LEADERSHIP

Leadership

The ability to inspire confidence and support among the people who are needed to achieve organizational goals

Leadership Roles
An expected set of activities or behaviors stemming from one s job

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Figurehead Spokesperson Negotiator Coach and motivator Team builder

‡ Team player ‡ Technical problem solver ‡ Entrepreneur ‡ Strategic planner

Sources of Leader Satisfaction ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ A feeling of power and prestige A chance to help others grow and develop High income Respect and status Good opportunities for advancement A feeling of being in on things An opportunity to control resources .

Framework for Understanding Leadership .

Esse tial Q alities f Effective F ll ers ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Self-ma ageme t C mmitme t C mpete ce a d f c s C rage .

Traits. Motives and Characteristics of Leaders .

they apply in all situations . that is.Universal Theory of Leadership Certain leadership traits are universally important.

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Lea ers i aracteristics ateg ries ‡ Pers nality traits ‡ M tives ‡ gnitive fact rs .

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Leader Personality Traits ‡ General Personality Traits ± Traits observable both within and outside the context of work ‡ Task-Related Personality Traits ± Traits closely associated with task accomplishment .

Figure 2-1 General Personality Traits of Effective Leaders .

Figure 2-2 Task-Related Personality Traits of Leaders .

. and regulate one s emotions to enhance one s quality of life.Emotional Intelligence refers to the ability to do such things as understand one s feelings. have empathy for others.

all of which can be considered task related. ‡ This desire is evident in four needs or motives.Leadership Motives ‡ Leaders have an intense desire to occupy a position of responsibility for others and to control them. .

Figure 2-3 Leadership Motives .

Cog itive Factors ‡ Cognition refers to the mental process by which knowledge is gathered ‡ Leaders must have problem-solving and intellectual skills to effectively gather. and store essential information ‡ Six cognitive factors related to leadership effectiveness have been identified . process.

Cognitive Factors and Leadership .

T e WICS odel of Leaders i i Orga izations T is model of leaders i encompasses and synthesizes ± wisdom ± intelligence. and ± creativity to explain leadership effectiveness .

a leader needs following for the successful utilization of intelligence: ± Creative skills to generate new ideas ± Analytical skills to evaluate whether the ideas are good ones ± Practical skills to implement the ideas and to persuade others of their value.The ICS Model (cont d) ‡ According to the ICS model. .

Nature versus Nurture ‡ Are leaders born or are they made? Both. ‡ Individuals inherit a basic capacity to develop personality traits and mental ability that sets an outer limit on how extensively these traits can be developed ‡ Environmental influences. in turn. determine how much of an individual s potential will be developed .

Charismatic Leadership. Transformational Leadership . Transactional Leadership.

powers. charisma is a special quality of leaders whose purposes.Charisma Defined ‡ Charisma has been defined various ways ‡ Charisma is a Greek word meaning divinely inspired gift ‡ In leadership. and extraordinary determination differentiate them from others .

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Charis a: elationshi et een the Leader and roup e ers ‡ Key to charis atic leadership is the interaction et een leader and group e ers ‡ Charis atic qualities ust e attri uted to the leader y group e ers ‡ Charis atic leaders use i pression anage ent to cultivate their relationships ith group e ers .

The Effects of Charisma ‡ Group members ± trust the leader s beliefs ± have beliefs similar to those of the leader ± accept the leader unquestioningly ± have affection for the leader ± willingly obey the leader ± identify with and attempt to emulate the leader .

The Effects of Charisma (cont d) ‡ Group members ± have emotional involvement in the mission ± have heightened goals ± feel that they will be able to accomplish. or to contribute to the accomplishment of the mission .

Figure 3-1 Halpert s Dimensions of Charisma .

Types of Charis atic Leaders
‡ Socialized charismatics restrain the use of power to benefit others ‡ Personalized charismatics exercise few restraints on power to serve their own interests

Types of Charis atic Leaders (cont d)
‡ Office-holder charismatics attain their charisma from the position they hold ‡ Personal charismatics gain esteem from others faith in them as people ‡ Divine charismatics are endowed with a gift of divine grace

Characteristics of Charismatic Leaders
‡ Visionary ‡ Masterful communication skills ‡ Ability to inspire trust ‡ Able to make group members feel capable ‡ Energy and action orientation ‡ Emotional expressiveness and warmth ‡ Romanticize risk ‡ Unconventional strategies ‡ Self-promoting personality ‡ Dramatic and unique

long-term goal ‡ Charismatic leaders inspire others with their vision .Vision in Charis atic Leadership ‡ Vision is the ability to imagine different and better conditions and ways to achieve them ‡ A vision is a lofty.

imagination. and values of group members ± Gearing language to different audiences ‡ Management by Anecdote ± Inspiring and instructing team members by telling fascinating stories .Communication ‡ Management by Inspiration ± Using metaphors and analogies to appeal to the intellect.

opti istic.Techni ues for eveloping Charis a ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Create visions for others Be enthusiastic. and energetic Be sensibly persistent Re e ber na es of people Make an i pressive appearance Be candid isplay an in-your-face attitude .

or society . organization.Transformational Leadership ‡ The transformational leader helps bring about major. positive changes ‡ Transformational leaders move group members beyond their self-interests for the good of the group.

Figure 3-2 How Transformations Take Place .

Attributes of Transformational Leaders ‡ Charismatic ‡ Create a vision ‡ Encourage the personal development of their staff ‡ Provide supportive leadership ‡ Practice empowerment ‡ Innovative thinking ‡ Lead by example .

Concerns out Charis atic Leadership ‡ According to the concept of leadership polarity. leaders are often either revered or vastly unpopular ‡ Charis a ay not e necessary for leadership effectiveness ‡ Charis atic leadership has a dark side ‡ Some charismatic and transformational leaders neglect their social responsi ility .

Leadership Behaviors. Attitude and Styles .

including high quality and customer satisfaction. .An Effective Leader « is one who helps group members attain productivity.

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and doing small favors for the group . and trust ‡ Involves being friendly and approachable. friendliness.Dimensions of Leadership ehavior Consideration ‡ The degree to which the leader creates an environment of emotional support. looking out for the personal welfare of the group. keeping the group abreast of new developments. warmth.

and task motivation . task orientation. and clarifying expectations for team members ‡ Also referred to as production emphasis. scheduling work. specifying procedures to be followed.Dimensions of Leadership ehavior Initiating Structure ‡ rganizing and defining relationships in the group by engaging in such activities as assigning specific tasks.

Figure 4-1 Four Combinations of Initiating Structure and Consideration .

Table 4-1 Task-Related Leadership Attitudes and Behaviors .

riented Attitudes and Behaviors .Table 4-2 Relationship.

Servant Leader A servant leader serves constituents by working on their behalf to help them achieve their goals. not the leader s own goals. ± ± ± ± ± ± Places service before self-interest Listens first to express confidence in others Inspires trust by being trustworthy Focuses on what is feasible to accomplish Lends a hand Provides tools .

360-Degree Feedback ‡ A formal evaluation of superiors based on input from people who work for and with them ‡ ften referred to as multisource feedback or multirater feedback ‡ Most often used for leadership and management development .

Figure 4-2 A 360-Degree Feedback Chart .

. she s a consensus leader.Leadership Style ‡ The relatively consistent pattern of behavior that characterizes a leader ‡ ften based on the dimensions of initiating structure and consideration ‡ Examples: He s a real command-and-control type.

Participative Leadership ‡ Participative leaders share decision making with group members ( trickle-up leadership ) ‡ Three subtypes: ± Consultative leaders confer with group members ± Consensus leaders strive for consensus among group members ± Democratic leaders confer final authority to the group .

Autocratic Leadership ‡ Autocratic leaders retain most of the authority for themselves ‡ Autocratic leaders make decisions confidently. assume that group members will comply. and are not overly concerned with group members attitudes toward a decision .

1) Middle-of-the-Road Management (5.9) .1) Country Club Management (1.Leadership Grid Styles ‡ The Leadership Grid is a framework for specifying the extent of a leader s concern for production and people ‡ Benchmark Leadership Grid styles include: ± ± ± ± ± Authority-Compliance (9.9) Impoverished Management (1.5) Team Management (9.

Entrepreneurial Leadership Characteristics ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Strong achievement drive and sensible risk-taking High degrees of enthusiasm and creativity Tendency to act quickly when opportunity arises Constant hurry combined with impatience Visionary perspective .

Entrepreneurial Leadership Characteristics (cont d) ‡ Dislike of hierarchy and bureaucracy ‡ Preference for dealing with external customers ‡ Eye on the future .

on the dimension of overall effectiveness. ‡ hile researchers found leadership style differences between men and women. women tended toward a transformational style.Gender Differences in Leadership Style ne researcher concluded that men tended toward a command-and-control style. In contrast. the sexes were perceived the same. ‡ . relying heavily on interpersonal skills.

Contingency and Situational leadership. Decision making model .

Contingency Approach Leaders are most effective when they make their behavior contingent on situational forces. including group member characteristics. .

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Fiedler s Contingency Theory ‡ The best style of leadership is determined by situational factors ‡ Leadership style may be relationshipmotivated or task-motivated ‡ Leadership style is relatively enduring and difficult to change ‡ Leaders should be matched to situations according to their style .

Least Preferred Coworker (LPC) ‡ The LPC scale measures the degree to which a leader describes favorably or unfavorably an employee with whom he or she could work least well ‡ A relationship-motivated leader tends to describe their LPC in favorable terms ‡ A task-motivated leader tends to describe their LPC in an unfavorable manner .

moderate. or low control ‡ More controllable situations are viewed as more favorable for the leader ‡ Control is determined by three dimensions: ± Leader-member relations ± Task structure ± Position power .Measuring the Situation ‡ Leadership situations are classified as high.

Figure 5-1 Summary of Findings From Fiedler s Contingency Theory .

‡ However.Evaluation of Fiedler s Contingency Theory ‡ Fiedler s work prompted others to conduct studies about the contingency nature of leadership. ‡ The model has alerted leaders to the importance of sizing up the situation to gain control. . contingency theory is too complicated to have much of an impact on most leaders.

Path-Goal Theory Developed y obert ouse ‡ Specifies what the leader must do to achieve high productivity and morale in a given situation ‡ Based on expectancy theory of motivation ‡ The manager should choose a leadership style that takes into account the characteristics of group members and the demands of the task .

Figure 5-2 The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership .

Path-Goal Theory: atching the Leadership Style to the Situation ‡ Two sets of contingency factors: ± Type of subordinates determined by locus of control and self-efficacy ± Type of work subordinates perform ‡ Factors influencing job satisfaction and task accomplishment: ± Group members tasks ± Authority system of the organization ± The work group .

lanchard and others ‡ Explains how to match leadership style to the capabilities of group members on a given task ‡ SLII is designed to increase the frequency and quality of conversations about performance and professional development between managers and group members so that competence is developed. commitment takes place. and turnover among talented workers is reduced .Situational Leadership II (SLII) Developed by enneth .

Figure 5-3 Situational Leadership II (SLII)

Normative Decision Model
Views leadership as a decision-making process in which the leader determines which decision-making style will be the most effective by examining certain factors within the situation

The ormative odel: Five Decisionaking Styles ‡ Decide Leader makes decision alone ‡ Consult (individually) Leader makes decision after consulting group members ‡ Consult (group) Leader makes decision after meeting with the group ‡ Facilitate Leader defines the problem and decision boundaries ‡ Delegate Leader permits the group to make the decision .

Contingency Leadership in the Executive Suite ‡ Five approaches successful CE s use based on assessments of their companies needs: ± Strategic ± Human assets ± Expertise ± Box ± Change agent .

Crisis Leadership Attributes ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Be decisive Lead with compassion Reestablish the usual work routine Avoid a circle-the-wagons mentality Display optimism Be a transformational leader .

Power. Politics and Leadership .

Types and Sources of Power ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Position power Personal power Power stemming from ownership Power stemming from providing resources Power derived from capitalizing on opportunities Power stemming from managing critical problems Power stemming from being close to power .

Four Bases of Position Power ‡ Legitimate power is the lawful right to make a decision and expect compliance ‡ Reward power stems from having the authority to give employees rewards for compliance ‡ Coercive power is the power to punish for noncompliance ‡ Information power stems from formal control over the information people need .

or abilities ‡ Referent power is the ability to influence others through desirable traits and characteristics ‡ Prestige power is power stemming from one s status and reputation . skills.Sources of Personal Power ‡ Expert power is the ability to influence others through specialized knowledge.

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Ownership Power ‡ A leader s strength of ownership power depends on ± how closely the leader is linked to shareholders and board members ± how much money he or she has invested in the firm .

Resource Dependence Perspective
‡ An organization requires a continuing flow of human resources, money, customers and clients, technological inputs, and materials to continue to function ‡ Organizational subunits or individuals who can provide these key resources accrue power

Power From Capitalizing on Opportunity
‡ Power can be derived from being in the right place at the right time and taking the appropriate action ‡ It pays to be where the action is.

Strategic Contingency Theory
‡ Units best able to cope with the firm s critical problems and uncertainties acquire relatively large amounts of power ‡ A subunit can acquire power by virtue of its centrality ‡ Centrality is the extent to which a unit s activities are linked into the system of organizational activities

the greater power he or she exerts ‡ The higher a unit reports in a firm s hierarchy.Power from eing Close to Power ‡ The closer a person is to power. the more power it possesses .

. shared decision making.Empowerment refers to passing decision-making authority and responsibility from managers to group members. Almost any form of participative management. and delegation can be regarded as empowerment.

Figure 7-1 Effective Empowering Practices .

Organizational Politics Informal approaches to gaining power through means other than merit or luck .

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Factors Contributing to Political ehavior ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Pyramid-shaped organization structure Subjective standards of performance Environmental uncertainty and turbulence Emotional insecurity Machiavellian tendencies Encouraging admiration from subordinates .

Power-Gaining Strategies ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Develop power contacts Control vital information Stay informed Control lines of communication Bring in outside experts Make a quick showing Remember that everyone expects to be paid back Be the first to accept reasonable changes .

and positive Ask advice Send thank-you notes to large numbers of people Flatter others sensibly .Relationship-Building Strategies ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Display loyalty Manage your impression Ask satisfied customers to contact your boss Be courteous. pleasant.

Potential Political Blunders ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Criticizing the boss in a public forum Bypassing the boss Declining an offer from top management Putting your foot in your mouth Not conforming to the company dress code .

Unethical Political Tactics ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Backstabbing Embrace or demolish Setting a person up for failure Divide and rule Playing territorial games Creating and then resolving a false catastrophe .

Exercising Control Over Dysfunctional Politics ‡ Be aware of its causes and techniques ‡ Avoid favoritism ‡ Set good examples at the top of the organization ‡ Encourage goal congruence ‡ Threaten to discuss questionable information in a public forum ‡ Hire people with integrity .

INFLUENCE TACTICS OF LEADERS .

Power and Influence ‡ Influence is the ability to affect the behavior of others in a particular direction ‡ Power is the potential or capacity to influence ‡ A leader must acquire power to influence others .

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Figure 8-1 A Model of Power and Influence .

Table 8-1 Essentially Ethical and Honest Influence Tactics .

Figure 8-2 Essentially Dishonest and Unethical Influence Tactics .

Machiavellians People in the workplace who ruthlessly manipulate others. . and other manipulative tactics. They tend to initiate actions with others and control the interactions. bluffing. They regularly practice deception.

Influence Tactic Effectiveness ‡ Most-effective tactics: ± Rational persuasion ± Inspirational appeal ± Consultation ‡ Least-effective tactics: ± Pressure ± Coalition ± Legitimating .

Influence Tactics Effectiveness (cont d) ‡ Effective tactics in a downward direction (toward a lower-ranking person) ± Inspirational appeal ± Ingratiation ± Pressure ‡ Effective tactics in a lateral direction ± Personal appeal ± Exchange ± Legitimating .

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Sequencing of Influence Tactics ‡ Begin with the most positive. or least abrasive tactic ‡ If necessary. proceed to a stronger tactic ‡ Use a more abrasive tactic such as upward appeal only as a last resort .

proceed to higher-cost. higherrisk tactics .Se uencing of Influence Tactics (cont d) ‡ Begin with low-cost. low-risk tactics ‡ If necessary.

Influence Tactic Direction ‡ The influence agent must also consider the direction of the influence attempt as a contingency factor. the less the need for caution in the use of influence tactics . ‡ The more position power an individual exerts over another.

The assumptions are stored in memory and activated when group members interact with a person in a leadership position. develop through socialization and past experience with leaders.Implicit Leadership Theories are personal assumptions about the traits and abilities that characterize an ideal organizational leader. . These assumptions. both stated and unstated.

. ‡ Antiprototypes are traits and behaviors people do not want to see in a leader.Implicit Leadership Theories (cont d) ‡ Prototypes are positive characterizations of a leader.

Table 8-2 Implicit Leadership Theory Dimensions .

DEVELOPING TEAM WORK .

and Groups ‡ A team is a work group that must rely on collaboration if each member is to experience the optimum success and achievement ‡ Teamwork is done with an understanding and commitment to group goals on the part of all team members ‡ All teams are groups.Teams. but not all groups are teams . Teamwork.

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Figure 9-1 Solo Leader vs. Team Leader ‡ Solo Leader ± Plays unlimited role (interferes) ± Strives for conformity ± Collects acolytes ± Directs subordinates ± Projects objectives ‡ Team Leader ± Chooses to limit role (delegates) ± Builds on diversity ± Seeks talent ± Develops colleagues ± Creates mission .

ased Organization ‡ Building trust and inspiring teamwork ‡ Coaching team members and group members toward higher levels of performance ‡ Facilitating and supporting team s decisions ‡ Expanding the team s capabilities ‡ Creating a team identity .Roles of a Leader in the Team.

Roles of the Leader in the Team-Based Organization (cont d) ‡ Anticipating and influencing change ‡ Inspiring the team toward higher levels of performance ‡ Enabling and empowering group members to accomplish their work ‡ Encouraging team members to eliminate lowvalue work .

including power sharing ‡ Using a consensus leadership style . including emotional intelligence ‡ Emphasizing pride in being outstanding ‡ Serving as a model of teamwork.Leader Actions That Foster Teamwork (using own resources) ‡ Defining the team s mission ‡ Establishing a climate of trust ‡ Developing a norm of teamwork.

Leader Actions That Foster Teamwork (cont d) ‡ Establishing urgency. demanding performance standards. and providing direction ‡ Encouraging competition with another group ‡ Encouraging the use of jargon ‡ Minimizing micromanaging ‡ Practicing e-leadership .

Fostering Teamwork Through Organization Structure or Policy ‡ Designing physical structures that facilitate communication ‡ Emphasizing group recognition and rewards ‡ Initiating ritual and ceremony ‡ Practicing open-book management .

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Fostering Teamwork Through Organization Structure or Policy (cont d) ‡ Selecting team-oriented members ‡ Using technology that facilitates teamwork ‡ Developing a team book .

.Cooperation Theory « a belief in cooperation and collaboration rather than competitiveness as a strategy for building teamwork.

empowered. Employees become business partners and perceive themselves to be members of the same team. .Open-Book Management In open-book management every employee is trained. and motivated to understand and pursue the company¶s business goals.

Outdoor Training and Team Development ‡ Outdoor training is a form of learning by doing ‡ Participants acquire leadership and teamwork skills by confronting physical challenges and exceeding self-imposed limitations .

The Leader. responsibility.ember Exchange odel (L X) ‡ Proposes that leaders develop unique work relationships with group members ‡ Two subsets of employees result: ± The in-group is given additional rewards. and trust in exchange for their loyalty and performance ± The out-group members are treated in accordance with a more formal understanding of leadermember relations .

Figure 9-2 The Leader-Member Exchange Model .

MOTIVATION AND COACHING SKILLS .

and desires of the person being motivated ‡ It is a process theory because it attempts to explain how motivation takes place .Expectancy Theory ‡ The amount of effort people expend depends on how much reward they expect to get in return ‡ It is cognitive because it emphasizes the thoughts. judgments.

Figure 10-1 The Expectancy Theory of Motivation .

Implications ‡ Determine what levels and kinds of performance are needed to achieve organizational goals ‡ Make the performance level attainable by the individuals being motivated ‡ Train and encourage people ‡ Make explicit the link between rewards and performance .

and expectancies are more likely to lead to good performance . high valences. instrumentalities.Implications (cont d) ‡ Make sure the rewards are large enough ‡ Analyze what factors work in opposition to the effectiveness of the reward ‡ Explain the meaning and implications of second-level outcomes ‡ Understand individual differences in valences ‡ Recognize that when workers are in a positive mood.

Goal Theory ‡ Behavior is regulated by values and goals ‡ A goal is what a person is trying to accomplish ‡ People desire to behave in ways consistent with their values .

Figure 10-2 Goal Theory .

Successful Recognition ‡ Has symbolic meaning ‡ Inspires pride of ownership ‡ Helps to reinforce the philosophy or identity of the giver .

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Figure 10-3 Coaching Versus the Traditional ay of Thinking about Management .

Fallacies About Coaching ‡ Coaching applies only in one-to-one work ‡ Coaching is mostly about providing new knowledge and skills ‡ If coaches go beyond giving instruction in knowledge and skills. they are in danger of getting into psychotherapy ‡ Coaches need to be expert in something in order to coach ‡ Coaching has to be done face-to-face .

Communicate clear expectations to group members 2.Coaching Skills and Techniques 1. Give feedback on areas that require specific improvement 4. Build relationships 3. Help remove obstacles . Listen actively 5.

Give emotional support Reflect content or meaning Give some gentle advice and guidance Allow for modeling of desired performance and behavior 10. Gain a commitment to change 11.Coaching Skills and Techni ues (cont d) 6. 7. 8. Applaud good results . 9.

Executive Coaching An executive coach (or business coach) is an outside or inside specialist who advises a person about personal improvement and behavioral change .

Communication and Conflict Resolution Skills .

the leader must synchronize verbal and nonverbal behavior ‡ Technology has had a meaningful impact on leaders communication and coordination .Communication and Leadership ‡ Effective leaders are also effective communicators ‡ To be effective.

Inspirational Speaking and Writing ‡ Be credible ‡ Gear your message to the listener ‡ Sell group members on the benefits of your suggestions ‡ Use heavy-impact and emotion-provoking words .

clear memos. letters. and reports. junk words.Inspirational Speaking and Writing (cont d) ‡ Use anecdotes and metaphors to communicate meaning ‡ Back up conclusions with data (to a point) ‡ Minimize language errors. and vocalized pauses ‡ Write crisp. including a front-loaded message ‡ Use a power-oriented linguistic style .

Principles of Persuasion ‡ Liking: People like those who like them ‡ Reciprocity: People repay in kind ‡ Social proof: People follow the lead of similar others .

Principles of Persuasion (cont d) ‡ Consistency: People align with their clear commitments ‡ Authority: People defer to experts ‡ Scarcity: People want more of what they can have less of .

people ‡ Specific. not global . rather than invalidating.Principles of Supportive Communication ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Problem oriented. not evaluative Based on congruence. not person oriented Descriptive. not incongruence Focused on validating.

not disowned ‡ Requires listening as well as sending messages .Principles of Supportive Communication (cont d) ‡ Conjunctive. not disjunctive ‡ Owned.

and speak slowly and clearly .Overcoming and Preventing Communication Barriers ‡ Be sensitive to the fact that cross-cultural communication barriers exist ‡ Challenge your cultural assumptions ‡ Show respect for all workers ‡ Use straightforward language.

speak the language of the people from another culture ‡ Observe cross-cultural differences in etiquette .Overcoming and Preventing Communication Barriers (cont d) ‡ Look for signs of misunderstanding when your language is not the listener s native language ‡ hen the situation is appropriate.

accent. grammar.Overcoming and Preventing Communication Barriers (cont d) ‡ Do not be diverted by style. or personal appearance ‡ Avoid racial or ethnic identification except when it is essential to communication ‡ Be sensitive to differences in nonverbal communication ‡ Be attentive to individual differences in appearance .

Figure 12-1 Conflict-Handling Styles According to the Degree of Cooperation and Assertiveness .

or to dominate ‡ The accommodative style favors appeasement. or satisfying the other s concerns without taking care of one s own ‡ The sharing style is halfway between domination and appeasement .Conflict Management Styles ‡ The competitive style is a desire to win one s own concerns at the expense of the other party.

Conflict Management Styles (cont d) ‡ The collaborative style reflects a desire to fully satisfy the desires of both parties ‡ The avoidant style combines unassertiveness and a lack of cooperation .

or conferring with another person in order to resolve a problem ‡ Two approaches to negotiation: ± Distributive bargaining (zero sum) ± Integrative bargaining (win-win) .Negotiating and Bargaining ‡ Conflicts can be considered situations calling for negotiating and bargaining.

Negotiation Techniques ‡ Begin with a plausible demand or offer ‡ Focus on interests. not position ‡ Search for the value in differences between the two sides ‡ Be sensitive to international differences in negotiating style .

International and Culturally Diverse aspects of leadership .

and lifestyles . social attitudes.Multicultural Leader A leader with skills and attitudes to relate effectively to and motivate people across race. age. gender.

Figure 14-2 Dimensions of Individual Values .

are assertive. authoritarian manner.European Styles of Management ‡ French managers (who are typically part of an elite class) behave in a superior. ‡ German middle managers tend to avoid uncertainty. and are not terribly considerate of others .

Malaysian Managers ‡ Emphasize collective well-being (collectivism) and display a strong humane orientation ‡ The culture discourages aggressive. preferring harmonious relationships . confrontational behavior.

Culturally Sensitive Leader
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ illing to acquire knowledge about local customs illing to learn to speak the language Patient Adaptable Flexible illing to listen and learn

Cultural Intelligence (C )
« an outsider¶s ability to interpret someone¶s unfamiliar and ambiguous gestures the way that person¶s compatriots would.

Facets of Cultural Intelligence (CQ)
‡ Cognitive CQ (head) ‡ Physical CQ (body) ‡ Emotional/motivational CQ (heart)

commitment and morale. pleasure.Global Leadership Skills ‡ Behavioral complexity that allows the leader to attain corporate profitability and productivity. continuity and efficiency. and adaptability and innovation ‡ Stewardship ‡ Ability to satisfy three metavalues including: community. and meaning .

Global Leadership Skills ‡ Cultural sensitivity ‡ Culturally adventurous ‡ Good command of a second language .

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retention. and mentoring programs ‡ Conduct diversity training .Cultural Diversity Initiatives ‡ Hold managers accountable for achieving diversity ‡ Establish minority recruitment.

Cultural Diversity Initiatives (cont d) ‡ Conduct intercultural training ‡ Encourage the development of employee networks ‡ Avoid group characteristics when hiring for person-organization fit .

traditions. and beliefs of another language .Inter-Cultural Training A set of learning experiences designed to help employees understand the customs.

Figure 14-4 The Multicultural Organization .

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