Intake and Exhaust System

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Intake System
‡ Carbureted systems : Air enters through the air cleaner and passes through the carburetor to be mixed with the correct amount of fuel. Air-fuel mixture then passes through the inlet manifold, and enters the cylinders. EFI systems : Electronic fuel injection is controlled by an electronic control unit. It has replaced the carburetor on most modern engines. EFI engines run more smoothly, with lower fuel consumption and emissions, and more power than carbureted engines. Diesel induction systems : Diesel engines draw in air only. Speed and power is controlled by the amount of fuel injected at the end of the compression stroke. 2-stroke diesels use a blower for induction and to improve scavenging.

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regardless of outside air temperature. ‡ ‡ ‡ . many air cleaners include a system to maintain airintake temperature. For optimum performance. fuel is either mixed with the air at the entrance to the manifold. In spark ignition engines. clean air. A pump driven by 3 exhaust gases is called a turbocharger.Intake system ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Air cleaners : Air cleaners filter the air before it reaches the engine. it needs to be supplied with cool. Intake air heating : To maintain ideal combustion conditions and reduce emissions. Intake manifolds : The intake manifold carries the air of the air-fuel mixture to each cylinder. The filter must stop minute particles without restricting air-flow. Carburetor air cleaners : Most air cleaners trap abrasive particles using a pleated dry paper element but some use the dust-attracting property of oil. EFI air cleaners : The air cleaner on a multi-point fuel injected engine uses a dry-type element. It is connected to the throttle body by a duct. Volumetric efficiency : Volumetric efficiency is a measure of the airfuel mixture burned in the cylinder. Forced induction : Engine performance can be improved using an air pump to force air or mixture into the cylinders. They remove abrasive particles which cause wear and damage. or injected close to the cylinder head. usually expressed as a percentage.

INTAKE SYSTEM 4 .

During low engine speeds. 5 .INTAKE SYSTEM Inlet runners : The length and diameter of the intake manifold inlet runners also have an effect on volumetric efficiency. During high engine speeds. More modern engine designs utilize such innovations as multi-valve engines and variable intake systems to increase volumetric efficiency. shorter and wider inlet runners are more efficient. longer and thinner inlet runners produce higher volumetric efficiency.

a valve opens to allow air also to flow through the short runners for maximum output at high engine speeds. There are basic two types of variable length intake manifold designs: .Intake manifold tuning (IMT) valve 6 . efficiency and exhaust emissions. These intake subsystems are used to provide increased air flow when required to improve torque and performance.Intake manifold runner control (IMRC) actuated system . At a certain engine speed. the air flows through the long runners for best performance. At lower engine speeds.INTAKE SYSTEM Variable induction systems : Because the length and diameter of the intake runners affect performance. These systems use both long and short intake runners. some engines utilize variable length induction systems.

Below a certain rpm the IMT valve is closed. One air passage is always open and the other passage switches from closed to open by means of a valve plate. providing two air passages for each cylinder. in what becomes a two piece intake manifold assembly. the IMT valve opens allowing more into the cylinders to improve high speed engine performance. 7 . Intake manifold tuning (IMT) valve : The IMT valve is an electric actuator controlling a valve plate or shutter device mounted directly to the intake manifold.Intake manifold runner control (IMRC) system : The intake manifold has two runners per cylinder. Above a certain rpm. The IMRC assemblies are actually the lower manifold. feeding each of the intake ports in the cylinder heads. The engine control system controls the IMT valve. The IMRC assemblies are located between the intake manifold and cylinder heads.

Naturally aspirated engines rely on atmospheric air pressure to supply air to the cylinder. the engine does not produce as much power as it is capable of producing. A naturally aspirated engine usually has about an 80% volumetric efficiency. an engine receives only a partial air-fuel charge. which meets or exceeds 100% volumetric efficiency. This process of pumping more air into the engine cylinders is called forced induction.INTAKE SYSTEM Forced induction : Most vehicle engines draw in the air-fuel mixture from vacuum created by the downward travel of the piston. Streamlining passages and increasing port sizes improves volumetric efficiency. Pumping air into the cylinders can increase the air-fuel charge. 8 . The power output of an engine is directly linked to its volumetric efficiency. Without external help. This forcing of more air into the cylinders allows the engine to fill its cylinders with a charge. As long as the engine relies on atmospheric pressure to push the air through the intake system. The air still has difficulty reaching the cylinder. This means that the engine draws in about 80% of its displacement. and for this reason are called naturally aspirated engines. There are two different methods used to pump air into an engine: turbocharging and supercharging.

INTAKE SYSTEM 9 .

This short interval of time is called turbo lag. 10 . Intake manifold pressures of up to 13 psi are typical for supercharged engines. the engine does not deliver the extra power that the turbocharger provides at higher rpm. it does not consume engine power. No matter how a supercharger is designed. Exhaust gases do not drive a supercharger. Some turbochargers use a variable inlet design. The crankshaft drives the supercharger through a belt. the amount of power available to drive the supercharger depends upon engine speed. During this period of turbo lag. As with a turbocharger. Unlike some turbocharged engines. Some turbocharged engines experience a short interval of time before the turbocharger begins to pump a large amount of air into the engine. Although it takes engine power to drive a supercharger. its main purpose is to force more air into the cylinders and help the engine produce more power. when accelerating a supercharger immediately delivers extra engine power. There are different types of superchargers. This design helps the turbocharger reach optimal speed at a lower rpm which increases lowspeed engine performance and reduces turbo lag. Supercharging : A supercharger is a type of air pump or compressor.INTAKE SYSTEM Turbocharging : Because a turbocharger is driven by exhaust gas flow. gear or chain. The power source of a supercharger is the engine itself. a supercharger helps produce much more power in return.

INTAKE SYSTEM 11 .

An efficient exhaust system can improve engine performance.Exhaust Systems An exhaust system must reduce engine noise and discharge exhaust gases safely away from the vehicle. 12 .

13 ‡ .Exhaust system components ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Exhaust manifold : The exhaust manifold collects exhaust gases as they leave each cylinder and directs them into the exhaust system. Mufflers : The muffler reduces exhaust noise by dampening the pulsations in the exhaust gases and allowing them to expand slowly. They are used to assist in the fast extraction of exhaust gases in engines. Flexible connections : Flexible connections are used to allow movement between components. Exhaust pipe : The exhaust pipe carries the hot exhaust gases to where they can be discharged into the atmosphere. Catalytic converters : The catalytic converter provides a chemical reaction with the exhaust gases to reduce the level of exhaust pollutants entering the atmosphere. Extractors : Extractors are sometimes known as ¶headers¶.

Exhaust Systems 14 .

Exhaust system components Exhaust manifold Exhaust pipe Extractors Catalytic converters Flexible connections 15 .

Fuel Systems 16 .

and driving patterns. altitude. The properties of gasoline must be balanced to give satisfactory engine performance over a wide range of operating conditions including heat. caused by uncontrolled combustion.Fuel system basics ‡ Petrol / Gasoline : Petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting primarily of hydrocarbons. The sudden rise in pressure can cause a knocking sound. ‡ Controlling fuel burn : Detonation is a violent collision of flame fronts in the cylinder. The more effectively liquid gasoline is changed into vapor. which vary widely in physical and chemical properties. used as fuel in internal combustion engines. ‡ Gasoline fuel : Gasoline is a mixture of nearly 300 different components. 17 . the more efficiently it burns in the engine. mainly hydrocarbons.

18 ‡ ‡ ‡ . Normally fuel specifications require both a minimum RON and a minimum MON.Octane rating ‡ The most important characteristic of petrol is its Research Octane Number (RON) or octane rating. Using a fuel with a higher octane allows an engine to be run at a higher compression ratio without having problems with knock. called "Motor Octane Number" (MON). the MON of a modern petrol will be about 10 points lower than the RON. It should be noted that the power output of an engine also depends on the energy content of its fuel. This is false engines perform best when using fuel with the octane rating they were designed for. There is another type of Octane.4-trimethylpentane) and n-hepta ne. It is measured relative to a mixture of isooctane (2. Depending on the composition of the fuel. So an 87-octane petrol has the same knock resistance as a mixture of 87% isooctane and 13% nheptane. so engines that require higher octane usually deliver more power. Its definition is also based on the mixture of isooctane and n-heptane that has the same performance. Some people believe that adding a higher octane fuel to their engine will increase its performance or lessen its fuel consumption. which is a better measure of how the fuel behaves when under load.2. which is a measure of how resistant petrol is to premature detonation (knocking). and thus demand high-octane petrol. Some high-performance engines are designed to operate with a compression ratio associated with high octane numbers. which bears no simple relationship to the octane rating. Compression is directly related to power.

The venturi here is narrower than the rest of the barrel. of about 15 to 1. One end of a tube is immersed in the fuel. This down-draft carburetor has a float bowl for fuel. or atomizing. The other end is a fuel discharge nozzle. It¶s mounted on the intake manifold. A filter cleans the fuel. An air cleaner supplies clean air. 19 Too little. will cause loss of power and possible engine damage. air from the atmosphere flows through the venturi. by mass. Too much fuel for the air will waste fuel and cause pollution. Atmospheric pressure on fuel in the float bowl is now greater than the pressure on the end of the nozzle. that¶s 11. The side-draft model is less common. it makes a low pressure area and as a result. This forces fuel to flow from the nozzle.Carbureted systems principles ‡ A basic carbureted system consists of the fuel tank to store the fuel. breaking up into droplets. By volume. Fuel lines or pipes carry fuel in the system. The carburetor turns liquid fuel into a fine spray and mixes it with air. This ratio can vary to suit engine operating conditions. A carburetor mixes the air and fuel and controls how much mixture enters the engine. A light vehicle under normal conditions needs an air-fuel ratio. The carburetor has to supply the correct mixture of air and fuel to suit all operating conditions. It mixes with the passing air. An intake manifold carries the mixture to the engine.000 to 1. which is connected to the accelerator pedal. It also controls how much air-fuel mixture is delivered to the engine. and it is shaped to make the air speed up as it passes through. It creates a low pressure area where the end of the nozzle protrudes into the airflow. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ . in the venturi. A pump moves fuel from the tank to the engine. As the piston moves through intake. This is done by the throttle valve near the bottom of the carburetor. The downdraft carburetor is the most common kind.

An extra jet supplies additional fuel for maximum power. At higher speeds. ‡ Metering jets : The main jet size is selected to provide the best mixture for fuel economy.Carburetor components ‡ The carburetor : The carburetor atomizes the fuel and mixes it with air. and controls the delivery of the correct mixture to the engine. 20 . ‡ Carburetor systems : Low speed and idling ports allow the engine to operate with a low throttle opening before the main system is operating fully. suddenly depressing the accelerator delivers extra fuel into the airstream. the secondary throttle opens to admit more air-fuel mixture. ‡ Accelerating : For acceleration. ‡ Carburetor barrels : A 2-stage carburetor has a primary throttle open only from idle to medium speeds.

A spring then moves the diaphragm up. It can be controlled so that it operates only if the engine is running Tachometric relay : The tachometer indicates engine RPM. Tanks & lines : Most fuel tanks are in 2 parts joined by a weld around the flanges where the parts fit together. \ Charcoal canister : Used in some emission systems as a means of preventing pollution to the atmosphere. forcing fuel from the pump. A return line may carry excess fuel back to the tank. Electric fuel pumps : An electric fuel pump operates with the ignition switched on. 21 ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ . Moving the diaphragm down draws fuel into the pumping chamber. Baffles make the tank more rigid. prevent surging of fuel. into the carburetor.Carbureted system components ‡ Mechanical fuel pumps : The mechanical fuel pump has a diaphragm separating 2 chambers. to keep fuel system components cool. and ensure fuel is available at the pickup-tube. Carburetor filters : Used to prevent particles from entering the fuel carburetion/injection components. Fuel lines : The fuel tank is connected to the engine by fuel lines.

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