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Department oI Radio-diagnosis & Imaging,
P G I M E R, Chandigarh.
EIectricity EIectricity
Means the flow of current and is measured Means the flow of current and is measured
in amperes. in amperes.
Electric Current Types Electric Current Types::
Direct Current Direct Current
Alternating Current Alternating Current
irect Current irect Current
Direct Direct Current Current is is the the type type provided provided by by a a battery battery.. Ìt Ìt is is
the the flow flow of of electricity electricity in in one one direction direction along along
conductors conductors which which carry carry it it in in complete complete circuits circuits..
Ìmportant Ìmportant feature feature is is that that it it does does not not vary vary with with
time time and and change change its its direction direction..
Battery
A Switch
DC
A
Time
Iternating Current Iternating Current
Ìt varies in magnitude continuously and changes Ìt varies in magnitude continuously and changes
direction periodically i.e. electricity swings back direction periodically i.e. electricity swings back
and forth in a circuit along the conductors which and forth in a circuit along the conductors which
carry it. carry it.
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Alternating Alternating current current can can be be produced produced by by rotating rotating a a coil coil of of
wire wire in in a a magnetic magnetic field field.. The The coil coil has has induced induced in in it it an an
electromotive electromotive force force (emf) (emf) which which makes makes the the current current flow flow
in in a a complete complete circuit circuit.. This This coil coil rotates rotates at at a a uniform uniform rate rate in in
its its magnetic magnetic field field and and the the external external circuit circuit in in which which current current
can can be be made made to to flow flow by by means means of of emf emf generated generated in in the the
coil coil as as in in graph graph current current against against time time scale scale..
N S
Magnetic
Field
Coil
The The current current grows grows from from zero zero (i (i..e e.. a) a) to to a a max max value value b b again again back back to to
zero zero (i (i..e e.. c), c), then then changes changes direction direction..
During During the the period period a a cc on on the the time time axis axis when when the the current current is is moving moving in in
one one direction direction and and wave wave is is above above the the horizontal horizontal axis axis it it is is positive positive..
During During the the period period ce ce when when the the current current has has reversed reversed its its direction direction and and
wave wave is is shown shown below below horizontal horizontal axis axis it it is is negative, negative, and and this this wave wave like like
presentation presentation is is called called AC AC of of sine sine wave wave form form..
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Graph showing current against time scale
Types of Alternating Current Types of Alternating Current
t is of two types t is of two types
÷ ÷ Single phase AC Single phase AC
÷ ÷ Poly Poly- -phase AC phase AC
ÌN single phase AC ÌN single phase AC, only one coil rotates in the magnetic , only one coil rotates in the magnetic
field e.g. 240 volt. field e.g. 240 volt.
Ìn Ìn polyphase polyphase AC AC or or three three phase phase AC AC,, 3 3 coils coils are are made made to to
rotate rotate simultaneously simultaneously by by placing placing at at equidistance equidistance from from
each each other other in in front front of of the the magnets magnets which which will will produce produce
three three separate separate supplies supplies of of alternating alternating current current.. The The
voltage voltage provided provided by by these these separate separate sources sources of of electricity electricity
are are out out of of phase phase e e..g g.. 415 415Volt Volt
A
B
C
N
S
A
B
C
360
o
240
o
120
o
Poly phase alternating current
ethods of distribution of ethods of distribution of
eIectricity eIectricity
nce the electricity is generated, it has to be nce the electricity is generated, it has to be
distributed. distributed.
2 methods in which the windings of the circuit 2 methods in which the windings of the circuit
containing a polyphase generator can be containing a polyphase generator can be
connected are as below: connected are as below:
÷ ÷ Star type 3 phase circuit or Wye type Star type 3 phase circuit or Wye type
÷ ÷ Delta type Delta type
Star Type or Wye Type Circuit Star Type or Wye Type Circuit
Generally Generally for for each each coil coil of of three three phase phase AC AC circuit circuit two two
wires wires are are required required and and in in total total 6 6 wires wires are are needed needed for for 3 3
coils coils for for use use in in circuit circuit to to keep keep them them apart apart..
CoiI
CoiI B
CoiI C
This This type type of of method method would would result result in in a a poor poor economy economy and and
great great wastage wastage.. So So alternative alternative to to this this is is by by having having 4 4 wires wires
in in place place of of 6 6 wires wires as as shown shown next next..
Ìn Ìn this this star star connection connection coils coils Ì, Ì, ÌÌ ÌÌ and and ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ are are
connected connected to to a a common common point point N N known known as as neutral neutral
cable cable whereas whereas 1 1,,2 2 and and 3 3 are are lines lines of of supply supply.. This This is is
a a standard standard method method of of supply supply..

eIta Connection phase eIta Connection phase
circuit circuit
The The three three coils coils or or phases phases are are connected connected in in such such a a way way as as they they
look look like like a a triangle triangle or or similar similar to to Greek Greek letter letter delta delta..
· Machinery is cheaper.
· Less stress and liability to break down in regard to
insulation.
· Can supply two different voltage as per need of different
types of user, e.g. single phase for domestic user and
three phase for industrial user or large installations.
dv. Of Wye connection over eIta connection:
#ectification #ectification
Conversion Conversion of of alternating alternating current current into into unidirectional unidirectional
pulsating pulsating direct direct current current is is called called rectification rectification..
AA device device which which converts converts AC AC into into pulsating pulsating DC DC is is called called
rectifier rectifier..
AA rectifier rectifier can can be be valve valve type type or or vacuum vacuum type type or or it it can can
be be solid solid state/semiconductor/metallic state/semiconductor/metallic type type rectifier rectifier..
XX- -Ray Ray tube tube is is a a sort sort of of valve valve type type rectifier rectifier or or diode diode
rectifier rectifier as as it it has has two two electrodes electrodes and and allows allows the the current current
to to flow flow in in one one direction direction only only..
%hermionic diode vaIves: %hermionic diode vaIves:
An evacuated tube with two electrodes in it is called a An evacuated tube with two electrodes in it is called a
thermionic diode valve. Hence it is like an Xray tube having: thermionic diode valve. Hence it is like an Xray tube having:
A glass envelope enclosing a vacuum. A glass envelope enclosing a vacuum.
Two electrodes within the glass envelope, one of which is a Two electrodes within the glass envelope, one of which is a
heated filament. heated filament.
The The filament filament of of a a valve valve is is heated heated by by a a step step down down transformer transformer
and and emits emits electrons electrons which which are are drawn drawn across across to to the the anode anode when when
a a potential potential difference difference is is applied applied across across both both the the electrodes electrodes and and
the the valve valve passes passes current current..
Functioning of a diode valve: Functioning of a diode valve:
Ìf Ìf the the valve valve is is connected connected in in a a complete complete circuit circuit such such
that that cathode cathode is is ÷ ÷ve ve with with respect respect to to anode anode electrons electrons are are
drawn drawn towards towards the the anode anode and and valve valve passes passes current current.. Ìf Ìf
the the cathode cathode is is positive positive with with respect respect to to anode, anode, no no
electrons electrons will will be be drawn drawn across across the the valve valve and and it it blocks blocks the the
current current thus thus the the supply supply of of current current to to XX- -ray ray tube tube is is
unidirectional unidirectional only only.. But But these these diode diode valves valves which which were were
used used earlier earlier are are replaced replaced with with solid solid state state rectifiers rectifiers..
Hence, its function is to pass current in one direction Hence, its function is to pass current in one direction
only and to block any reversal flow. only and to block any reversal flow.
$oIid state rectifier $oIid state rectifier
As the name solid state implies, conduction takes As the name solid state implies, conduction takes
place by electron travel through solid materials as place by electron travel through solid materials as
opposed to electron flow through a vacuum in a opposed to electron flow through a vacuum in a
valve. valve.
Solid Solid materials materials used used are are semi semi- -conductors conductors
whose whose characteristics characteristics place place them them midway midway between between
metals, metals, which which are are conductors conductors of of electricity electricity and and non non- -
metals, metals, which which mostly mostly are are non non- -conductor conductor of of
electricity electricity and and are are insulators insulators.. Semiconductors Semiconductors can can
be be made made either either to to conduct conduct or or insulate insulate.. Selenium, Selenium,
Silicon Silicon or or Germanium Germanium are are some some commonly commonly used used
semiconductors semiconductors to to rectify rectify the the high high tension tension for for an an XX- -
ray ray tube tube in in place place of of vacuum vacuum diodes diodes..
types and P types types and P types
semiconductors semiconductors
AA semiconductor semiconductor or or solid solid state state rectifier rectifier is is made made of of
two two layers layers of of material material.. ne ne of of these these layers layers is is a a material material
which which has has an an excess excess of of free free electron electron i i..e e.. excess excess of of
negative negative charge charge is is called called N N type type material material.. Examples Examples of of N N
type type semiconductor semiconductor is is Silicon Silicon or or Germanium Germanium with with minute minute
amount amount of of Phosphorus Phosphorus as as impurity impurity added added to to each each
element element called called "Donor "Donor impurity¨, impurity¨, Second Second layer layer called called PP
type type semiconductor semiconductor has has a a deficiency deficiency of of electrons electrons or or
excess excess of of positive positive charge charge or or holes holes.. These These are are made made of of
silicon silicon or or germanium germanium when when Boron Boron or or Ìndium Ìndium is is added added as as
impurity impurity called called acceptor acceptor impurity impurity..
Construction of $oIid $tate Construction of $oIid $tate
#ectifier #ectifier
Ìt Ìt is is formed formed by by joining joining p p type type and and
N N type type semiconductors semiconductors together together called called
PN PN Junction Junction.. Thus Thus electrons electrons flow flow easily easily
from from the the N N type type layer layer towards towards PP type type
layer layer i i..e e.. from from Donor Donor towards towards Acceptor Acceptor
but but not not in in opposite opposite direction direction from from PP
towards towards N N type type.. Hence Hence uni uni- -direction direction
flow flow of of current current is is obtained obtained and and
rectification rectification is is done done..
The The block block to to the the current current in in reverse reverse
direction direction occurs occurs at at the the junctions junctions
between between the the two two materials materials N N type type and and
PP type type i i..e e.. the the region region where where the the barrier barrier
exists exists is is very very thin, thin, hence hence it it is is also also
called called junction junction diode diode or or barrier barrier layer layer
rectifier rectifier..
+

P
Junction or Barrier Layer
+
+
+
+
dvantage of $oIid $tate #ectifier over dvantage of $oIid $tate #ectifier over
diode vaIve: diode vaIve:
÷ ÷ Longer life. Longer life.
÷ ÷ No filament heating. No filament heating.
÷ ÷ More robust. More robust.
÷ ÷ Smaller in size. Smaller in size.
÷ ÷ More compact, i.e. occupy less space, better More compact, i.e. occupy less space, better
for mobile units. for mobile units.
Now Now a a days days Silicon Silicon rectifiers rectifiers are are commonly commonly used used
compared compared to to Selenium Selenium rectifiers rectifiers as as::
Silicon Silicon rectifiers rectifiers have have lower lower forward forward voltage voltage drop drop of of the the
order order 200 200vv compared compared to to 18 18- -20 20 KV KV..
High High resistance resistance to to reverse reverse current current..
Ability Ability to to work work at at higher higher temperature, temperature, approx approx.. 200 200
o o
C C
compared compared to to 80 80
o o
C C..
Due Due to to higher higher resistance, resistance, lesser lesser number number of of barrier barrier layers layers
are are required required..
Smaller Smaller in in size size and and ability ability to to withstand withstand higher higher inverse inverse
voltage voltage..
igh %ension Generators igh %ension Generators
The high tension transformer together with other components such The high tension transformer together with other components such
as rectifiers is called a High Tension Generator . as rectifiers is called a High Tension Generator .
Various types of HT generators varying from simple to complex Various types of HT generators varying from simple to complex
ones are as below. ones are as below.
The self rectified HT Circuits (Single pulse generators) The self rectified HT Circuits (Single pulse generators)
Half wave rectified circuits (Single Pulse). Half wave rectified circuits (Single Pulse).
Single phase full wave rectified circuits (Two Pulse). Single phase full wave rectified circuits (Two Pulse).
Three phase full wave rectified circuits (Six Pulse). Three phase full wave rectified circuits (Six Pulse).
Three phase 12 pulse generators. Three phase 12 pulse generators.
High frequency generators. High frequency generators.
Battery powered generators. Battery powered generators.
Capacitor discharged generators. Capacitor discharged generators.
Falling load generators. Falling load generators.
#ating of X #ating of X- -#ay generators: #ay generators:
The essential function of HT generators in x The essential function of HT generators in x- -ray equipment is to provide such ray equipment is to provide such
power as is needed by the x ray tube to which they are connected. So power as is needed by the x ray tube to which they are connected. So
power output of generator is very important specification and it is expressed power output of generator is very important specification and it is expressed
in Watts in Watts- - unit of power or Kilowatts. unit of power or Kilowatts.
But rating of HT generator is evaluated when the unit is under load and But rating of HT generator is evaluated when the unit is under load and
formula involve multiplying Kilovolts and the milliamperes which constitutes formula involve multiplying Kilovolts and the milliamperes which constitutes
the load as below: the load as below:
Ìn case of 3 phase generator: Ìn case of 3 phase generator:
KW = KW = KV KV ×× mA mA
1000 1000
Ìn case of single phase generator: Ìn case of single phase generator:
KW = KW = 0.7 0.7××KV KV××mA mA
1000 1000
(0.7 is the modification factor for single phase generator due to pulsating (0.7 is the modification factor for single phase generator due to pulsating
voltage wave form compared to ripple voltage in three phase generators. voltage wave form compared to ripple voltage in three phase generators.
Generators Generators may may be be compared compared by by means means of of their their Kilowatt Kilowatt ratings ratings and and
following following points points must must be be noted noted::
manufacturer manufacturer states states the the highest highest milliampereage milliampereage which which the the generator generator
can can produce produce (e (e..g g.. 500 500mA, mA, 800 800mA mA or or 1000 1000mA) mA)
Manufacturer Manufacturer states states the the maximum maximum Kilovoltage Kilovoltage which which the the generator generator
can can provide provide e e..g g.. 125 125KV KV or or 150 150 KV KV..
These These maximum maximum volues volues of of the the Kilo Kilo voltage voltage and and milliamperage milliamperage cannot cannot
be be simultaneously simultaneously obtained obtained.. Ìf Ìf highest highest KV KV is is used, used, then then the the maximum maximum
mA mA available available will will be be lower lower than than the the highest highest value value stated stated for for the the
generator generator.. Similarly Similarly if if the the highest highest mA mA is is to to be be used used the the available available KV KV
is is lower lower than than the the maximum maximum voltage voltage output output given given for for the the generator generator..
e e..g g.. a a generator generator meant meant for for 1000 1000 mA mA and and 150 150KV KV might might in in practice practice
provide provide as as follows follows::
÷ ÷ 1000mA at 80Kv (80KW) 1000mA at 80Kv (80KW)
÷ ÷ 800mA at 100Kv (80KW) 800mA at 100Kv (80KW)
÷ ÷ 500mA at 150 Kv (75KW) 500mA at 150 Kv (75KW)
Kilowatt rating Kilowatt rating
Kilowatt Kilowatt rating rating for for generators generators are are determined determined
under under load load and and it it is is convenient convenient to to test test and and
state state the the ratings ratings at at the the voltage voltage level level of of 100 100
KV KV e e..g g.. for for generator generator giving giving 800 800mA mA at at
100 100KV KV then then KW KW rating rating is is::
800 800××100 100 = 80 KW (in case of three phase) = 80 KW (in case of three phase)
1000 1000
$eIf #ectified % Generator $eIf #ectified % Generator
Ìt Ìt is is a a HT HT generator generator in in which which XX- -Ray Ray tube tube is is
directly directly connected connected to to the the secondary secondary winding winding of of
the the HT HT transformer transformer.. Thus Thus XX- -Ray Ray tube tube itself itself
behaves behaves like like a a rectifier rectifier and and allows allows the the current current to to
flow flow in in one one direction, direction, hence hence called called self self rectified rectified
circuit circuit..
mA
PHT
SHT
X-Ray
Tube
Applications: Applications:
Portable / Low power mobile Portable / Low power mobile
units and dental units. units and dental units.
Advantages: Advantages:
Small in size. Small in size.
Simple design. Simple design.
Light in weight. Light in weight.
Less cost. Less cost.
Simple to operate. Simple to operate.
Limitations Limitations
The The peak peak value value which which the the tube tube
current current reaches reaches during during the the
cycle cycle is is 3 3 times times of of the the average average
value value.. e e..g g.. peak peak current current == 3 3* *
Average Average current current..
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1/50
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1/00
Sec
Average
Tube Current
The peak voltage across the X-
Ray tube during the half cycle
when the tube passes current
and produces X-Rays is not the
same as during the half cycle
when the tube does not pass
current and does not produces
X-Rays.
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C
B
A
1 Cycle
1/2
Cycle
The The rating rating of of a a given given XX- -ray ray tube tube is is more more
limited limited when when the the tube tube is is placed placed in in a a self self
rectified rectified circuit circuit than than when when it it is is used used in in any any
other other type type of of HT HT generator generator..
There There is is greater greater strain strain on on cable cable used used to to
connect connect the the XX- -ray ray tube tube to to the the HT HT
transformer transformer in in self self rectified rectified circuits circuits
compared compared to to other other rectification rectification systems systems..
Limitations Limitations (contd) (contd)
aIf Wave #ectified Generators: aIf Wave #ectified Generators:
mA
PHT
SHT
X-Ray
Tube
V
2
V
1
$ingIe Phase FuII Wave #ectified $ingIe Phase FuII Wave #ectified
% Generator: % Generator:
mA PHT
X
X-Ray Tube
Y
D
B
C
A
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
Ìn this circuit both
half cycles of AC
are used to
produce X-Rays by
employing a bridge
of four rectifiers as
shown:
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Time
C
B
A
-ve
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a
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+v
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Time
C
B
A
X

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Average Tube
Current
hen x ve, y¹ve
C÷R
1
÷XT÷B÷R
2
÷D
hen y ve, x¹ve
D÷R
3
÷A÷XT÷B÷R
4
÷C
Graph $howing $ingIe Phase %wo PuIse C CycIe
dvantages of $ingIe phase fuII dvantages of $ingIe phase fuII
wave % generator wave % generator::
Less Less difference difference in in Average Average and and peak peak current current.. Peak Peak current current is is 1 1 ½½
times times of of the the average average current current as as mA mA meter meter always always measure measure average average
current current hence hence less less difference difference in in the the temperature temperature rise rise in in the the focal focal
spot spot and and actual actual output output of of XX- -ray ray tube tube resulting resulting into into higher higher rating rating of of
the the XX- -ray ray tube tube..
No No difference difference in in voltage voltage as as XX- -Ray Ray tube tube passing passing current current during during both both
the the halves halves of of AC AC cycle cycle and and voltage voltage during during both both halves halves is is alike alike..
Short Short exposure exposure time time:: for for conventional conventional exposure exposure switching switching minimum minimum
duration duration for for single single pulse pulse is is 1 1//100 100 sec, sec, as as we we are are getting getting 100 100 half half
waves waves in in 50 50 cycles cycles in in 1 1 sec sec..
Higher Higher output output than than self self or or half half wave wave rectified rectified circuits circuits..
Less Less strain strain on on HT HT cables cables and and less less insulation insulation cost cost..
Limitations Limitations
Costly. Costly.
More complex. More complex.
Heavier, not easy to transport. Heavier, not easy to transport.
Larger in size. Larger in size.
Ripple factor is 100% as it is pulsating X Ripple factor is 100% as it is pulsating X- -
Ray beam with voltage variation between Ray beam with voltage variation between
zero to peak and again to zero. zero to peak and again to zero.
· Ìn these generators all the 3
phases of electric supply of AC
generator are utilized by
connecting six rectifiers (two each)
to all the different phases of
secondary HT transformers.
· Each of the primary windings of
HT transformer draws its voltage
from a different phase means at
any given instant of time the
voltage in the primary windings of
the HT transformer are different
from each other. Similarly the
voltages in the secondary
windings are different from each
other.
%hree phase fuII wave 6 puIse generators. %hree phase fuII wave 6 puIse generators.
· Winding A and B works as a system with R2, R4, R1, R5
· Winding B and C works as a system with R1, R6, R3, R4
· Winding A and C work as a system with R2, R6, R3, R5
'oItage in respective coiIs and x 'oItage in respective coiIs and x- -ray ray
tubes. tubes.
At At any any instant instant of of time, time, the the voltage voltage in in all all coils coils is is not not the the same same i i..e e..
they they are are out out of of step step with with each each other, other, so so two two pairs pairs which which supply supply the the tube tube
are are those those pairs pairs which which have have highest highest voltage voltage in in comparison comparison to to 3 3rd rd pair pair..
Thus Thus voltage voltage across across x x- -ray ray tube tube never never falls falls to to zero zero and and takes takes the the form form of of
ripples ripples.. This This is is 20 20% %..
Since the voltage in the three
windings rise and fall one after the
other as time goes by, it is not
always the same pair of winding,
but from successive combination of
pairs that the x-ray tube obtains its
voltage. Each winding in turn falls
into a period of inactivity as the
voltage in it drops down towards
the zero point in the cycle.
Features of a three phase high tension Features of a three phase high tension
generator. generator.
Voltage Voltage wave wave forms forms:: on on the the circuits circuits the the alternating alternating voltage voltage from from the the
three three phases phases of of mains mains supply supply are are fed fed into into a a triple triple high high tension tension
transformer transformer.. Here Here the the voltage voltage exists exists on on the the secondary secondary winding winding as as
three three phases phases of of alternating alternating voltage voltage stepped stepped up up to to the the peak peak values values
required required by by the the xx- -ray ray tube tube in in operation operation.. During During the the period period of of time time
occupied occupied by by one one full full cycle cycle of of voltage voltage changes, changes, the the xx- -ray ray tube tube has has six six
half half waves waves of of useful useful voltage voltage applied applied to to it it.. ..
So So the the voltage voltage across across the the xx- -ray ray tube tube takes takes the the rippling rippling form form and and
varies varies from from the the maximum maximum in in the the cycle cycle to to some some value value less less than than the the
maximum maximum but but it it does does not not fall fall all all the the way way to to zero zero.. i i..e e.. does does not not fall fall
below below 80 80% % of of the the peak peak value value.. Hence Hence there there is is 20 20% % ripple ripple
theoretically theoretically its its value value is is 13 13..5 5% %..
This This ripple ripple can can be be reduced reduced further further by by connecting connecting 12 12 banks banks of of
rectifiers rectifiers for for the the two two sets sets of of transformer transformer windings windings on on the the HT HT side side of of
the the generator generator.. ne ne set set is is star star (Wye) (Wye) connected connected and and one one set set is is delta delta
connected connected (instead (instead of of two two wyes) wyes)..
PHT
SHT
3 Phase 12 Rectifier Circuit
%his deIta wye configuration
is shown as :
This circuit arrangement
results in 12 half waves of
voltage for the x-ray tube
during the period of time
occupied by one complete
cycle of mains alternation.
The ripple after the tube
voltage is very small-
theoretically it is about 3.5%
i.e. better than 13.5% of six
rectifier units.
verage and peak currents: verage and peak currents:
Ìn Ìn a a three three phase phase HT HT generator generator circuit circuit there there is is a a
difference difference between between the the average average milliamperage milliamperage during during the the
cycle cycle (read (read by by milliammeter) milliammeter) and and the the peak peak value value which which is is
reached reached.. But But is is narrow narrow as as compared compared to to single single phase phase half half
wave wave rectified rectified circuit circuit where where peak peak is is about about 3 3 times times and and in in
single single phase phase full full wave wave rectified rectified circuit circuit it it is is about about 11 11//2 2
times times of of the the average average current current.. And And this this difference difference
between between peak peak and and average average value value of of current current is is further further
reduced reduced in in 12 12 rectifier rectifier circuit circuit than than the the six six rectifier rectifier circuit circuit
as as average average tube tube current current is is close close to to the the peak peak value value of of the the
current current..
comparison with single phase. comparison with single phase.
on shorter exposures the x on shorter exposures the x- -ray tube has a higher exposure rating on the three ray tube has a higher exposure rating on the three
phase generator i.e. less than 0.5sec. phase generator i.e. less than 0.5sec.
on exposure longer than 0.5sec. X on exposure longer than 0.5sec. X- -ray tube has a lower rating in 3 phase ray tube has a lower rating in 3 phase
generator. generator.
at 0.5 second of exposure the rating for the two circuits is the same. at 0.5 second of exposure the rating for the two circuits is the same.
Ìn single phase rms=peak/\2 or rms = 0.71 peak. Ìn single phase rms=peak/\2 or rms = 0.71 peak.
Ìn three phase rms = 0.95 peak. Ìn three phase rms = 0.95 peak.
Hence on long exposure the total heat input to the x Hence on long exposure the total heat input to the x- -ray tube is shorter ray tube is shorter
resulting into lower tube rating. resulting into lower tube rating.
Shortest available exposure times in 3 phase circuits for each cycle there are Shortest available exposure times in 3 phase circuits for each cycle there are
six pulses. six pulses.
So on a 50cps supply number of pulses will be 50 So on a 50cps supply number of pulses will be 50××6=300 pulses in one sec, 6=300 pulses in one sec,
and duration of one pulse is 1/300=0.003 sec. and duration of one pulse is 1/300=0.003 sec.
So minimum available exposure time for one half wave is the shortest So minimum available exposure time for one half wave is the shortest
exposure time in milliseconds compared with 0.001 sec of a single phase exposure time in milliseconds compared with 0.001 sec of a single phase
generator. generator.
X-#ay tube rating:
ppIication ppIication of of three three phase phase generator generator circuits circuits: :
&seful &seful in in procedures procedures requiring requiring shortest shortest or or repetitive repetitive exposures exposures e e..g g..
angiography angiography or or serial serial radiography radiography..
dvantages dvantages: :
As As load load is is distributed distributed equally equally overall overall three three phases phases of of the the supply supply
when when the the xx- -ray ray exposure exposure is is made made it it can can draw draw larger larger amounts amounts of of
power power.. Hence Hence three three phase phase HT HT generators generators can can supply supply higher higher mA mA e e..g g..
1000 1000- -1200 1200mA mA for for the the xx- -ray ray tube tube than than single single phase phase generators generators..
AA greater greater quantity quantity of of XX ray ray is is produced produced per per KV KV and and mA mA of of the the control control
settings settings resulting resulting into into decrease decrease in in exposure exposure time, time, thus thus reducing reducing risk risk
of of motional motional unsharpness unsharpness.. EE..g g.. GÌ GÌ tract tract studies studies or or in in cardiac cardiac study study..
With With conventional conventional switching switching minimum minimum exp exp time time of of ..003 003 sec sec is is
available available as as compared compared to to single single phase phase generators generators..
isadvantages of three phase isadvantages of three phase
generators : generators :
More expensive. More expensive.
More complex in circuitry More complex in circuitry
Larger and occupy more space. Larger and occupy more space.
Choice of three phase generator Choice of three phase generator
50 50KW KW to to 70 70KW KW:: There There are are six six pulse pulse generators generators with with max max mA mA upto upto
700 700 and and maximum maximum KV KV upto upto 150 150VV.. The The minimum minimum exposure exposure time time is is
usually usually 0 0..01 01 sec sec and and fastest fastest repetition repetition rate rate upto upto 8 8 exp/sec exp/sec.. useful useful for for
general general radiography radiography and and for for some some angiography angiography ÷ ÷ peripheral peripheral and and
abdominal abdominal..
70 70KW KW to to 00 00KW KW: : There There are are 12 12 pulse pulse generators generators with with mA mA upto upto
1000 1000- -1250 1250 and and KV KV 150 150.. Shortest Shortest exposure exposure time time is is 0 0..003 003 sec sec.. rate rate of of
repetition repetition not not less less than than 8 8 exp/sec exp/sec.. useful useful in in angiography angiography studies studies
undertaken undertaken with with serial serial film film changers changers.. Also Also useful useful in in busy busy trauma trauma
centers centers and and ortho ortho departments departments..
50 50KW KW- -00 00KW KW: : these these are are 12 12 pulse pulse with with mA mA 1200 1200 at at KV KV 150 150 as as
voltage voltage.. Shortest Shortest exposure exposure are are down down to to 0 0..001 001 sec sec even even upto upto 0 0..0001 0001
second second and and repetition repetition rate rate not not less less than than 80 80 films/sec films/sec.. useful useful in in cine cine
radiography radiography..
Capacitor ischarge Generators: Capacitor ischarge Generators:
They They are are used used with with cold cold
cathode cathode field field emission emission xx- -ray ray
tubes tubes which which have have no no filament filament..
Electrons Electrons are are drawn drawn off off the the
points points of of multiple multiple needle needle like like
cathodes cathodes by by a a strong strong electric electric
field field.. The The electric electric field field is is
supplied supplied by by an an array array of of
capacitors capacitors wired wired together together in in
both both series series and and parallel parallel.. Ìn Ìn a a
complex complex circuit circuit as as shown shown
represented represented with with a a single single
capacitor capacitor (c) (c)..
$
Field
Emission
X ray
Tube
X rays
· The capacitors are discharged through the field emission x-ray tube and by
closing the switch (s) when capacitors are fully charged- X rays will be
produced.
· A capacitor discharge circuit may take upto 2 minutes to reach full charge
and then discharge in a few nanno seconds.
ain advantage: ain advantage:
They deliver a relatively large amount of They deliver a relatively large amount of
power (e.g. 350 KV) in a extremely short power (e.g. 350 KV) in a extremely short
burst. burst.
Exp. Times are so short they can freeze Exp. Times are so short they can freeze
the motion of a bullet in flight. the motion of a bullet in flight.
Battery Powered Generators: Battery Powered Generators:
Some Some portable portable xx- -ray ray machines machines employ employ a a series series
of of batteries batteries to to generate generate the the high high voltage voltage and and
filament filament currents currents and and are are useful useful to to operate operate in in
areas areas where where the the electric electric supply supply is is inadequate inadequate for for
the the conventional conventional generators generators.. Each Each cell cell in in the the
battery battery pack pack supplies supplies potential potential difference difference of of 1 1..5 5
volts, volts, so so thousands thousands of of cells cells are are required required to to
provide provide high high voltages voltages used used in in diagnostic diagnostic
radiology radiology..
The The KV KV selector selector in in H H VV Circuit Circuit
regulate regulate the the potential potential difference difference
across across the the tube tube by by adding adding or or
subtracting subtracting batteries batteries from from the the
series series.. The The filament filament current current is is
adjusted adjusted by by variable variable resistor resistor in in
the the filament filament circuit circuit..
The The batteries batteries must must be be
recharged recharged periodically periodically for for
numerous numerous xx- -ray ray exposures exposures..

KV Selector
mA Selector
X ray Tube
$
FaIIing Ioad generators. FaIIing Ioad generators.
These These are are usually usually specially specially designed designed three three
phased phased or or high high frequency frequency generators generators.. They They take take
full full advantage advantage of of the the current current loading loading capacity capacity of of
the the XX- -ray ray tube tube by by beginning beginning the the exposure exposure with with a a
high high milliamperage milliamperage and and then then allows allows it it to to fall fall
during during the the exposure exposure.. This This can can be be achieved achieved with with
a a constant constant potential potential circuit circuit.. Ìt Ìt requires requires that that both both
mA mA and and KV KV be be regulated regulated independently independently.. These These
must must be be used used with with automatic automatic exposure exposure controls controls
or or rely rely on on mAs mAs timer timer instead instead of of independent independent mA mA
and and time time controls controls..
dvantage dvantage : :
Shorter Shorter times times in in heavy heavy load load situations situations and and simpler simpler
operations operations..
isadvantage isadvantage : :
Can Can shorten shorten xx- -ray ray tube tube life life considerably considerably as as they they use use
higher higher mA mA settings, settings, thus thus causing causing the the filament filament to to wear wear out out
more more quickly quickly..
Function Function with with mA mA unknown unknown to to the the operator operator so so it it is is
impossible impossible for for the the operator operator to to set set the the correct correct time time to to
achieve achieve the the desired desired mAs, mAs, therefore, therefore, required required to to be be used used
with with automatic automatic exposure exposure controls controls or or rely rely on on mAs mAs timer timer
instead instead of of independent independent mA mA and and timer timer controls controls..
igh Frequency Generator igh Frequency Generator: The newest development : The newest development
in high voltage generator design uses a high frequency in high voltage generator design uses a high frequency
circuit in which full wave rectified power at 50Hz is circuit in which full wave rectified power at 50Hz is
converted to a higher frequency, usually 500 to 5000Hz. converted to a higher frequency, usually 500 to 5000Hz.
dvantages of F Generators dvantages of F Generators
its small size, can be placed within the x-ray tube housing, produce a
nearly constant voltage waveform resulting into improved quality at lower
patient dose. Portable x ray imaging systems were the first to use this
technology, but now a days all stationary x-ray imaging systems use high
frequency voltage generation.
High frequency voltage generator uses inverter circuits. Which are high
speed switches or choppers, converting DC into a series of square pulses.
#eaI dvantage is they are much smaller, less costly and more efficient
than three phase circuits.
'oItage rippIe 'oItage rippIe
it is the variation between the peak voltage and the minimum voltage in the it is the variation between the peak voltage and the minimum voltage in the
circuit. circuit.
% ripple is % variation between the maximum and minimum voltage in the % ripple is % variation between the maximum and minimum voltage in the
circuit. circuit.
The most efficient method of x-ray production is voltage waveform with
lowest ripple.
Low ripple generators provide more capacity and flexibility than those with
single phase systems.
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