and, when
regarded as a time-varying quantity,
the speaker's dynamic
V Ã    is the manner of
producing utterances with respect to
rise and fall in pitch, and leads to
tonal shifts in either direction of the
speaker's mean vocal pitch.
V     are the higher tones
which faintly accompany a
fundamental tone, thus being
responsible for the tonal diversity of
"raditional grammar classifies words
based on eight   : the verb,
the noun, the pronoun, the adjective,
the adverb, the preposition,
the conjunction, and the interjection.
Each    explains not what
the word , but how the word  . In
fact, the same word can be a noun in
one sentence and a verb or adjective in
the next.
V à. "he  is perhaps the most
important part of the sentence. A 
or compound verb asserts something
about the subject of the sentence and
express actions, events, or states of being.
"he verb or compound verb is the critical
element of the predicate of a sentence.
V x. A  is a word used to name a
person, animal, place, thing, and abstract
idea. Nouns are usually the first words
which small children learn.
V ½. A   can replace a noun or
another pronoun. You use pronouns
like "he," "which," "none," and "you"
to make your sentences less
cumbersome and less repetitive.
V . An 
   modifies a noun or
a pronoun by describing,
identifying, or quantifying words.
An adjective usually precedes the
noun or the pronoun which it
V . An 
 can modify a verb,
an adjective, another adverb, a phrase, or
a clause. An adverb indicates manner,
time, place, cause, or degree and answers
questions such as "how," "when,"
"where," "how much".
V 0.
A     links nouns, pronouns and
phrases to other words in a sentences.
"he word or phrase that the preposition
introduces is called the object of the
V G. You use a 
    ^"and," "but," "or," "nor,"
"for," "so," or "yet") to join individual
words, phrases, and independent
clauses. Note that you can also use the
conjunctions "but" and "for"
as prepositions.
V Œ. An    is a word added to
a sentence to convey emotion. It is not
grammatically related to any other part
of the sentence.
V Informative speech
V Layout Speech

V Demonstrative speech

V Persuasive Speech
V An Informative Speech is like teaching.
"he purpose of an informative speech is
to try to teach something to the audience.
"he success of your speech depends on
whether the audience learns what you
wanted to teach them. You need to tell
the audience why the information is
useful and valuable. You need to make
sure that the audience understands and
remembers the essential information.
3 A teacher telling students about
3 Someone telling some foreign students
about the Cherry Blossom Season
3 A student telling people about her research
3 A tour guide telling people about the
"ower of London
3 A computer programmer telling people
about new software
3 Someone telling the audience about his
V An layout Speech is like giving
someone directions, or explaining
the location of a place. It is not very
common as a formal speech, but it is
something you often have to when
explaining to people about a town or
large building. A layout speech tells
the audience where things are. It
may also describe there size and
V Gestures are very important in a
layout speech. In fact, this is a good
chance to practice your gestures. "he
success of your speech depends on
whether the audience can find their
way round the place you have
3 An interior designer explaining the
layout of the new city hall
3 A police officer giving directions to
lost tourists
3 A real estate agent describing the
features of a new house
3 A receptionist helping a visitor find
the conference room
3 A tour guide explaining the floor
plan of a large art museum
V A demonstration speech is like an
informative speech because you have to
teach the audience about something.
However, in a demonstration speech you
will not just tell the audience about
something, you will also tell them how to
do something. Your speech will be
successful if at the end of your speech the
audience can do what you showed them
to do.
3 A ski instructor demonstrating how to
perform a turn
3 A policeman telling someone how to
get to the station
3 A chef telling his audience how to
make chocolate cake
3 A tour guide telling people how to
use the underground system in

V A persuasive speech contains
information to help people make a
decision. "he purpose of a
persuasive speech is to persuade
people to change in some way. For
example, it could be to change the
way they think about something. Or
it could be to change the way they
do things.
V Finally, it could be to persuade the
audience to do something that they
do not do now. Your speech will be
successful if at the end of your
speech the audience is willing to
make the change you suggested.
3 A lawyer trying to convince a jury
3 A salesclerk trying to persuade
customers to buy a new product
3 A politician asking people to vote for
3 A nurse persuading a patient to stop
3 A student trying to get a friend to
lend him some money
Whether you're a novice or an
accomplished speaker, everyone is
looking for fresh tips and ideas on giving
a good speech. Since we figured you're
no different, we've worked hard to
compile a list of practical tips, tricks and
advice to help turn the shy, quiet speaker
into a confident, animated crowd pleaser.
All you have to do is enter into this
willing to grow and change into a better,
me effective public speaker.
Prior to speaking, learn the needs of your
audience and prepare your content to see
that those needs are met ^or at the very
least, heightened to the point of action.)
Prepare yourself to the point that you
now and are comfortable with what
you'll say and where you'll need notes
little, if at all. Be ready to make
divergences or changes if an earlier
speaker has already covered a point that
you intended to make.
Structure the content of your speech
according to a logical,
understandable order. Examples
include most important to least
important, least important to most
important, chronological order and
reverse chronological order, just to
name a few.
Whenever possible, take the time to
practice in front of a mirror ^a mini-
audience) as well as record your speech
on a tape-recorder and listen to it,
looking for places to pause or where one
word might be better suited being
changed to another. Remember, your
speech needs to be written for the ear,
not for the eye. It also needs to be written
to be understood by even the simplest of
people on a basic level. Don't try to
Identify both the strong and weak
points of your speech or
presentation. "ake advantage of
opportunities to emphasize your
strengths while downplaying your
Remember that, to an audience,
perception IS reality. "hen, present
yourself accordingly. Pay attention
to your choice of clothing, dress not
too casually, and not too formally.
Consider your facial expression,
gestures, as well as any distracting
mannerisms you might have.
Match your mood to your content. If
you're speaking on a sombre or
solemn topic or subject, don't grin
like a mischievous kid. On the same
note, if you're speaking on a bright
or optimistic message, don't sit
around with a drawn expression or
using a monotone.
Pay attention to the speed at which you
speak. If you talk too slowly, you're in
danger of boring your audience or
causing them to doubt your competence
or intelligence. On the other hand,
speaking too quickly makes it too easy to
lose your message in a string of quick
words and phrases that they don't have
the time to even comprehend. Shoot for
the middle ground, it's safer there!
Pay close heed to what your body
language is saying and make sure
that your non-verbal communication
is in line with your overall message.
"ake full advantage of audio and/or
visual aids or other props that can be
used to enhance or exemplify what
you're sharing. Possibilities include
PowerPoint presentations, flip
charts, graphs, overhead projectors,
digital media and more.
However, any time you chose to use
a prop or aid, make sure that you're
choosing it for the right reasons.
Does it support your speech or does
it just look ^or sound) good. It
should be your ultimate goal to have
any props or aids meet both criteria.
Don't even think about trying to
convince your audience to accept as
true an opinion you don't actually
believe yourself. A good speech can
only occur if you spread your
message with faith and conviction.
If you must use notes during your
speech or presentation, prepare
them in such a way that you don't
have to read from them for any
extended amount of time. "his may
mean that you should restrict your
notes to an outline, or just key points
you plan to illustrate.
Make ^and maintain) eye contact
with individual members of your
audience. Seek out smiling, friendly
faces and speak directly to those
people. Be sure to make eye contact
with several different audience
members and work your eyes ^and
smiles) around the room.
Never underestimate the power of
the pause. Pauses provide both you
and your audience with a moment to
think and reflect upon what was just
said. Pauses are also important ways
to underscore humor or new facts or
·now when to shut up. As silly as it may
sound, far too many speakers don't know
when ^or how) to conclude their
messages. Some make the mistake of
droning and ambling long past the
stopping point. Others will end too early,
without summarizing and reviewing the
highlights of the presentation. Don't
make the same mistake. ·now when to
end, and then do it!